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tv   A Step Away From War  CSPAN  May 13, 2017 8:00am-8:31am EDT

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daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television company. is brought to you today by your cable or satellite provider. >> "a step away from war" is a 28 minute film encouraging the reagan administration to seek a nuclear test ban treaty. hosted by paul newman, it includes interviews with scientists, policymakers, scholars, and activist. the program details the history of nuclear testing and treaties, including the 1963 partial testing treaty. 10 years after the film was released in 1996, united nations adopted a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. that treaty has not yet been ratified by all of the required states. only north korea, pakistan and india have tested nuclear
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weapons sense -- since 1996. ♪ [gong] ♪ ♪
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[gong] ♪ ♪ [gong] ♪ >> in just over 200 years we have become the greatest nation
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in the world. with the most powerful economic, political, and humanitarian force in history. through ingenuity, hard work, and common sense, we have forged a strength and spirit that has advanced the cause of human-kind. the electric light bulb to the silicon chip to the first man on the moon and beyond, the unit -- united states has led the way. we captured the energy of the sun and wind. we are exploring the far reaches of the solar system. we can replace almost every major organ in the human body, and we can manipulate the molecules of life itself. important breakthroughs in bio-engineering, electronics, laser technology, computer tech -- technology. fiber optics. the list seems endless. through our short history, we have consistently seized the challenges of our dreams and turn them into reality. there is one most important
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dream yet unfulfilled, the dream of peace on earth. that same ingenuity they gave us lasers and organ transplants has given us military capability the on imagination. -- the on imagination. --the on the imagination just one of our 37 strategic submarines carries more explosive power than was detonated in all of europe and japan during world war ii. we can continue to research test -- and build more destructive weapons. isn't it time we direct the resources toward creating a future safe from the threat of nuclear devastation? the nuclear age gives us no choice. unless we do we will become victims of our own genius. where do we start? the first essential step is a comprehensive test ban, a complete halt to nuclear
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expansion. signs can create designs for new weapons come about without the opportunity to test them, they will not be produced are deployed. without testing in the 1950's, there would be no hydrogen bomb. without testing in the 1960's, there were be no nuclear weapons so small that we could fit 14 of them in a nosecone or carry one in a backpack. without testing in the 1970's, there were be no neutron bomb which destroys all human life believes property undamaged. by stopping testing now, neither we nor the soviet union would be able to build nuclear powered lasers to extend our battlefields into space. a comprehensive test ban is the most effective and verifiable first step in reducing an ever escalating new your arms worse. -- nuclear arms race. this doctor, nobel prize winner and former chairman of the atomic energy commission -- >> we have to do something to reverse it. i'm afraid that, if we don't, nuclear weapons will be used.
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i saw one hydrogen bomb explosion. it's an awesome, terrible site. a test ban could give and probably would give a technological advantage to the united states by stopping testing now. we have had more than 200 tests than the soviet union has had. we have developed -- a higher degree of sophistication in our weapons in my opinion, then the soviet union. the reason i think that we should go in the direction of a comprehensive test ban is because it is so simple. all you do is stop testing. i have not found anybody who does not understand that. paul: until this administration took office, every recent president in recent history, eisenhower, kennedy, johnson, nixon, ford, carter, have sought to negotiate a test ban.
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a lot of names, terms for the treaty signed, the message was not confusing. the spreading of nuclear arms must be stopped, the first step was and still is a test ban. president eisenhower, in response to a soviet proposed moratorium on nuclear testing in 1958, wrote the soviet premier khrushchev. we believe banning nuclear weapons test would be an important step to reducing international tensions. there was no testing of nuclear weapons for three years until the soviets resumed in 1961. anxiety about the growing danger of radioactive fallout can build a powerful national movement which resulted in the 1963 test ban treaty. it prohibited testing the atmosphere, outer space, and underwater. john f. kennedy: i now declare
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that the united states does not propose to conduct nuclear tests in the atmosphere, so long as other states do not do so. paul: there is never been a test on the atmosphere or an and other side since then. john f. kennedy: this treaty is not the millennium. it will not resolve all conflicts. if coming its support of their ambitions -- war. it will not reduce our need for arms or allies, or programs of assistance to others. but it is an important first step towards peace, towards reason. a step away from war. paul: and the limited test ban treaty, we legally committed ourselves to achieve a discontinuance of all test explosions of new weapons for all time, determined to continue negotiating to this end. since haspresident
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done so in good faith until now. president johnson outlined a program to halt nuclear arms race, and submitted a draft for a nonproliferation treaty in 1965. president nixon signed the non-proliferation treaty, prohibiting the transfer to other countries of nuclear technology for military purposes. & the threshold -- and signed the threshold test ban treaty the limiting -- nuclear motions to an hundred 50 kilotons. president ford signed the peaceful nuclear explosion treaty, extended. it's to peaceful testing. president carter passed for it complains of test ban for the united nations in 1977. formal negotiations resumed shortly thereafter. in 1982, this administration put a halt to our historical commitment to negotiate a comprehensive test ban. defense secretary caspar weinberger explains why. caspar weinberger: the ramification of our treaty is
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not warranted, then it cannot be verified effectively, and if we cease nuclear testing by a moratorium or congressional mandate or treaty, that would really injure our security interests. paul: paul warnke disagrees. >> stopping testing would make us more secure. they say, what is security in a nuclear-age? security in a nuclear age is to have a retaliatory deterrence, forces that could survive any sort of strike by anybody else. and, still be in the position to wreak unacceptable devastation on the other side. we have that in spades. we have that on both sides, took 3/4 of their nuclear weapons away. what do we gain by testing? the only thing you gain is the illusion that you could fight a
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nuclear war. that is a deadly illusion. paul: we are at a point in u.s.-soviet relations were we can and do clear explosions. the soviet union declared a moratorium on nuclear weapons test as of august 6, 1985. the anniversary of hiroshima. they stopped testing and pledged not to resume as long as we did. in spite of this pledge the united states continued testing even after the soviets stop. the soviets have announced they will resume testing because we have not stopped. caspar weinberger. testing isberger: essential and a comprehensive test ban would undermine the credibility of our deterrent. our opponents would know we were not allowed to test. we would not be able to verify were --adhering to
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it or not. it would prevent the necessary modernization. we think that or the comprehensive test ban treaty what have the opposite effect that it sponsors intend. quite frankly, i would like to see both sides lose confidence in their nuclear weapons. it will be a deterrent in terms of first use. paul: we cannot ignore the strength of the soviet union. but will more weapons make us more secure? albert einstein said, the atomic age changed everything, except the way we think. we still ask the stone-age question is first and who is second. in the atomic age, at some point, the concept of -- of who is first and second goes to pieces. the deputy director of the senate for defense information strategic weapons
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planner at the pentagon things -- thinks we have more than enough firepower. >> as for protecting ourselves , look at the strength we already have. our military forces are prepared to fight any enemy at a time anyplace we might be attacked. with the planning, arming, training for nuclear war for the -- with the soviet union since most of us can remember. make no mistake, any war between the united states and soviet union will go down as nuclear war, without winners. as a result of 40 years of nuclear testing, we could have explode 11,500 nuclear weapons on the soviet union, and they can't explode 9500 weapons on us. right now we have over 1000 land-based missiles and silos ready to deliver thousands of nuclear warheads on any country in the northern hemisphere,
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beginning 30 minutes from right now. our most powerful to turn the ballistic missile nuclear submarine. roughly 37 strategic submarines is hidden in the world's oceans right now and one u.s. summary -- submarine there are at least 100 nuclear warheads aimed at soviet targets. one h-bomb for every city in the soviet union with a population of over 250,000. in virtually every field of you -- of military technology, america is years ahead of any other nation. for machine intelligence to telecommunications, we have more than enough military force and weapons to defend our land, lives, and to help our lives at the same time. under no circumstances, even a
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surprise nuclear attack, would we lose the ability to launch a devastating retaliatory strike with at least 5000 nuclear weapons. paul: to hit with so much strength, you've been warned over the years about a weapons gap between us and the soviet union. warned about the possibility that soviets might have more bombers or missiles than we do. overall, the united states is a larger and more reliable nuclear arsenal than the soviet union. in intercontinental ballistic missiles, the soviets have an advantage. but on submarine launched ballistic missiles, the u.s. is in front. on long-range bombers, we are way ahead. all, the united states has 2000 more strategic nuclear weapons and the soviet union. rear admiral jean larocque suggests, the pentagon has such warnings to continue the arms building. >> they want to suggest that
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there is a gap and the size of our forces and the soviet forces. this suggests that if we can explode more nuclear weapons, we can close that gap. this whole business is as phony as a three dollar bill. many congress members agree that increased spending will not make us more secure. jim leach, cosponsor of the house resolution for a conference of test ban treaty. >> as a republican member of congress, i've become increasingly impressed at how many conservative americans, particularly of republican families, are now saying that common sense, business sense dictates greater concern about the defense budget and greater concern about arms control itself. the test ban symbolizes it's all. it's the logic of our times. if you can't have a test ban, you can't have significant arms control. if you cannot have a test ban, you are saying he will give up
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on the issue of nuclear proliferation. the fact is, we can have a test ban. it's within our reach and a time sensitive way. it can be done soon. paul: house majority leader jim wright. >> to say we will not agree to stop testing new nuclear weapons even if the soviets are willing to do so until they agree to something else and then say no, we will not do it unless you agree. all of our tomorrows will be as all of our yesterdays. dusty death. paul: a majority of both houses of congress voted for resumption of comprehensive test ban talk. by the year 2000, experts say as many as 15 countries could have the technology to develop nuclear weapons. nuclear proliferation must be stopped. today, only five nations, the
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united states, the soviet union, great britain, france, and china, have nuclear weapons ready for use in war. but u.s. government studies have identified a number of other nations which are actively attempting to develop their own weapons. they cannot build them without testing. paul warnke, former arms negotiator. >> it seems to me that any proliferation of nuclear weapons increases the chances that these weapons could get into the hands of sub national groups. of unstable governments. i don't want to see anybody get into the nuclear weapons business. people ought to be getting out of it rather than into it. paul: will a test ban work? how do we know soviets won't cheat? is a test ban verifiable? admiral jean larocque. the director of the senate for defense information. >> as a military-man, i know the importance of accurate verification techniques and
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equipment. i know also from my experience and from the technology available today, there's no way for the soviet union to cheat when it comes to exploding nuclear weapons. the equipment we have for detecting explosions today scattered all around the world, is it simply, too good. besides agreeing to having all these seismograph it stations on their soil, the soviets have also agreed to allow us on-site inspections. paul: the world's most publicist nordion verification technology agrees. >> the question is, how can we certain the soviets won't cheat? the way we will be certain, is by deployment of a designed this seismic metric within and surrounding the soviet union. such a network will require something like 25 stations
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within the soviet union, 15 or so surrounding it. the event, earthquake or explosion takes place at a particular site. unavoidably generates a set of seismic waves, shockwaves. that are received and recorded by seismic stations. either within the soviet union or around the world. if an explosion should occur within the soviet union it would be recorded at numerous stations. those signals would be to take analyzed, and, notified that the soviets conducted a nuclear explosion. >> the soviets excepted our previous provisions, with respect to verification. the reagan administration has suggested that they want more. the soviet union has said, ok. let's negotiate further verification provisions.
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in my opinion, the soviet union badly wants a comprehensive test ban. >> if we had a simultaneous test-ban and the soviets did resume testing, we could resume immediately ourselves. in the meantime, we would have gained the goodwill of so many countries throughout the world. so i don't see that we have anything to lose by a comprehensive test ban, and everything to gain. paul: haven't we received point where enough is enough? more and more dangerous nuclear weapons of both sides makes us less secure. do we need a weapons system that will bypass all human intelligence? putting decisions in the hands of computers makes accidents even more possible under crisis conditions. testing and deploying new weapons is not the answer. leaders representing six nations, from five continents, appealed to president reagan and
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soviet leader gorbachev to refrain from further nuclear testing. they offered to assist in monitoring compliance for the test ban. the american people are showing the same concern here at home. what we are seeing in this country is a movement pushing from the bottom-up, to tons of it from tells americans washington. the test ban moved succeeded in 1963. it started in a working mothers living room. one of the women who started that movement in 1961 percent more wilson of the warning strike for peace. >> 20 years ago i was a young mother with a job. i had never done anything political except for the pta. if you call that political. i got very worried about the nuclear testing, the possibility of war. i was also indignant.
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i was only a mere woman. nobody had asked i opinion about anything. i called some of my friends, working mothers like myself. we gathered in my living room one evening because, to my great surprise, they were upset is -- as upset as i was which has never been discussed. we agreed that it was time women's voices were heard, we must not leave everything to men. six weeks after that first meeting, a busy time it was, we were learning everything for the first time of course, to operate we learned how to deal with the press. we were fearless. we had never done it before and were discovering our skills for the first time. we were so excited. if we have had good advice we might've been scared to death and would have never pulled it off. in any case, it only took that long, six weeks for half a million women to get on the streets and demonstrate in 60
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cities in front of their state capitals or city hall, or whatever they had. and protested the nuclear arms race and said they wanted to test ban treaty. we made an impression. he did eventually get a partial test ban treaty. president kennedy's science adviser at the time give a great deal of credit to women. for bringing this about. i'd like to remember that, it's been a very frustrating tencent -- time since then. but it makes me believe that if we keep on, we can be effective a second time, and third, and eventually bring about nance to -- and end to the nuclear arms race. paul: the commitment demonstrated by the 1961 test ban movement is even more critical today. >> what is needed is for the electorate to get mad, to understand that it bears the ultimate responsibility for our national policies. >> test ban is a good idea, it should be part of any sort of
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end to the nuclear arms race. after the second war broke out, imebody stop me and said suppose, if there will be a war, you would shut off shop. i said, you ever say to a doctor, when an epidemic breaks out are you going to set up shop? no, you add to it and work harder. that's where we are. i am not discouraged, i am frightened. >> there comes a time when enough is enough. no american would suggest that it would be patriotic to remain in a position of weakness. but no patriotic american can consider that the wisest policy for this country is to continue an all-out arms race. we have come to the point we have got to back off from the -- the first logical step is an enforceable joint u.s.-soviet moratorium on nuclear testing. >> i think that patriotism means
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you love your country and want to see it continue. if there's a nuclear war, our civilization, country, want to -- will not continue. i think it is the height of patriotism to be in favor of getting rid of nuclear weapons. >> the nice thing about a test ban this it is achievable, simple, we have done it before. everybody understands it. it's winnable. if you join the fight. paul: the earlier test ban movement was successful. president kennedy signed an agreement limiting nuclear testing. today, there is a test ban movement again and the halls of congress. and among citizens of the world . this movement will be successful, from president reagan -- respond and signed an agreement to stop nuclear explosions. president eisenhower once said -- i like to believe that people
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will do more to promote peace than government. i think people want peace so much, that one of these days, governments had better get out of the way and let them have it. right now, commit yourself to a comprehensive test ban. right a personal letter urging president reagan to put the ban on the agenda for his summit meeting. don't worry about the details -- ask the president to place the test ban on the negotiating table. unless we act, and a must for -- unless our president acts, we can't achieve a verifiable and comprehensive nuclear test ban. we must take a step towards reason, away from war. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2017] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit]
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♪ >> this weekend on american industry tv on c-span3. essex are p.m. eastern, author and historian on the black women who worked as nurses, soldiers, and spies for the union army during the civil war. >> she was the wife of edward bannister, one of the leading african-american artists. she became involved on the underground railroad. she was a proud and consistent supporter of the u.s. color troops. >> and 8:00, university of washington professor on the 1968
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presidential election and events that affected the outcome. is slainfter he wrote and john f. kennedy, martin luther king, and now robert f kennedy. the kennedy assassination, like king, precipitate a broader national morning. rose the democratic nomination into more turmoil. >> at 2:00 p.m. eastern on sunday, lynne cheney, the author of a book, discussions president madison. >> he was lucky enough to encounter doctors who told him to exercise. what a modern thing to think, often recommended today for people who suffer from epilepsy. >> this is president john f. kennedy's 100th birthday this month and sunday at 8:00 p.m., his nephew, stephen kennedy smith, and a historian reflect on the life of an career of the 35th president. >> he was a decorated combat
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veteran and believed in a strong military. he had a much broader conception about what american identity really was. >> he reached out across the aisle. he launched the peace corps, started the alliance for progress. he engaged in the space race. for our complete schedule cookie -- go to on march 30, 1980 one, ronald reagan survived an assassination attempt outside the washington hilton. american history tv, we hear from secret service and fbi agents and off in protecting the president that day, as well as in prosecuting the would-be assassin, john wrigley junior. -- john hinckley junior, the recall of act would meet


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