tv Hawaii and Queen Liliuokalani CSPAN April 15, 2017 11:35am-12:45pm EDT
temperament. -- volcanic temperament. he learns self-mastery early on. he actually calms the very skittish alexander hamilton. hamilton when washington is not around gets into trouble. >> for our complete schedule, go to c-span.org. next on american history tv james haley, author of captain , paradise, a history of hawaii, discusses the life of musician, composer, and author liliuokalani, the last queen of the kingdom of hawaii. he also sketches the story of modern hawaii from the arrival of captain james cook in 1778 through the u.s. marine back to overthrow and removal of the queen in 1893 and annexation of the island in 1898.
the university of mary washington in fredericksburg, virginia held this illustrated talk as part of the crawly great lives lecture series. >> so thank you dr. crawley for that too kind introduction. i am delighted to be back here. was here ad when i year ago that i might not go home. i know when you do this kind of lecture, it is customary to warm the audience up with a few funny stories. if i had known 14 months ago i was coming back, i would not have told you all of my funny stories. [laughter] james haley: it is probably best that we move forward with our talk about liliuokalani. i am anglo. actually i am partly cherokee native, but i am in mainland writer, so the times i will have
to speak in hawaiian, it is sick. we will talk about the hawaiian language. the first thing i need to do is make some disclaimer of utility, because captive paradise is intended to explain the essentials of how the united states, how we got our hands on the place. i have never gotten so reviews -- such memorable reviews, i'm used to getting reviews, but what i got from wall street all the way to honolulu magazine were extraordinary, really wonderful reviews, which did not prepare me for the anger i saw in the native independence blogs. they hated it and hated me just another hally trying to make another bunch of money off of our history. they think people write history for money, which tells you something about their industry -- understanding of the publishing business. there was on one of these hawaiian history and culture blogs a native scholar who said
yeah, he is white, he should not have written it. but i was curious, so i read it. it is not bad. don't you think it would help us -- i mean, here is a mainstream american publisher and a somewhat well-known writer, who agrees with us. don't you think we should use it? she was shouted into silence in 20 minutes. people like me aren't supposed to poke their nose into their business. the first thing i need to say in their defense is that this is not anything like political correctness run amok, because it is not. actually there is combat over who gets to talk about the narrative is not new at all. in fact, the very first native-language history of hawaii, which was written by the hawaiian -- [laughter] james
james haley: i practiced. in fact, when i made this research trip, i will tell you a bit about that -- oh, a lot of their research is latisse are privately owned, and if they don't like you, they don't have to help you. but the famous fish, the longest name in the world. humuhumunukunukuhuapuaa. it impressed nobody. the reaction was furious. our story is sacred, this can only come from the priests. you are just telling it to everybody. the country people and common people don't have a right to know our story. so there is a bit of that i think still today. it is an active war zone. i come from doing texas history for about 40 years, and of the degree to which political correctness has seized texas history, and people who were
heroes for 120 years are you now drunken lab granting -- land grabbing colonialists, --way it is a temperatures eight times worse because we took the country. i understand it. before i went over there, i was having lunch with a history professor friend of mine ostensibly on the topic of whether i wanted to come back to his university and finished my phd in history. how are you doing with the -- he asked me, how are you doing with the hawaii book? i am not doing anything to change my opinion, but the overthrow was a nasty piece of work. there was no saying it, it was awful. but i am becoming really troubled by the amount of oppression and violence against the common people by their own chiefs and kings before we ever showed up. i gave them some examples, and he said it is true.
if you write your book that way, and you don't, his words, position the natives as victims of american racism, that will not help you get back into grad school. [laughter] james haley: i marinated in this, then i said, that must mean what they say with academic freedom. [laughter] james haley: so i had the opportunity to go to research, and i discovered very quickly the local phenomenon known as stink eye. this is the look you get from them researching their history or nosing into their culture. there was one lady, a docent at kilauea. my research assistant let it drop i was writing a book, and she gave me that look. she said, of course you realize you are not the person who should write it. if you insist on it, the first thing you should do is submit yourself to the kupuna, the
elders, and if they improve, go to the bishop is he him, because they are the ones that know the story the best. and i thought, well, i won this award and that award, i don't submit myself to anybody, but thank you. the next day we had lunch with a professor who said in hawaii, to be an anthropologist and be fired from the bishop museum is a badge of honor. active war zone. i thought, if there is a native research, and there are increasingly more and more resources coming to the surface that need to be explored, and when someone approaches that, i will buy it, but i have had 120 years. my whole take in captive paradise was to explain to them mainland audience how these are
not, how did we get our hands on the place. tonight we are going to look at the life of -- i can't really call her liliuokalani. she was not named to that. she was called lily, but we will talk about how her culture shift her, and our understanding of her in the country. i know that in a biography series, we need to spend more time on the biographer, but we have no help of -- hope of understanding liliuokalani without going into the culture, so we have to do some context in here, -- contexting here, or we are not prepared. this is longer than the powerpoint i did before, and i will have less than a minute on each of these slides. so dr. carly, where are you? when i start getting to 10
minutes, you need to give me a sign, because i have been accused of -- i will keep you here till next tuesday. it is entirely true. modern hawaii began with a male male -- kamehameha i. he was a young alii. they were the pre-contact population about 400,000, and about 400 chiefs. he was one. and when captain cook stopped on the west coast of the big island in the day, the king, young kamehameha was with him. he was looking at everyone trading, all the interesting things they have, he was checking out the cannons. understand, there was no iron in hawaii. a nail was worth a big pay. he thought, if i had these weapons, i could conquer the whole place. his name means the loneliness of the god. he was thinking about how he
might do this. he asked the kahuna, the priest, how do i do this? they said, build a great temple to the war god. he built the temple, which is 100 feet wide, 225 feet long. the lava blocks were passed by hand from the valley 14 miles away. it was a place where human sacrifices were performed. i hear gasps. a lot of us are unaware human sacrifice is a part of the kapu religion, but it was. when captain cook got there in 1779, it was at the end of the matihiki season. they fight, they wore, then they have four months of celebration. that is matihiki. a lot of the polynesians thought he was the storm god.
at the end of makihiki, they had a ceremony. the priests eat the eyeball of a tuna. when that was done, he ate the eyeball of a fresh human sacrifice. that is what life was back in those days. he built this huge temple to the war god, who is depicted here. the hawaiian language is a dialect of polynesian. so what is t in tahiti is k in hawaii. these would be taking -- tiki in tahiti. except it is kiki. that is what they were worshiping. it took him 30 years to conquer the place. he was kind of a middling successful warrior, lots of mayhem, lots of butchery, tens of thousands of people died.
some escaped including this fellow. when he got to new england, they could not pronounce his name, so they called him henry. he had seen his family butchered by the kamehameha soldiers. he went all over the world, settled in connecticut, went to yale, went to congregation is seminary and was imbued with the spirit of mission. we did not send missionaries to hawaii. it took him years of yelling at them, if you people believe that jesus stuff, you would send missionaries to my country and end this horror. seven years, and they said ok. it took, he set up a school and taught english. he went from hebrew to hawaiian. he said there are chromatic and
structural similarities that made hebrew -- grammatical and structural similarities that made hebrew easy for him. he got sick and died. he never got to go back. everyone was sorry, so we put together a mission, it got there in 1820. while he was studying in translating the bible -- by the way, when i was at the hawaii historical society in honolulu, i found his workbook registered creating a hawaii-english dictionary. it was quite moving. while he is over here, the man they died -- kamehameha died. and his queen, the favorite of his 19 wives, she was not the greatest. she was the favorite recreational wife, very smart, very forceful. she got tired. she could see it did not work, because all the prohibitions of kapu were not working.
women would be thrown off the cliff for eating a banana. so there is one punishment under kapu, that is death. she could see western people coming breaking the kapu left and right, the volcano would not blow up. so if it is not working, why are we keeping this religion? after he died, she would have gone to the back of the room. she had no intention of going to the back of the room. she ended kapu. she had temples burned, idols pulled down. there was a spiritual vacuum in hawaii that by the time we send missionaries, and the first contingent -- everybody in america thinks we sent missionaries, they destroyed the local religion. they sailed into the vacuum. the hawaiians are a spiritual people, and they took very
readily to christianity. there are stories i can tell you, but there is no time, and it is too polite and audience. when they found out how wide open the south pacific was, they were aghast. but the hawaiians took to it. this church was built on a spring that belonged to a high chief jutess. it was composed of 14,000 halftime blocks of coal cut by hand at the bottom of honolulu harbor. kind of like the medieval peasants in europe. they were kind of used to this anyway.
there was a period of transition between human sacrifice, women getting overthrown, to american congregationalist boston ways of doing things. that is what lydia was born into. these are her grandparents. they actually had a bunch of children. the story is that the americans got there and gave diseases to these people and they lost their fertility. in hawaiian culture the best thing you could do was mary your sister. they have been doing this for centuries. which might have some thing to do with fertility. she was not raised by them. among the hawaiians, you had a baby, and you raised it. it is called adoption. she grew up at her adoptive
parents. they were very highborn. she loved this house. she wrote very finally of this house. she became the hanai sister of one of the last two kamehameha direct descendents. we will talk later about how they married about the same time, different people. but bernie'sse is the founder of the patient museum -- the bishop museum that funded the kamehameha schools. one of lydia's -- i should explain. her name, she was born -- i know i wrote this down -- this is what you get for giving me wind at your dinner.
she was baptized as lydia, but in those days the high office in the kingdom, a condition of prime minister and co-rule, was the half-sister of the king. i have to find the name. my hawaiian is too clumsy. she had an eye infection that was very painful. so she named the baby, painful, tearful sore eyes. by god, everyone is going to suffer. [laughter] she was baptized as lydia.
[laughter] this guy is one of my heroes. kamehameha the third was the last surviving son of the conqueror. he was born under imminent privilege. he had life and death power over everybody, but he was torn between two worlds. he tried to commit suicide when the missionaries prevented him from marrying his sister. to the native people, it would have been a brilliant match because their mother was the product of a half sister marriage, and if and her had a child, it would be next to the gods. they would not let her be out in the sunlight. she had to stay in the shade because she was so holy. the missionary was horrified and he tried to kill himself. he settled for the high chief
of maui. he became a dedicated christian. his mother became an even more dedicated christian. and they dragged him kicking and screaming into the church. by the time he was broken, he gave his people a declaration of human rights, a constitution, a legislature, and surrendered half of his own land so that the common people could own land. he was a great, great king. very close to liliuokalani. he was aware of the lack of heirs. he executed lidia's grandfather for murder, which was unthinkable for a high chief.
her grandfather wanted to get a divorce, and the missionaries would not let him get a divorce until he was single again, so he killed her. [laughter] well, he found out -- he signed the death warrant. there was a stark lesson in the new morality for young lidia and her siblings. he also realized, we are not having kids and the throne has to go somewhere, so he enlarged the circle of succession. she and her family were not born into the kamehameha royalty. they were dissented from kamehameha's first cousin. he accepted them into the group of people eligible for the throne. he founded the royal school to educate them in ways that the western world would expect of
royalty. this is a later picture. do you see that crowd on the balcony? the attic was what they called the boston parlor. the missionaries contributed their very best furniture silver dishes so that they could learn polite society. we would learn in what good stead that put them. at the mission museum, i looked at some of the workbooks of the students at the royal school. one of the things that they did to learn english, there is an exercise on english words ending in -tion. this is all written out. sir, i perused your oration with much deliberation and with
no little consternation and after great infatuation after your week imagination to show veneration on such slight foundation, but after examination and serious contemplation i suppose your admiration was the fruit of recreation. [laughter] it went on and on. it was hysterical. but another exercise that floored me was that the students also learned and copied out to louisiana bill. he had a -- what on earth they thought the hawaiian elite children whatever have to do with the louisiana bill, and they also learned black jupiter. it must have come from the common assumption that the
polynesians were african. they discovered to their cost how they came to regard the united states. that is the only explanation i could come up with. here we have lydia at the royal school. she was immensely bright. she had three brothers. her two older brothers were there. she was especially gifted in poetry. the hawaiian culture produced an extraordinarily high chant. their old story was conveyed in chant. she mastered this. one thing that makes the claim language so difficult is that every word has about three meanings. there is the exact meaning and there is the beginning -- there is the hidden meaning.
in public speaking i would be using it in classical allusions that only the hawaiians would get. somewhere down the line there is a somewhat irreverent sexual raspberry, because they are polynesians and make sex jokes out of everything. [laughter] by the way, it was the missionaries that gave them a written language. they went from virtually a stone age society. the missionaries made everything compact. within 10 years they had a literacy rate among the highest in the world. native language newspapers -- it was amazing. these two were very bright, ready for learning. lidia mastered this. she had an extra very musical talent. she became a near concert quality pianist.
she composed between 150-160 songs, one of which during you heard in the interim. i have heard for many years in preparing this lecture, a modern website saying poor after she is toppled from the throne and so wistful about what she is lost, she writes this song "farewell to thee." no. actually she wrote this song in 1878 in a horseback riding expedition to the law. if you have not been to hawaii, there are tradewinds that blow. the northeast side of the island is jungle. the western slope is like mediterranean. it looks kind of like arizona on a good day.
she was on this trip and she saw one of their companions -- he gave an affectionate farewell, probably to her younger sister. she began humming this popular tune called "the lone rock by the sea." she composed a song about this parting between two lovers. she was an amazing student. she was, unlike her brothers, sincere in her profession of christian faith. she was a persuaded churchgoer. when she got bigger, she played the organ. she led the choir. even at school she was constantly exposed to these reminders of the old days.
the headmaster was constantly in a dither in what to do with the 16 royal progeny. he was a chief from birth. they were powerful even as toddlers. when alexander showed up, he was three years old. he shows up at school with 30 servants. one guy too. his umbrella, -- to carry his umbrella, another to carry his spit box. if you are higher up, you had somebody to carry spit in. cook said, this cannot do. i cannot educate these students with 30 servants each. the king granted him absolute control over their kids. meanwhile, his wife julia cook was trying their tears.
the young ones were weeping and screaming from homesickness. the polynesian culture in these kids -- she was kept busy trying to keep them apart. princess abigail became pregnant at 14 by who became kamehameha the fifth, who was 12. he was given a beating. she was forced to marry her mother's gardener and exiled and told to behave herself. there were no more kamehameha descendents. that is not true. abigail's child had progeny. there are direct descendents of kamehameha on kouachi today. you they were never considered royal.
she made things even worse you remember the queen of maui -- she made things even worse because she'd showed up one day for a party in a musical concert and saw prince moses and thought, wow, he is kind of cute. the queen initiated an affair with her husband's nephew, which caused all kinds of ruckus. it is common in contemporary scholarship to really disparage the royal school. these american missionaries get there, and they break up the traditional culture, they ruined this paradoxical life of theirs. -- paradaisical life of theirs. he had been raised as a babysitter to kamehameha the second.
he was so persuaded of the values of western life and education that at one point, i guess it was lydia's oldest and in a brother -- her grandmother held the kid back from school. she said, i am told you have the kids watering plants and calling it exercise. that is beneath our dignity. they had a big fight. papa i'i pulled his kid. she would have been killed on the spot. he asked the promised her, who has power from the king. the times are changing, and that is just the way it is. after a couple of aborted a conquests of hawaii by the british and french, kamehameha the third decided to send a delegation around the world to win recognition for hawaiian independence.
here is his foreign minister. he had several different posts. the foreigners that had a missions in honolulu began calling him the minister of everything. his other nephew, the guy that got with princess abigail, became kamehameha the fifth. they were welcomed into the imperial court of france. they were vetted by queen victoria and prince albert. they came to america and were thrown off the train for being black. do we wonder why, in their nine years of peace as king, their foreign-policy took a decidedly anglo-centric turn? a they saw through our sham of an equality and all this. i look at alexander's diary.
i found the page after this conductor tried to throw them off the train. his handwriting changed -- it became slashes. he was so mad at this fool -- and these americans need to question themselves about freedom talk when they treat people like dogs. re is an interesting memoir, a very keen social observer. alexander grew up. he became kamehameha the fourth. lydia had been mentioned as is possible with. -- possible wife. she was the highest born unmarried woman in the kingdom. she would have been queen consort at the time. he wasn't that keen on her. he fell deeply in love with a high chieftess of the big
island. there is a bit of racism involved because she was one quarter english. she was the daughter of one of kamehameha's captive english -- i should explain. no, that would be taken entirely you wrong. i won't explain. [laughter] lydia got over it. political correctness and thing something about a famous museum -- i don't want to deal with that. lydia became queen emma's lady in waiting. she performed a function sort of like the minor royal in a court today. she was like rinses alexandra or duchess of kent. she had lots to do, but not really a lot of the spotlight. her sister bernise married an american banker.
in that was one of the good marriages. there is a chapter in my book called "useful marriages" at the time the sugar industry is beginning there were all kinds of american businessman coming to hawaii and finding available chieftesses that had available land. they were willing to marry them because they had buckets of money. bernise married bishop and they were very happy. lydia married a man of schenectady, new york. lydia wrote a famous memoir called "hawaii's story by hawaii's queen." you have to read this with caution because she soft peddled a bunch of stuff. in hawaiian culture it is extremely rude to dispute somebody. you just praise something else.
she wrote, i had hopes, but he wanted to socialize elsewhere. it was actually the marriage from hell. he was the son of a widow of a ship owner who built a mansion called washington place. for many years it was hawaii's governor's mansion. he married lydia, dumped her on his mother-in-law, who was one of the most errant racists. they lived together to scratch each other's eyeballs out while he went out dating other women. by the way, in the spirit of aloha -- you can turn that back like a mirror on somebody, she adopted his pastor -- his bastard. i hope that was not a 10 minute thing. speed it along? ok.
[laughter] well, she raised funds for the queens hospital. she helped bernise established a society for the benefit of the sick and elderly. she composed a new national anthem for kamehameha the fifth after he became king. he was called the last of the great chiefs. he used his power responsibly. by the way, the next king is very interesting. he was brilliant. he had excellent liberal sensibilities. he had been betrothed by birth. he was as highborn as they were. when he was born, he knew how he was -- high, higher, disappears.
the brothers knew that if he and victoria had children, they prevented her from marrying them. he began courting lydia, and the brothers broke that up to make sure that he ended up as a lonely broken bachelor. and he did. having died without heirs, there is an election for a monarch. the legitimate claimant was queen emma, the wife of kamehameha the fourth. she was immensely popular. people adored her. she had the bloodline. she was the great-granddaughter of the conqueror's brother, the good chief. he had been in the legislature and knew about american politics. making promises to people that he could not keep. he won the election and became king. his family nickname was taffy for his love of suites.
-- love of sweets. his brother became the crown prince. april 18, 1877. she was finally given her established name. among her duties as crown princess of hawaii, she visited and convinced a landlord to give them land for branch hospitals. he traveled entirely around the world. welcomed into the imperial court of china and japan, austria, germany, france, england. he was the guest of the first state dinner at the white house.
while he was gone, lydia becomes regent. there is an outbreak of smallpox and she closes the port. that outraged the american business community, because they are importing. they marked her from that moment. here we have a luau. in the back row is robert louis stevenson the novelist. you can see what kind of a spread they have. this was not in the palace. this was the boathouse. as crown princess, she earned a name with the american business community. in 1887 -- by the way that diamond butterfly is on display in the palace today.
the british had long been friends of the hawaiian monarchy. this is where the value of the boston parlor criticism came in. she did not realize that she was the highest lady in the room and no one could sit down. a german grand duchess asked, why does her majesty not sit so we can sit down? liliuokalani would have known in an instant. she did not know that. that dress she is wearing -- every crown had in europe is at victoria's jubilee. the lifeguards escorted two carriages. one was victoria's, and one was theirs. they thanked her profusely. victoria said, it is the least i
can do when you have come so far. you have to read liliu's memoirs with caution. the imperial crown prince of prussia and the king of saxony refused to be seated with them because they were black. queen victoria was not amused. she was not amused. she found the prince of wales, pulled him out of what he was doing, and found the duke of edinburgh and had them attend the hawaiian ladies in their stead. queen victoria does not get enough credit. you can imagine every queen in europe is there with these immense emeralds and sapphires. that diamond butterfly is the best that they did. her dress is draped in peacock
feathers, which is just as pretty. when i was visiting the palace, the docent showed us a jackson kennedy pillbox hat. more like the fashion you would seen worn in russia. it was all peacock feathers. she said, this is the hat that she wore to victoria's jubilee -- would you like to see the dress? i said, i have a picture of it right here in my computer. we parted friends, i think. disaster strikes. the american community is getting angrier at her. they waited until she was out of the country. he also built what is great a tourist attraction in honolulu.
it cost the entire annual budget of the kingdom. in european standards, it is a music box. but he was enamored with technology. he had a telephone, had electricity and running water before the white house did. it cost $300,000, and really irritated the american businessmen. here is a hula performance. liliu was interested in preserving hawaiian culture. originally, hula was something different. they had the hula in praise of genitals, which was pretty explicit. the missionaries were not entirely out of line in thinking that they had to reform this. hula is the preservation of the hawaiian culture. it is preserved in song and
dance. their whole story was oral. they did not have handwriting before the missionaries. they outlawed hula. it struck at the heart of their culture. which is one reason why there are hula schools now. all of this westernization was not by common consent. 6'2", 140 pounds. 440 pounds. never became a christian. preserved the old way. she was the governor of the big island for 20 years. he was so jealous of her heritage that he stripped away her governorship, which was extremely stupid because she wound up inheriting all of his
land, 10% of income. she was also the mother of the crown prince. if he had just treated her with respect, he would have inherited a vast fortune. he could have told the american businessman to put a sock in it and rule by decree. he just insulted her and slighted her. she called someone and said, i will build a nicer place than that. which she paid for in cash, because it was a minor expense to her, just to show him that he was no big deal. she remained quite close to bernise as well. there is a great story in hawaii. in 1880 mauna loa corrupted and there was a lava flow coming
down. lili'u was hiring engineers, maybe we can take a ditch. nothing worked. people said governor, please save us. you never bought into this new religion. she sacrificed a pig and through some berries into the lava, and it stopped. [laughter] some faces launch 1000 ships, some stop a volcano. [laughter] if i was a volcano, i would not cross her. [laughter] in 1891, after the bayonet constitution, when they were in london, the businessman struck what they called the bayonet constitution strapping them of royal powers.
another four years later, he was ruined, depressed. he went to see a doctor in california and died. she became queen. the fix was in for her. one of the things she did was preside over the opening of the bishop museum. she was a christian, but like her brother she had the native superstitions. she was under the influence of a friend of hers, who became a fortuneteller. different lobbies would use her fortuneteller to get to her. one night she told her, wait, i see a vision, a man will come tomorrow with $100,000, you must take it. it was someone from the lottery lobby, which did her no political help. there is an american journalist that said she had struck a
-- she had such a striking presence you would not recognize her from a photo, she looked different from every angle. thurston, a really nasty piece of work, a grandson of two missionary families. all of this stuff that we hear about american missionaries going to hawaii, destroying the culture, and taking over the country -- no. those missionaries taught and doctored and worked themselves to the bone. the home church in new england disciplined them and eventually kept them off for staying involved in helping the hawaiian people. you should preach and move on -- you should just preach, and if they don't believe it, forget them. if they hadn't done it, christianity would never have taken root the way that it did in hawaii.
like all these other missionary grandsons, came back to hawaii imbued with 19th century american racism. they formed this hawaiian league, which became the committee of safety. there was the time warships in honolulu harbor. the japanese had a big presence in hawaii. in his waning years he realized that hawaii was too small and too weak as an independent country. it must one day belong to the united states or japan. we have the japanese cruiser naw niwa, and the uss boston next to it. you can see the u.s. cruiser has sailing masts. naniwa had 10 inch guns. if they had gotten into a fight,
i don't think there is any question who would have won. the committee of safety is dealing with the benjamin harrison administration in washington. if we have a revolution, can you take us in? basically yes. this is january of 1893. lili'u has finally prolonged the legislature. they met for 173 days. the mckinley tariff was ruining the economy. she wanted to keep things paid for. she was supporting an opium tax so that these chinese laborers could smoke opium, then the american lottery. they met for 173 days. under the bayonet constitution, the only way she could control
politics was by governments rising and falling. as long as she could pick her ministers and have legislators vote no-confidence, it is a hell of a way to run a government. she finally dismissed the legislature. she had secretly been working on a new constitution that would restore her royal powers. in fact from this position she went back to the palace and announced her new constitution. that was the beginning of the overthrow. that set the inning section league. -- annexation league. they rose up. not by coincidence, the hawaiian minister to honolulu had worked out with the captain of the uss boston that when this happened, marines would come ashore and end any possibility of activists -- of active resistance.
she was toppled. she would not advocate. she ceded her government not to the coup plotters, but the united states. england and france did this 50 years ago and gave them the country back. mckinley is replaced by grover cleveland. he met lili'u on their way to britain in 1887. he is horrified by the whole business and withdraws the treaty and leaves his bunch in the lurch. he sends a factfinder to honolulu to find what is really going on. a special minister went with paramount power. people called him paramount blunt. thurston and his crowd thought
they could rely on him in proving that dark people cannot run their own country, because he's a confederate colonel from georgia -- he will understand. everybody tried to buy him off. annexation league rented in a huge mansion. lili'u sent him a personal carriage. he said, no thank you. he managed to irritate everybody. the navy involved in the coup offered to send his messages home in code. he did not send his messages home through the navy because he expected that would go back to the rebel government. he said no thank you. his report savaged the whole revolution. cleveland disapproved of it. he tried to get lili'u back on her throne. all of these americans saying no, we will not give her her throne back.
they are not into pineapples yet. that is a cousin of his. he had been a justice on the supreme court. if you are doubting all this racism stuff, i want you to -- i want to redo, when he was doing ins, he wanted to keep our their hands. another justice putting a lot more succeeding when he said, the question is, how to draw the document that will look democratic. an oligarchy?ve i will not editorialize. there was an american lieutenant from the boston who was sent over their definable was going on. i want to redo buddy wrote about
cursor and money -- i want to read you what she wrote. streaming the ends of white and soak ribbons. pretentiousiff and and exhibiting the air of fully realizing the importance of their exalted position. after them with a feathered bears, emblems of moral royal authority supporting the emblems of separate royalty followed by her majesty the queen dressed in a white colored silk attended to negro-like her features. the look of savage determination. next came four ladies and waiting dressed in colors and
fired by all dark colored races -- in colors and admired by all dark colored races. oft was the whole mode american thinking by the hawaiian government. how much time do i have left? damn. [laughter] mr. haley: ok. enter in quickly, abigail. when the united states is going they came upii, with petitions. were not nothing less than three weeks, 21,000 native alliance signed it, more than half of the surviving population. in the united states, it would be the equivalent of 37.5 million people at the time. lili'u went with them after she served time in prison at the palace for a counter coup that
failed. this one is my favorite. [laughter] -- he was ahe was republican for massachusetts. the treaty, there were 90 70's -- there were 90 senators. he needs to more senators. the delegation recounted the whole thing about the revolution from the beginning. he started crying. e said come tomorrow and want. by the time he was done, the 58 senators had become 46. so, no annexation treaty. the hawaiians celebrate. well, they celebrated too soon. there is for mccamley worried about the japanese because the japanese have ships like this that we do not.
they do not have a shipyard big enough to do it with 12 inch guns. they just kicked japan's butt. if they had seized quite as a coaling station, though ships could of gone to california and bombarded for 1000 miles and still would have field go back to hawaii. since the treaty failed, mccamley was old enough to know why we got texas. next hawaii. -- the ended up annexing hawaii. there was the flag. the native musicians could not
take it. they dropped their instruments and just left. it was only the american bands that play the star-spangled banner. lili'u closed herself into washington place. they had a morning there during annexation day. pearman --he era eir apparent. h she lived for almost another 20 years. she was always a prickly personality. she died of a stroke in november of 1917. there are very prickly pictures of her with different governors. during world war i, she did raise an american flag over washington place when she heard
that five hawaiian sailors had been killed in a sinking. she died. they at least gave her a state funeral in the palace. she was buried in a cemetery with her relatives. there we have it. i hope i can go too long. on that is my take liliuokalani. [applause] mr. haley: she is regarded today as a symbol of their independence, which a lot of them would really like to have back. >> i want to remind you to come back to join us on tuesday. ron powers will be here. i like. -- all right.
questions? so, i had a question about cleveland's support of the restoration of queen liliuokalani to the throne. who first suggested the idea to them? i know that she sent a letter to askinger the revolution for his support. secretary of state also supported the idea of restoring -- with that idea come from? mr. haley: they were already acquainted. he was thoroughly against the takeover to begin with. there was not a lot of bickering for him to do. one other thing she got herself in trouble with was he wanted becausefor the plotters they were not just hawaiian subjects, they were also
american citizens. there was a story she had threatened to behead them. she was not going to give them an estate -- to give them amnesty. that whole beheading thing was some colorful press. eventually, she did relent and said, all right, i will give them amnesty, but she wrote that letter on the very day that cleveland gave up on her and sent the whole business to congress and said, do deal with it. i have tried. but there is very little convincing to do because cleveland thought the whole thing stank. [indiscernible] they are all collateral descendents. lili'u did not have children of her own. among the independence movements, there are about six claimants. some things never change. each one said i would be the
best queen or king. i am not sure how many there are, but there are collateral descendents who would be happy to step in and be the monarch today. yes. you said america businessman came to hawaii took over the land and brought in chinese coolies? why did they not get their wives to do the work? mr. haley: they realized that hawaiians don't recognize much need to work. nature provides. they were charitable laborers. plus, the hawaiian population was be rapidly reduced. , what time of her reign had been 4000 natives had become 40,000. the imported chinese. they imported koreans. the japanese, not so much because they were not that crazy about the whole idea.
they even imported portuguese. it european, but they are dark, so they can labor, too. when i was at the honolulu historical society, i was toding letters written lili'u. the archivist was at the table giving me stink eye. i read one of these letters from china and he was trying to work out the treaty to limit chinese immigration, and he was working behind the -- i took the letter to the archivist and she decided to read it. i'm going to put it in my book. it was simply a matter of trying to get more labor. can you talk a little bit about the cohesiveness of the island at that time? it seems like it would not have been quite so cohesive because
of the distance between them, and the fact that they were just ships that would take people from one to another. mr. haley: that is a very good question. they were very distinct entities before the conqueror. in fact, one of the places i visited on a wahoo -- on oahu, it ends in a 1200 foot cliff. with theirnvaded they kept going further up the valley until they got to the top, and the 400 soldiers who survived the battle got pushed over. their skeletons were still there when mark twain to the hike down there seven years later. off for aheir heads sacrifice. he got beaten on the beaches. normandy did not work.
chuckled atome who his pretensions. he finally negotiated for hawaii. it was only after the establishment of a unified kingdom come i took some years -- unified kingdom, it took some years. -- theuestion is descendents of the missionaries who are in possession of the lands who helped tremendous responsibility toward environmental protection and taking care of the people, especially as a sugarcane industry dies out, the you have any thoughts on how to proceed? mr. haley: not really. book, once ithis realized what i got into, captive. i think to be twice as big as it is. it is not really a history of all of hawaii. this is how we got our hands on
the place. i know there is a very active independent movement. but what the descendents of the missionary feel about it for all the damage that they caused to the society, i really cannot speak to that. several months after i finished the book, i got a surprise in the mail, a pound of state coffee from a couple of missionary descendents who were so shocked to read a history of hawaii and discover someone told the truth, that they just had to do something for me. like i said, the political correctness of the way that history is approached, i talked about things you're not supposed to talk about. should be more up-to-date about the politics now, but i do not have the heart. i just don't have the heart. it is too sad. the hawaiians are still waiting for some kind of justice, and they had not gotten it yet. until bashir, the native
hawaiians were in less of a position in american indians on the continent. they have less pull the government than that. they are still waiting on justice and we owe it to them to do it. >> all right. let us thank james haley for a great story. [applause] mr. haley: thank you so much. >> he will be signing books back in the foray when you lay. thank you. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> interested in american history tv? visit our website at c-span.org/history. you can view our schedule, preview upcoming programs, and watch college lectures, archival films, and more. american history