tv Nome Cult Trail CSPAN April 3, 2017 12:32am-12:46am EDT
>> all we can, american history tv is joining our comcast cable partners to showcase the history of chico, california. two are more about the cities on our current tour, visit /citiestour.rg >> were standing in a place that holds you found significance for the indigenous people here in this part of what we now call butte county. these people regard this very place as the particular location where in their cosmology the creator had humans emerge into the world. it is also alumni glenn. with the discovery of gold not too far south of here and the
inability to keep that discovery secret, the news quickly spread. and the ratio of settlers to native people began to radically shift. prior to the gold rush, there would have been somewhere on the order of maybe under 5000 settlers in all of california. by 1855, that would have skyrocketed to above 50,000 settlers. and the relations were fraught. not for every group at every moment, but there was a profound sense of racism towards native peoples. the general epithet used was "digger indians." in other words, they were regarded as sub human. because they did not have the
kind of technological accoutrements that european american settlers considered standard. it's not because they were not clever enough to figure it out. because those things were irrelevant to their daily lives. they were able to go, on the coast, you know, when the tide went out -- their table was set. here in this part of north central valley, the mass crops of acorns provided very important, calorie rich food source for them. wild game, deer, small animals, insects were a staple of the regular diet. and, course, fish. there were abundant salmon runs and steelhead. in some cases, two different runs of the same species up the rivers. so, there was no need, really, to have complicated technology. the critical issue became access
to subsistence resources, because, with is a huge influx of settlers, miners, and then merchants who were essentially mining the miners, selling them the equipment that they thought they needed, game the game to be -- began to be scarce. rivers were diverted and in some cases completely upended. as food sources began to disappear for native people in their traditional subsistence regime, they naturally look towards stock. one of the main industries here in this part of california as well as elsewhere, in fact, was the hide trade. the idea was to raise a lot of cattle to sell the skins and meat. well, these cattle were critical resources for the settlers but also viewed as food sources.
hungry native folks would have may be poached a cow here and there. and slowly, over the course of several months to a year and a half, between 1850 and 1852, these kinds of depredations began to rankle deeper and deeper in the white settler community and began to be punished more and more systematically, and ultimately, the rational for outright murder if not genocide of indigenous groups was held to be kind of like this, we're going to teach you a lesson. here in butte county, the attitude was these people can't be trusted. we need to exterminate them for their own good. this is rhetoric that existed at the time. one effort to try and minimize these kinds of assault was to move california indians to
reservations, what were called rancheria. in this area, the idea was to move local people 100 miles west of here on the other side of what is now the mendocino national forest in round valley. approximately 470 people and various other tribelets in the area were essentially corralled just west of chico. then marched over the course of two weeks in mid-september 1863, 100 miles to their new home, a reservation out over the mountains in the coast range. the forced relocation of 1863 is remembered as the nome cult walk. it was the name of the reservation that was essentially
created in round valley. this series of forced relocations is kind of a not very well known aspect of american history in general, and california history in particular, because, as one might imagine, it's not a pleasant chapter. it's a very brutal and violent series of events that took place between approximately 1850 and 1875, and resulted in a radically reduce population of indigenous people in california, not zeroed out by any means, but definitely dramatically reduced through sheer, outright genocidal methods. it was about 18 years ago that folks from both -- in round
valley decided to organize a memorial walk. they decided that in september they would retrace the steps their ancestors were forced to take. and so, ever since then, for the last 18 years or so, every september, folks gather in chico and take a week to walk 100 miles. a very meaningful, profound ceremony. it's regarded as a spiritually healing effort to not just commemorate the fact that their ancestors survived this arduous journey and they the descendents are here now today, but also to think deeply about why this happened and to try and instill values of sort of mutual respect and tolerance.
>> our staff recently traveled to chico, california, to learn about its rich history. learn more at www.c-span.org /citiestour. >> you are watching american history tv, i'll weekend, every weekend, on c-span3. >> join us on american history tv. for aunday, april 9, ceremony marking the 100th anniversary of americans entry into world war i. united states world war i centennial commission hosts the program of national world or one museum and memorial in kansas city, missouri. president woodrow wilson signed a congressional declaration of war against germany on april 6, 1917. more than 4 million american women and men surfing union and -- in uniform, and more than 100,000 died. that's on american history tv, here on c-span3.
>> each week we bring you archival films that provide context for today's public affairs issues. >> the aleutian islands are situated in north pacific ocean, forming a chain that extends about 1200 miles west southwest toward siberia to form the southern boundary of the bering sea. the illusions comprise for and constitute part of the territory of alaska, usa. there arec origin, cones on the chain still active. a permanent low-pressure area prevails there. cold air masses from the polar regions flow with the shearing
effect against the warm, moisture laden air masses over the japanese current to form cyclonic disturbances. because of the earth's rotation, these disturbances move from , and thisst meteorological phenomena constitutes one of the most dangerous weapons in the arsenal of our enemies. it enables the japanese to operate behind the moving curtain of a storm. of june, 1942,ys they employ this advantage and it all out attempt to secure domination of the entire pacific
>> look around you. the retiring the remnants of the task force, landed troops on the undefended islands, we immediately undertook the offensive and commenced our march toward asia. in late august of 1942, a large detachment of our troops landed on an island several hundred miles out along the chain and under two hours by bomber. , it'sme of the island closer to japan that any other american outpost. typical of the aleutian chain, flat,arpeted with a spongy vegetation like undersea growth which loses water at
every step. since the original ending, the manpower has been constantly augmented. where before it was hundreds coming out is thousands. troops survive after voice it may take anywhere from a week to a month, depending on the seas. but it took more than a single month to land up here. the months of training toughened them to rigors of wind and weather. it talked them to handle their weapons and made them into soldiers. accents mixed with brooklyn ease and midwestern twang's, bookkeepers, dirt farmers, that is of course ex-dirt farmers, bookkeepers, they are soldiers now.
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