tv Gettysburg National Park 1917-18 CSPAN August 31, 2018 10:40pm-12:02am EDT
in-depth addition with -- watch on c-span 2 book tv. next, military historian, mark snell on his book, gettysburg's other battle. he explained how the famous civil war battlefield was used as a world war i training camp in 1917 in 1918. named camp cold, it's man -- commander was a young dwight eisenhower. at the eisenhower national historic site . we are here to commemorate world war i as well as to understand kim cold who
was commanded by colonel eisenhower. here in gettysburg, pennsylvania. our next speaker is mark snell. he retired from the army in 1993. he has had several assignments as well as careers after that. he taught history at the united states military academy at west point and he was a lecturer at the royal academy at amherst in the uk. he was also at shepherd university. he also was the founding director of the george tyler moore center for the study of civil war. he also has written very extensively on world war i and the civil war, especially the civil war in west virginia.
he wrote a book on camp cold and gettysburg during 1917 and 1918, the years that the united states was in the great war. so, mark, why don't you come on up. 3 freed that introduction, that is important, the when i sent you. >> hero a book about gettysburg, immediate meditations on the history of the place here at gettysburg. c the introduction that i thought was going to be read had to do with the title, the title probably does not make much sense when you first look at it, but when you understand the context, that is a quote from a young soldier who was assigned here in the summer of
1917, a fellow by the name of private joseph -- he was really excited to be training on the same field where robert e lee ordered the charge. it is not going to appear in my talk, but that is what he is talking about. we are here speaking about what made the name gettysburg historic. >> on and unseasonably cold, summer day, veterans were joined by younger tank veterans from the korean war. they dedicated a pantry and -- in the memory of colonel
hollers -- colonel eisenhower. he became the supreme commander of the allies expeditionary force in europe with the rank of general of the army. after world war ii, he was appointed army chief of staff, under president harry truman. upon leaving the service in 1948, he was named president of columbia university, before being recalled to active duty in the summer of 1949, to take the helm of nato, the nato. in 1952, the former camp cold commander was nominated to be the republican candidate for president. he went on to win a landslide victory over stevenson. they occupied the executive mansion for a little more than
a year and a half in the summer of 1954 unable to attend -- please extend my warmest greetings attending the reunion. as he reviews these in the active service of your country, you can take satisfaction from the fact that your fellow citizens understand and appreciate the importance of your contributions to the security of our nation. i wish you a successful and enjoyable reunion. parks, the commanding general of the second army of fort meade , maryland, was a fitting representative. as a young officer, -- the memorial tree, a stout, yellow pine, was
planted in the soils of all 48 states and the territories of alaska and hawaii. in most places, the soil was taken from an historic site. the texas soil was taken from the alamo. then, the national commander of the world war ii tank association presented the bronze plaque to the general. it bore a simple inscription, seen here. the united states army -- behind the marker stands a tree planted in soil from each of the 48 states and dedicated in honor to the commanding officer emma captain dwight d eisenhower, who on january 2
1953, was inaugurated the 45th president of the united states of america. this living testament is a testament to the affection and high esteem of his 1918 tank core comrades. the plaque also includes the organization's insignia, encircled by a wreath. it is addressed, here at gettysburg national military park, we are in the very heart of american military traditions. i can think of no more appropriate spot in america to plant this pinetree, which will commemorate the birthplace of the tank core and which will be a testimony to the esteem held by the tank core veterans for their former commander, president eisenhower. pulse -- parks also mentioned that the living memorial is located on the site of the -- headquarters. in reality, they had quarters was -- the headquarters was
located on the other side of the road. unfortunately the date on the plaque was also wrong. eisenhower's inauguration was on january, dished john -- january 20, not junior second. but how did this come to be located on the revered gettysburg battlefield in the first place? on april 6, congress declared war on germany. emblazoned across the first page of the gettysburg times were the words, state of war declared. the gettysburg compiler, likewise, have the declaration on the for -- front page of its weekly edition. as you heard during the introduction, or as you are
supposed to hear it, the legislation that created the gettysburg national military park, at an amendment that allowed it and other places to be used as training grounds in cases of a national emergency. these camps were of short duration with the declaration of war against germany, the chance had come for gettysburg national military park to haste -- host a long-term and perhaps permanent military post. the town fathers would not wait for the army to come to them. they would solicit the federal government dished government to bring the army back to gettysburg. a group of roman citizens including the mayor, the president of the seminary in college, sent a petition to president wilson and the secretary of war, requesting
that a training camp be established at gettysburg national military park, citing the ample moving space and set us back very railroad facilities. baker and his staff agreed. how many of you wondered why it was called gettysburg national military park instead of gettysburg national battlefield? no, you know why. the war department was responsible for. had a dual purpose. not just to commemorate the battle, but to be used by soldiers in case of national emergency, as a training ground. is the result of this decision, six entire infantry regiments, along with their supporting units, would live and train on the battlefield during the spring, summer, and fall of 1917. the new regiment to be activated the 58th to the 64th, would be built around the fourth and seventh regiments of the regular army which had been
posted on the texas-mexican border because of poncho -- in 1960. they left el paso on four special trains. because they travel the longer distance, he pulled into the gettysburg station on june 4. the lead article in the june 2 edition of the gettysburg times stated, in five long trains, the united states infantry, numbering 20 to 40 men with full equipment, arrived last night and today. the seventh will come in late sunday or early monday morning. the camp will be busy from now on for a period of several months. it is berg was transformed overnight. one recently arrived, khaki
clad soldier claimed, it was awful down there! rattlesnakes and tarantulas! instead of the hot environment, they would be quartered on a revered national park. there were amenities catered to this new breed of tourists. no attempt was made by the army commanders to establish -- for the troops, allowing men to explore the surroundings. a compiler observed, these boys are glad to be and what they enthusiastically call, god's country. this has proven delightful to the boys. the rapid mobilization of the armed forces -- we are in the
army now, i know you all know. don't break out in song. in june 19, 1917, gettysburg might have adopted the popular song as its own mantra. the regiments were immediately sent to columbus ohio, the room -- the rendezvous point. the gettysburg times reported, gettysburg looks quite different. if 2200 make this a big crowd, what will it look like with 12 -- with 12,000 here? indeed, could the town's in -- infrastructure support this?
on the 50th anniversary of the battle of gettysburg festival four years earlier, they proved they could support it. they commemorated and celebrated the battle. now, what goes in must come out. the soldiers' camp would have its own means for sewage and trash removal. it needed the town government to coordinate with the camp authorities to ensure of the disposal of any overflow. unbeknownst to most visitors today, if a crew came in, and this is happened in the past when they buried cell phone but -- cell phone cables, they dug up sewage systems.
by the end of the same week that the soldiers arrived, the camp was beginning to change. it would be called camp of the united states troops, gettysburg. they ordered the construction of latrines, offices, stables, storage buildings and tent floors. on june 7, one ad was posted about town for 500 carpenters to be employed in camp construction. they would be work -- working 10 hours per day and paid based on skill level. they hoped the camp would become permanent. the same article said that the doughboys had conductive themselves well. amongst the rush to set up
camp, was the fact that the ground occupied was once the site of a very bloodied battle. army trucks and motorcycles flew down park avenue's and county roads and the newest blade company streets in the camp. horses and mules continued to arrive by the hundreds in july. they brought -- they produced tons of manure. joseph, a private in company l, kept a detailed journal of his time in service. he was very literate and had an historic mindedness. that is apparent in his journal entries. he says, men who form the
nucleus of the organization came from company l. they were mostly mcl's. all of the old army school. years of experience in the old, regular army. after describing their arrival in gettysburg and his initial experiences with the other new recruits, it made the name of gettysburg historic then, he philosophized on the past quote, a place -- the place was perfect. needed much it aided in -- company l was surrounded and
became full of spirit and devotion. in late summer, labors found tangible evidence the workmen made the discovery of supply lines to make sure they were below the foot -- many of them joined. they declared they would take with them these things difference as souvenirs of the were. the very next day, workmen uncovered the remains of a union soldier. he was reburied in the national cemetery.
cultural resources or threaten. excavations destroyed landscape for foundations, latrines. it changed the topography of the battlefield. not to be forgotten, was the fact, that a modern railroad came through the battlefield. it's very existence had already disturbed the lay of the land. the camp mingled with civil war relics for generations to come. parts of the battlefield were closed to visitors for security purposes. here, you can see -- i would like to point out, this was called the angle keep going, i
will tell you when to stop. right there, that is the angle. i used to be able to --. you sierra there. just to the left of that is the map, is the famous drops of trees. when you walk over towards the end of the map, keep walking. right there, stop. that is a swimming pool. and inground swimming pool. hillbillies used to stay -- colosimo pond. right close to the high watermark. it is still there today. you just can't see it.
hundreds of structures including -- mess hall, bathhouses, occupied the battlefield. monuments and memorials were surrounded by the hustle and bustle of the armory training area. -- damage from vehicular accidents and vandalism from board doughboys. captain stewart a howard, military class of 1903. and temporary command of the newly activated 61st infantry, sent a note to the national park commission chairman, don nicholson. gettysburg national military park commission. -- fears about damage to --. you may be sure that every effort will be made by myself to see that the enlisted men of the 61st infantry do not molest
in any way, the monuments, trees, shrubbery, was, etc. spur -- etc. of gettysburg national park. i personally hold this part to be sacred. so battalion and company commanders to see that this nuisance is abated. this regiment already has four noncommissioned officers and duty in the park to assist the park police and regulating the conduct of the soldiers. what nuisance was eight -- were they talking about? i want you to picture, tens of thousands of young men. how old are young soldiers? 18, 19, 20, 21. farm boys, a lot of them. some city boys. leaving home for the first time. alcohol was permitted in cap, but it is permitted in town, right? even though the camp commanders put a prohibition on the soldiers drinking in uniform. but they still got it. the nuisances, you have got -- he got to the towers, go to the drop off and you will see beer bottles and liquor bottles everywhere. what else to young men like? this could be broadcast on c- span, but if the cable network,
so i can say this. they want to have their needs fulfilled. and so, gettysburg is a town of 25,300 people, only part of them are women. most of those women probably don't want to comply with their needs. once the ladies arrive by train from philadelphia, baltimore, washington dc, pittsburgh, york , pennsylvania, reading pennsylvania and so forth. they have a different kind of advocation here. but there also were some local places of ill repute. little farming community. a little catholic -- one of the most famous party houses, as they were called, during 1917, 1980. u.s. marshals and pennsylvania state police constantly remaking busts. extra nuisance. that the captain was talking about. a week later, colonel nicholson, the part chairman sent a letter to the war department, about military construction that
continue to expand the size of the camp. requesting it be limited to the left -- west side of the road. noticing that it already, covers one of the most historical portions of any battlefield in the country. continuing --. -- along hancock avenue, is to destroy the drain. pickett's charge. the park line to the east is used for parades and drills, it destroyed the grass which could grow again. the buildings are unsightly and damaging. >> with so many young men temporarily relighting -- residing at the small town, it was only a matter of time that some of them got into trouble. drinking, carousing, and prostitution were the biggest problems. in what seemed to be a futile effort to keep the gettysburg soldiers occupied with legal, off-duty activities, and federal agencies noted the counsel -- camp activities for
ctc a, worked diligently with the borough government, the churches of adams county, and other agencies to provide various forms of entertainment, including sporting events, they had speakers, concerts, and even visits to local family homes. the camp had its own baseball and football teams that played other camps in nearby towns. track and field meets were held at the college. -- were arranged. as this work was pugilistic in nature. and that prepared the man -- men for hand-to-hand combat. soldiers clubs opened at other nearby localities. the ymcas of york and hanover provided rooms for visiting soldiers. dances were organized by the women's club of york. back at the camp proper, a concrete, inground still -- swimming pool was built with the dementias of 110 by 50 feet by 10 feet. near the famed high watermark of the confederacy monument and
the massive pennsylvania memorial. unfortunately, its construction was not completed until autumn. another swimming hole was created by building a dam -- over to march creek. that was less than a mile as the crow flies. >> the army, the cbc a, the local agencies were doing everything possible to ensure that the war department directive for the soldiers wholesome entertainment were fulfilled. of the more than 12,000 soldiers stationed in gettysburg in the summer of 1970, at least two of them deserved special mention. the first one should not even have been in gettysburg. nor should he have been wearing an army uniform. 12-year-old -- l read more. in his home in west farmington ohio, landed in altoona, pennsylvania, where he found a
recruiting station and lynn listed in the regular army. a half-century later, he recalled, the day i stepped into an army recruiting office, to tell a tough looking individual my desire to enlist, i was 12 years old. the date was september 29, 1917. >> smart, large and frame and mature for his age, rhett moore indeed was not even a teenager yet, the conventional recruiter he was 18 years old. he signed an alias on the enlistment form. henry e munro. -- on another train for this time as a legitimate passenger. destination, gettysburg. rhett moore wrote in his memoirs, the campsite was situated on the memorable battlefield. gettysburg. i remember the legacy of -- low buildings. it was a thrilling sight. never to be forgotten.
he subsequently was assigned accompanied by the 60th infantry. he eventually was shipped to france with his regiment, was assigned to the fifth infantry division. during the fighting of a -- offensive in the autumn of 1980, he was wounded and gassed. he survived his wounds and went on to live a long life. 1939, he was recommended for the medal of honor. with nominations after the fact at that time, had to be made within 10 years of the incident. and the recommendation was denied. he was recalled to active duty during world war ii and served as an officer in the u.s. army air forces, and after the conflict, served in the u.s. air force reserve. he was recalled to active duty during the korean war. he married several times, and had a number of children, all across the country. some of which never knew him. >> and, he died in 1983 and is bearing -- buried in arlington.
i have been to his grave, on the stone, it's's youngest american soldier, american expeditionary force. >> the other soldiers who kate -- trained and get a bird in 1970 -- also was assigned to the 60th united states infantry. you were at the last presentation, with mr. lingo, you heard about this fellow. >> 34-year-old sergeant samuel woodville. he was a seasoned regular who came up from the mexican border with the 4th u.s. infantry. he was promoted to lieutenant before being shipped to france. he performed a feat that was rivaled only by the actions of -- in the same campaign. actions that one both men the medal of honor. here's the citation of woodville's award. put that up. i am not going to read it because it is really long. can you will see it?
can you see it? over here? can you read the highlighted part? everybody on that site? let's make a long story short. single-handedly, he took out a bunch of machine gun nest, just like sergeant york. one of them, he took out the 250 to 300 yards of long-range fire. he went out on his own to silence other ones. when he ran out of ammunition, he picked up a pickax and killed the other germans. captured a whole bunch of them. went back to his men, didn't even brag about it. he was an unassuming regular soldier. he had -- other than the fact that sergeant york was a pacifist, he had a story very similar to york and that he was a poor farmer, and he had to get out of the army after the war. he was a medal of honor winner, so he could take a job that paid more than the army did. so he could pay off a mortgage, second mortgage on his farm, until he got bailed out by the
citizens of cincinnati ohio. he was from indiana, but cincinnati was close by. this guy was quite the warrior. >> -- reverted to the enlisted ranks after world war i. having received the medal of honor and named by general john pershing as the ideal american soldier of the war, he also served as one of the pallbearers for the burial of the unknown soldier. during world war ii, woodville was recalled to active duty, placed on recruiting duty. he died in 1951 at the age of 58 and is buried at arlington national cemetery. the camp of the united states proves -- until colder weather arrived. since the men recorded in tents, planners and the war department decided to relocated the six regiment decamp gray near charlotte, north carolina. until they were ready for overseas deployment. most of the soldiers would
leave gettysburg by thanksgiving, they left behind in the care of the quartermaster department, numerous temporary buildings that had been constructed during the camp. the camp that measured approximately 400 acres of government owned or leased land. the structures included 111 --. keep in mind, this is smack dab in the center of the gettysburg battle. 115 backout. 115 multi-whole latrines. eight hospital shelters. one bakery. 18 animal shelters. one stable. six hay storage sheds. one headquarter building. one telephone exchange. three sleeping berks, for the quartermaster groups that would remain in gettysburg after the camp of the u.s. troops closed. to sewage disposal plants. 20 waste incinerators. one storage shed and to pump houses. all told, more than 400 structures.
all in the very center of the battlefield. and even then, i can tell you --. those's sewage treatment plans only process rainwater. -- water for the bathhouses and water for the kitchen. latrines were very similar to the ones that were used in world war ii rear areas, metal containers underneath the holes, somebody had to haul those out, emptied the liquid part, and then burn the solid waste. imagine being stuck on the detail to do that. imagine what that did to the monuments on the battlefield. >> thousands of -- drifting around the monument. because the local civilians had contributed so many of the vice related problems associated with the 1917 camp, there was
some doubt whether the u.s. army would send another large body of trainees to gettysburg in 1918. the concern of the prospects of another army captivated the streets of gettysburg during the harsh winter of 1917-18. the gettysburg times printed an article in february 18 title, rumors uncap --. speculations of the town folk regarding the reopening of the camp. they all wanted to come back. why would they want that? they are tearing at the beautiful battlefield. because, they are selling them stuff. they are making lots of money. the writer of this article concluded that, all the street rumors from the truth of which, --. several of the stories are apparently well-founded,. the wild tales come to an abrupt end on march 8 when and -- representing the
congressional district of which gettysburg was apart, confirmed that another camp would be established on the site of the previous year's development. one of the rumors that led to the streets of gettysburg was it was going to be a camp for 10,000 colored soldiers. black men, african-american soldiers. back then, they were called colored soldiers or [null] soldiers. this was a lily white town in 1917-1980. there was a very small black population. you can imagine the fears that ran through some of the white folks minds. >> the first contingents of soldiers to arrive in gettysburg in 1918 came from camp mead marilyn. they arrived friday, march 16. boys were on the way from other camps. eisenhower assumed command of the camp on march 29, 1918. he replaced -- corps of engineers who was a senior officer when the camp was activated on march 23, 1918. eisenhower had hoped in vain to see combat in france, but instead, found himself back in
gettysburg. i said back in gettysburg, this was his second visit. he came here with the class of 1915, west point. on his senior class trip. >> ike recalled in his memoirs, quote, i took a small detachment to the new campsite. my mood was black. i decided to leave them in charge of a good man in garner. a captain who had been commissioned a year earlier. i knew a little about him, but he seemed quite capable,". eisenhower watched, as a small contingent of troop -- troops raised the garrett -- the flag. and by unit supporting the 1913 reunion of the blue and gray. garner apparently had been an enlisted soldier with one of the army unit that had been there in 1913. continuing his story, i reminisced about the incident many years later. >> i saw captain garner watching the flag, flapping at
the top. he said, captain, the last time i was on this ground was many years ago. at the time, i was standing before a general court-martial. which sentence me to six months in the guardhouse. than a suspended sentence. now, garner said, i am a captain in the same army. and i am standing here is temporary commander of the camp in which i was disgraced. as i look at this old hard- bitten gray-haired former -- tears coming down his face. all i could manage to say was, look garner, i know you will do a splendid job. good luck. >> eisenhower compiled his memoirs almost 50 years after this episode. but it had a lasting impact. according to i, to this day, whenever we stand to salute the flag, that memory is with me.". -- actually received an
official name and was designated camp colt, the man after the man who invented the six shot pistol by both sides here at gettysburg in the civil war. camp called occupy the same ground as the previous year's infantry camp, but more structures were authorized at a target range was situated some two miles south of camp near big round top. additional hospital combinations, the conversion of some of the old stables and warehouses in a personal quarters. and the procurement of heating plants for the troops bathing facilities were required per call to the tune of more than $17,000. -- the war department requested funding for this part -- department on april 18. 20,000 -- $20,000 have been allocated earlier. -- has been sufficient partially prepare the camper 2500.
-- 4000 soldiers to be accommodated at . camp colt. it turned out, some of the best armies existing soldiers and new recruits, and the government was eventually -- strength of 6400 men. that is roughly half of the size of the camp of the united states proof. >> -- put an advertisement in the times, 44 or six room house , furnished or unfurnished. until they could find a temporary residence, -- can bring his young family to gettysburg. it did not take into want to find a home. the location of the first gettysburg residence has not been determined. but mainly remembered it as being a damp, tiny home with two rooms downstairs-upstairs in two rooms downstairs. the only heating source was a potbellied stove on the first floor. the new commander's wife did not know how to operate it
without instructions. she had never even seen one before. after a short time, the family moved to the -- on washington street. vacated by smothers after the may commencement. the accommodation there were much improved, the house did not have a kitchen. -- at camp colt. finally, at the end of the colleges summer recess coming to a close, the eisenhower family got a nice brick residence on spring avenue adjacent to the worker seminary camp. according to the eldest granddaughter, susan eisenhower, it was the first real home. >> captain eisenhower's immediate task was to establish his new command -- training position. he brought numerous tech companies battalions that were deployed on the western front. camp -- camp colt would have its share of personnel. -- food and transportation
functions. welders, machinist, and ammunition specialists, as well as a headquarters section for a so-called casual company was formed for new arrivals awaiting -- assignment to one of the battalions. the men who did not meet the physical or mental standards for overseas services, -- women would be given classes, exercise, and her health manager -- monitored by a health officer. it was commanded by a west point classmate, no miranda. you saw him in a previous slide. the casual company including a venereal detachment. and a development detachment had a venereal company for men who had contracted one of those diseases. these unfortunate remain segregated until they recovered all received orders for treatment at a general hospital for unlike the infantry regiments from the year before, the tank corps was not authorized regimental --.
eisenhower sanction -- drum corps from among his soldiers who possess musical talent. the civil war generation, were fought on the same ground 55 years earlier. the corps was a sign -- second tank battalion. then later in the year, a real military band was organized at -- camp colt who had the ability to play a musical instrument. the tanks were also approved to conduct its own officers training school. that too would be located at camp colt. when you are done here if you go to this tent here, this gentleman has panoramic photographs of the camp of the u.s. troops and camp colt, one of them shows the officer training school. they all lined up at the high watermark memorial. the most immediate training problem was a lack of tanks. this was the tank training ground for the united states army, here in the united states.
the personnel fabricated a sheet metal movie maquet -- lizzie. modeling the mark five have a tank of mike's soldiers at least could get a feel for being inside one of the steel monsters. a short announcement in the brooklyn daily eagle newspaper for june 7, 1918, reported on the brooklyn assigned account called and declared, corporal neville hart, 329 lewman avenue brooklyn, directed the building of an imitation tank. it is being used by members of 328 battalion. it is mounted on an old chassis and runs along an excellent style. if nothing else, that maida great backdrop for group photographs. no heavy tanks. big ones that would have looked like that. no heavy tanks were ever delivered to camp called park on june 6, 1918, kind of an erotic day when you think about eisenhower's career park on
that day, 1918 f 17 light tank arrived at the western maryland depot in gettysburg. that's the depot that's closest to the college. >> gettysburg time reporter wrote, the long expected take is here. camp colt's officers and men are as happy as a playground full of children with a new toy. this -- small french tech was received by freight from an automobile factory from -- maryland. it was unloaded and driven through tamil scores of people watched it with the greatest interest. this tank was built in france. but was delivered to an automotive factory. they looked at it. >> in his memoirs, eisenhower alleged that two more tanks were shipped to gettysburg, recalling that, three small tanks were sent. between about seven tons. they had a machine gun or a small one counter cannon.
mounted to the revolving current. the tanks arrived without weapons. ike's memory was a bit hasty. none of the local newspapers ever reported the appearance of the two other tanks, which would have arrived at one of the two train stations in town. as evidence, -- only one tank was ever assigned to the camp. to get a spark times affirmed, soon after the armistice, the loan tank with which the camp colt man got the practice, rolled through the streets of town this afternoon. speaker if you go to some of the roadside exhibits here, at the eisenhower national historic site, and also to gettysburg national military park, both exhibits will tell you two or three tanks. only one. >> photographs of the chemical tank indicate that it was a first production model. -- are true. eventually, it would be armed
with a hotchkiss machine gun park although the new tanks presence obviously was not a military secret, the times reported that the machine is station in an isolated part of the camp and visitors are not allowed to get a side of it -- inside of it. the drivetrain was powered by a four-cylinder war cooled gasoline engine that produced 39 horsepower. allowing it to travel at a lethargic four miles per hour. with a maximum range of 40 miles per tank of gas. the fuel reservoir was forward of the engine. the tank was manned by a driver and a commander/gunner. crewmember behind the weapon rotating the surface to which would -- which could rotate 360 degrees, giving direction to the driver. the tanks armor was --. over and under a steel chassis. and also mounted a curve, detachable rear tail. to facilitate trench crossing. this prevented the tank from
falling backwards into the trench. it was propelled by a reardrive sprocket wheel -- field tracks that passed around large, wooden, steel rimmed, forward mounted wheels. it's tactical mission on the battlefield was to support the advancing infantry over no man's land. >> captain eisenhower was fortunate to welcome to camp colt, to british advisers who had commanded tank battalions in the battle of cambrai in november 1917. the scene of the first successful use of tanks against the germans. -- officers was 46-year-old lieutenant colonel frank summers who had been awarded the nation's distinguished service cross for bravery and action in march 1915, and the distinguished service order for leadership at the tank company commander during the battle of -- in the summer of 1916.
>> an officer in the royal navy have been killed in action during the historic battle of jutland, just a month before the battle. lieutenant colonel summers took command of a tank battalion in 1917 and -- the battle of cambrai, his unit fought with great success. transferred back to the united states in 1980, to organize tank training, he soon departed for the united states and was assigned as a liaison officer at camp colt. take a look at this photograph. have got everybody identified except the young man on the right. notice the older officer has a black armband. that is for his son, cyril, who died at the battle of jutland. >> the other british advisor you see here was major philip hammond. he would service somerset cambrai, and as a fellow battalion commander. and whose tank battalion nearly
exploited the british breakthrough. the experience of these advisors brought to camp colt's training camp program would be immeasurable. decades later, eisenhower recalled, at about the same time that we received the tank, the british officers appeared. thus began my connection with allies. a role that became vitally important to me as the years rolled on. the british officers helped us to understand the uses of these new, armored weapons. >> continuing, ike remembered that in their conversations, i heard about a bridge political figure named winston churchill. according to the two officers, this churchill had a hand in producing the first tank. they admired him extravagantly. i must say, from their descriptions, he sounded like a good chap. >> and date, the tank concept was churchill's brainchild, who
had january 1950, as first lord of the admiralty, he recommended to prime minister herbert haskel it that, special mechanical devices for taking trenches, should be developed. but long before they came to know and respect each other during another world war, eisenhower and churchill shared a common experiential bond. this was his headquarters. in 1980. also the headquarters of camp u.s. troop in 1970. you can see the building behind the flagpole. that is why that photo was taken. this is -- avenue. notice the fourth ohio infantry moniker. that is still there today. it is close to the entrance where you would go out to the old cyclorama building. that's what it looks like today. thanks to google earth.
so, the parking lot of pickets but they basically was captain ike eisenhower's orders. prior to the arrival of the tank, eisenhower's staff devised a training program for the doughboys. that includes mechanical maintenance instruction, drill and ceremony tactics, and even to left -- more importantly, to machine gun and direct line cannon training were required. according to eisenhower, a number of machine guns came in. we trained gutters until they could take them apart line folded and put them back together again. someone had the notion amounted them a truck towers of flatbed trucks. we were able to train them in to fire from a mobile platforms at both moving and still targets. the only satisfactory place let's us the real top. it space made a perfect backdrop. shoulders retrieving look to
shooting for moving trucks at all kinds of targets. the burden might have been heavier than the great battle 55 years earlier. >> the gettysburg times noted an article in july -- july 6, 1980. some target practice with machine guns, gave the impression out there that there was a regular battle underway. but it was only a little demonstration. >> once the b-17 arriving gettysburg, a handful of recruits were trained to drive it on normal terrain as well as over obstacles. to learn how to negotiate a steep rise with an abrupt drop, they use the earthen ramp of a destroyed farm barn. to get a feel for driving across the shell standard battlefield, drivers took the bank into the base of the tank into the basement cavity of the bliss house. you civil war bus already know this. but those who don't, in 1863, the house and barn of william
and adeline bliss were burned to the ground by the 14th connecticut infantry. buildings with and used by confederate structures. all that remained were the barn and the cajun seller. >> the destruction caused by the grinding of steel tracks over this historic cultural feature has not been measured. but the rampant seller are still visible today, indicating that any time -- the rumbling contraction --. eisenhower solved the significant training issue. but he also had to do with vice, venereal disease, alcohol- related problems within the camp. in my book, i cover all the particulars of how eisenhower went about solving the social problems. to military discipline and by applying the lessons of the aggressive era social reformers. he was assisted in these endeavors by the military police, the local authorities, the pennsylvania state police, u.s. marshals, and the u.s. district attorney. as well as local temperance
society, churches, the ymca, young men's jewish association, the salvation army and the camp colt's safety ca. >> in may 1980, shortly after the arrival, eisenhower authorized the publication of alexis a weekly newspaper as a way to disseminate army and camp information, publish warnings, and publish the scores of camp sports team. family camp gossip, and generally improve morale. it soon became the model for the entire tank corps. treat him rough. 36 years later, a former camp loses camp colt officer called how the model came to be. >> and nome alaska, there was much playing during rivermont's basketball team. i was a member of the -- team. at every game, those arctic brothers and friends who were spectators -- especially when
game points were not in their favor, they would always yell at 15. above the words with the black fighting cat. the black cat was and still is the icon of the international order of the who who. founded in 1892, members are involved in the -- lumber industry. the arctic brotherhood that he mentioned was one of its lodges. >> this officer, the originator of the model of the newspaper was lieutenant george r social, who at one point was assigned as a camp adjective during the administration of president dwight d eisenhower, social served as u.s. commissioner of alaska. which remained a territory until it attained statehood in 1959. in the autumn of 1918, eisenhower, who by now is a lieutenant colonel, faced the most serious problem of his career. 10 days before the momentous --
offensive was scheduled to begin on the western front, all eyes were focused on france. camp colt received the detachment of 111 soldiers from kent devens massachusetts. area already besieged by the deadly spanish influenza. some of the devens transfers suffered headaches. but camp colt's doctors believed that the symptoms were caused by typhoid fever inoculations that the doughboys had received prior to departing the massachusetts post. >> eisenhower recalled, the next morning, alarming reports started to reach me. some of the new man i was told registering high fevers, and were obviously very ill. camp doctors immediately took countermeasures. spanish flu is recognized, because matt had not been confined to quarters, and some of them were obviously carriers, the whole camp had to be considered as exposed.
>> it was. soon it was spread to gettysburg in the outlying community. the disease is extraordinarily severe. total deaths were estimated at approximately 50 million. and were arguably as high as hundred milliliters 100 million. historians and scientists have yet to determine exactly where the spanish flu originated. but the consensus is emerging that it probably first appeared in january 1918 in haskell, -- haskell county, kansas. in the southwest corner of the sunflower state. eventually making its way eastward across the state, where it was contracted by soldier stationed at camp funston, kansas. from there, he was transported with infected doughboys to the ports of embarkation on the east coast, and finally, to the western front. once in france, it spread to the rear areas in frontlines of the allies. across no man's land, the
central powers armies, and eventually, back to combatants native countries. since the warring nations censor news reports about the staggering effects of the flu, that the flu is happening to the armies and civilian populations. a neutral, only when it spread to spain, a neutral country, did news reach the public. the pandemic erupted in three ways. first began with a mild flu flared up in the spring and early summer of 1980. the second wave was a wave of severe influenza in the autumn. the last wave occurred in the spring of 1919. >> the flu symptoms included a high temperature from 102-104 degrees. sometimes, coming to 106. as well as a sore throat, headache, physical exhaustion, aching limbs, severe cough, and even an intense nosebleed.
sometimes, vomiting and loose bells occurred. in such a weakened state, patients normally develop pneumococcal pneumonia, and immense pulmonary hemorrhage is. when that happened, death soon followed. previous influenza strains typically struck children and the elderly, the spanish influenza primarily affected people in the prime of their life. their 20s and 30s. it was especially deadly to the soldiers of both sides. already weakened by stress, heat, and exposure. another restaurant -- western front, the most of. >> the influenza epidemic hit massachusetts and -- it was first reported by medical officers on september 12. astuteness trips from devon reached camp later on september 16. the first person to die from complications of the flu in adams county was one of the
soldiers who had been transferred from devon. to other soldiers die that my. 70 more were hospitalized. the next day, two more men died. at the number of patients in the hospital doubled the previous -- from the previous day. three morsel just arbiter the 24th and 25th of september. and another three passed in the next 24 hours. the times headline on september 27 laird, all capital letters, influenza rages at camp colt. the next line. sorry. i must have left without. go back to the previous slide. military police were stationed at all of the major roads leading out of gettysburg. men without official passes from leaving the town. at the displayed any sign of sickness, they were correnti. soldiers were not permitted to port -- congregate laissez spread the influenza. restaurant owners by the
doughboys from coming into their establishments. the house down the street in a futile attempt to cleanse the thoroughfares of influenza. st. francis xavier church converted xavier hall, the parochial school, into a military hospital. other churches followed suit. teacher at a one-room schoolhouse in littles town, 7- 8 miles from here. asked us at duden's to solicit donations from the town folks. they quickly gathered $100, which bought hot water bottles and other health supplies for the camp. likewise, the red cross sent nurses to gettysburg to assist the camp. the debacle continued -- death toll continued decline. according to eisenhower, little town -- there were no coffins. no place to put the bodies except in the storage shed. to be gradually taking care of more suitably.
>> lavinia doc. one of america's most well- known nursing experts who called western county her home, dropped what she was doing to come to gettysburg and assist the overburdened medical staff. dock was, as it turned out, along with lucy burns and alice ball, one of the most outspoken of the women suffragists. at that very moment, who were protesting in washington dc for the right to vote. she stopped and came home to take care of the soldiers. there were several cases in adams county when the flu took multiple family members. some even from the same household. in early october tragedy struck the hamlet of harlow, where i live. about five miles south of gettysburg along -- road. this is grace maring , october 10. three days later, her husband, oliver, 38, likewise succumbed to the flu.
done in harry mary burke and mid-october, the grim ricker -- reaper visited -- near harrisburg. northeast of harrisburg. went to brothers, amos and jacob were lost three days apart. october 13 and 16th respectively. >> followed by their mother on october 17. william, 34, and maryknoll, 33 of centennial, another hamlet in eastern adams county, died six days apart. william on october 19, and his wife on the 25th. mary's sister, the widow lisa smith, age 32, passed on october 23. harry strudwick of littles town suffer the loss of a son and two brothers from the flu. finally, peter j smith of centennial lost two family members within a weeks time. his mother died october 14, and his 16-year-old daughter passing on october 19. >> by mid-october, the flu in
adams county was when he. in -- for the rest of 1918, and even into 1919. by october 25, the situation at camp cult seems to be on the upswing. four military positions were transferred from gettysburg to attend the flu victims and other counts. the military debacle at camp colt for october was 117. for a total of 149 deaths. seven more doughboys died from the flu in november. for a total of 156 fatalities overall. >> the passing of the last soldier from influenza occurred on november 17, 1980. the majority of doughboys who departed before the third wave of the influenza struck in late november and early december. the last civilian victim of the spanish flu was a 3-year-old girl from butler township. located some five miles north of gettysburg. who died on april 27, 1919.
for a total of 133 civilian deaths from influenza in adams county. with that final casualty, the ordeal was over. but it had cost at least 289 military and civilian souls within the county's borders. >> at the end of the battle of gettysburg, one civilian my debt. at the end of the 10 year leftist tenure of camp colt , 30 -- 133 civilians lay dead. numbers, percentages and ratios were personal and did not respond -- reflect the whites bread physical suffering of the afflicted with the mental anguish of surviving family members and friends. soldiers who perished at camp cult could be buried free of charge and gettysburg national cemetery. the most -- were returned home at the request of the next of kin. each flag draped coffin was accompanied by a soldier from
cult who immediately return to gettysburg once his solemn duty was completed. the uniforms and other clothes item of the diseased soldiers were destroyed on the orders of the camp soldier. the remains were dressed in new uniforms, consisting of a wool coat and britches, cotton underwear, a paris stockings, a pair of leggings and apparel marching shoes. personal effects, other than uniform items were packaged and mailed to the next of kin. you see some of the flu victims that were buried from the camp that were buried in national cemetery. the onset of the influence academic pedicel -- epidemic had a sad and profound impact on the soldiers and the nurses. perhaps the greatest memorial bestowed on instead was written for the newsletter, freedom rock. title gone west. attribute by a comrade. the anonymous author, in the midst of this biological disaster.
eloquently articulated [ inaudible ]. we stand a moment with heads bowed. with heavy hearts. and silent tribute. then, with heads up and eyes front, -- our monkeys across the great divide. we will carry on, fellows. we will carry on. >> they did carry-on. not for much longer. in fact, none of camp colt soldiers who read that particular issue of freedom rock would ever see combat in the great war. in a few weeks, it would all be over over there. on november 11, 1918, armistice went into effect. the next day, the gettysburg time correctly predicted in a front-page article, that, camp colt probably will be a thing of the past within a very few weeks. no official announcement has been made, but the abandonment of the national park for camp
purposes is expected as a natural result of the end of the war. >> three days later, the newspaper announced that the tank would be leaving the next day. saturday, november 16. special train bound for camp dix new jersey. to be mustered out of the service. camp colt was no more. >> all that remained was a massive cleanup to restore gettysburg national military park to its prewar state. it proved to be an immense undertaking, leaving the battlefield with physical scars of the two camps for years to come. >> next slide. loot tenant colonel emmer be cope with the veteran of the battle, and now the -- summarized in his annual report for 1920, the damage to the national -- of u.s. army that caused the 1917-1918.
click again. and again. it's a little light. can you will read that? at least 1428 cubic yards of refuse needed to be removed to clear the campsite areas from waist to make fills. nearly 4000 cubic yards of earth had to be moved to level drains, ditches and culverts, as well as the raising of temporary roads that crossed the area. there were roads all to the area. they were raised up, they were covered with gravel, and they were sprayed with topper call in the middle of the battlefield. 200 feet of paved roads. one of the tracts that must be plowed up and removed -- road service to the camp and leveled. on the hissed -- trostle farm,
-- farmhouse. 1103 cubic yards of fill ground would be needed to restore the land used for the trenches that had been dug. machine-gun pits that had been dug. and the antiseptic tanks for the disposal of sewage from the camp. next on. >> $1400-this is 1918 or 19 $21. were supposed to be -- with the fencing for gates, walls, concrete covert and well -- wire fencing had been destroyed and needed to be replaced. -- scattered of the different areas. cannot be estimated but must be removed. i will tell you what, contractors came in and cleaned up this. they could keep whatever they wanted as far as a contract. most of the drunk -- they didn't bring in was the swimming pool.
that still there today. my former student, your superintendent here said, go out there sometime and take a look. she says, what do you see, mark? is it -- world war i -- scattered all around. she said to me, you remember what this is? [ inaudible ]. >> that is still there today. my time this afternoon does not allow me to go into depth about the environmental impact of the camp's on gettysburg national military. nor do i have time to tell you about gettysburg and adams counties human contribution to the war effort. or the way that people who lived there remember the sacrifices in the years that followed. find out about those things, shameless plug coming up. you will have to read my book, which just came out. which is the first in-depth social history of any american community during the world war
i era. just happens of that community is a pretty famous one. thank you for your attention. >> yes sir? >> the swimming pool, was that in close proximity to the united states regulars? >> right in front of a. you can literally take a baseball-. west. he could -- throw a baseball park it would land in the swimming pool. any other questions? >> were the soldiers recruited, or those who became soldiers in world war i, what percentage of them stayed stateside, and what percentage of them went over to europe? >> you got me. you i could look it up, i really don't know. i know several million went overseas. the problem was, the war was
relatively short. from our perspective. from the united states's perspective. war was declared in april. we sent a contingent, i see of the first division shirt on. we sent the first division over early on. we sent the 26th division, which is the national guard division, december 1917. we sent a battalion of u.s. marines over, too. but most your troops don't arrive until the early spring of 1918. the 10th combat involving american forces doesn't occur until the last week of may. 1918. and the first man who was killed , who came from gettysburg, the first man killed in war, phil mixon from -- within the first division and was killed about two weeks prior to the battle of cantina, which is considered the first -- the biggest american act of the war. his name was albert j lynch. our american legion post --'s name in memory.
as far as numbers, i just can't tell you. we would have had the large share of the forces over there had the work on into 1990 to 1920. >> -- something really dramatic- . >> i can tell you, it wasn't half. they were gearing up to go over. a lot of them were on the way, but the armistice was declared. >> where the last physical remains of count -- camp colt removed from the battlefield? >> my report was 1920. unfortunately, no report exists between 1922 i believe it is, and 1926. we don't know if there was any tangible vestiges of camp remaining. i imagine they would. you could see them with the naked eye. and i can tell you, if you recall in the book, says the topography of the battlefield has changed because of these camps. first of all, there was a railroad line that bisected the
camp. that predates the civil war. the round top spur of the gettysburg and harrisburg railroad. from a birds eye view, if you look on google earth, you can still see the route today that cuts into the middle of the battlefield. the army built spurs off of that, sightings, they were called. where they kept tanks [ inaudible ] they kept them there. they kept hay for the horses and mules, and railcars there. i would say, probably in the mid-1920s, most of that would have gone away. in 1922, the marine corps -- marine corps comes back to from quantico. they created quite a bit of damage. not intentionally. they were only here a couple of days. a week or so. but there is torrential downpour's as they are getting ready to leave, they bring in a bunch of tanks. that i'll get stuck. that is all around seminary ridge. they tore up the battlefield quite a bit, to.
>> my other question is, was there a perimeter established when camp colt was here? where so-called visitors to the battlefield- >> not a perimeter per se, but there would have been guards posted at the main roads where visitors couldn't go. it did curtail visitor traffic during the war. but the people who live there didn't care, because they are getting a lot more money from the soldiers and they would from taurus. >> the -- areas of the camp i guarantee you went it was being used as a machine gun range, there was no visitors allowed -- . that's all rocks. bulls were ricochet. that was a dangerous place to be. any other questions? >> it seems like on the grounds of camp colt was also a german prison camp in world war ii. but none of the structures would have been there. they would have had to been built then, right? >> there were no structures for
that prison can. there were platform fours like the soldiers had a 1917-1980. even the guards -- campus. the only person i let the got decent quarters with the officers. and they were quarters in the home sweet home of town. -- tore down 10-15 years ago. they recorded their. was contracted out by the army. for officers and the families. just maybe two years ago, i walked through the area where the p.o.w. camp was, and they were busted milk bottles from the world war ii period that was laying in the drainage due to the camp. let me pull up some of the slides. >> the last time i gave -- we have problems with audio.
talking about the battlefield [ inaudible ]. when you bring in all the soldiers and your digging foundations for buildings, and you are grating the area -- and then lay down gradual -- gravel, if you look at the battlefield today with the naked eye, it probably looks the way it did during pickett's charge. but if you are a soldier, attacking -- it with a completely different today, they are taking advantage of the rolling ground of the battlefield. to mask themselves from --. [ inaudible ] it is fairly flat out there. [ inaudible ] the cultural resources here at gettysburg. >> [ inaudible ] they had a
temporary landing strip on seminary ridge. those planes could lend just about anywhere. one marine [ inaudible ] another one had mechanical damage and also crashed --. >> how many monuments were destroyed? >> a lot was vandalized. summer hit by trucks. army trucks. a couple hundred motorcycles and trucks and cars that we drive on this company streets in the middle of the battlefield, and along park roads. but colonel cope, although he doesn't blame the soldiers, in his report, -- pieces missing off the cannons -- [ inaudible ]. there are young soldiers what a souvenirs.