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tv   Flagstaffs Lunar Legacy  CSPAN  September 3, 2018 7:43pm-7:55pm EDT

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i choose this is our goal. they may well ask, why clyde the -- climb the highest mountain. we choose to go to the moon. we choose to go to the moon. [ applause ] . we choose to go to the men and to the other thing not because
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they are easy because they are hard. because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept and one we are not willing to postpone and one we intend to win and the others.>> >>[ applause ] . president john kennedy said we want to galvanize our country to do something very bold and it was something bold to beat the russians. let's beat the russians by sending humans to the moon and returning him safely before the end of the 1960s. the country was starting to think about going to the men and one of the questions we had was how do you know where you are going because if you travel to a foreign country, you take a map to figure out we are going.
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if you travel to a foreign world, you better have a map so you don't run into a crater or something like that. it was a critical part of preparing to go to the moon. >> the refracting telescope was established in 1894 and will before arizona was a state. when percival lowell came out here, he grown up back east. he realized that he was going to build an observatory it was not ideal because in 1890s he had the professionalization -- per -- he decided to to the american southwest. he tested sites around the territory and flagstaff had
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very dark skies and at a high elevation at 7000 feet the higher elevation the less air and distortion because air is like a swimming pool. when you open your eyes everything is fuzzy because the water is spending the light and air does the same thing. the more air you look through the more distorted the stars. the higher you go you have dark skies and it is a great location pick drive around -- and when you drive around you see the telescope at 30 feet tall like a big birthday cake on top of the hill. he decided to set up here in 1894 and in 1896 the telescope with the 24 inch diameter 32 foot long refracting telescope. the lens is used instead of the
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mirror to collect the light. it was used in mexico for a year and brought back here in 1897 and has been here ever since. this is a classic instrument. the classic history of the first evidence of extending nature of the universe collected using instruments on the telescope. pluto was not discovered with the telescope but it was important in the search and study after the discovery. there has been a lot of great research with this. over the last several decades it is not used for research but for education and outreach. the last research done was really unique thing that was done pick something that captures our imagination. especially as we approach the 50th anniversary of the first
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manned mission to the moon. apollo 8 flew to the moon in december 1968 and neil armstrong and buzz all strong -- buzz armstrong took the steps with other astronauts that trained in flagstaff. they learned geology and tested instruments and they also learned about reading maps and that was something that was important and done at the observatory with a telescope. the map was the critical thing that he was involved in. in 1962 you had the mercury seven that was named and that work flew up and this shows that it would get up into space. alan sheppard was the first american in space that road for
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15 minutes and came back down. in 1967 the second group came on and shoemaker who brought geology specifically to prepare for the mission and he talked to nasa and other scientists and said if we are planning to send people to the moon we should do more than plan and fly back, we should do science pick what better way to learn about the origins of the planet and who we are them by studying another solar system similar to ours. in january 1963, the next astronauts and the second group that including neil armstrong, others came out on a cold day and flew into flagstaff airport. they flew in two plains in case one crashed and not all the astronauts would have perished. they flew in the guys and they were rock stars and met by the
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mayor and cheering fans wanting autographs and they went to the media because if you are going to the moon and around this pockmarked area, why not study the area at the crater down the road. we want to mediate crater to see what it look like and they went to the observatory to study the mapping and see how the features are depicted on the maps because they will have to relate with they are seeing to the real features. at night, the group broke up into three and each group when and to focus on some of the telescope and some went to northern arizona university with their telescope and others went to the naval observatory
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location which is four miles from here. the three groups used three different telescopes and the astronauts looked through the telescope to see the moon and where they were going. in one day they could see where the were depicted on the map and what the men's impact looked like. the upside is that the first trip was very successful. you have to realize the value of training the astronauts to do geology and all of the features and groups of astronauts came here to train. >> we are out on the field several miles from downtown flagstaff. the volcanic feature that erupted tens of thousands of years ago. the entire field is cinders from the explosion.
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when the astronauts were training out here, they went to sunset crater and the grand canyon and other places pick they realized they wanted another place to train. something more accurate to the lunar surface. in 1968, based on the image of the moon from the lunar orbiter they created this crater field that we are in the middle of. they looked at this image and dug holes with a back hoe and filled them with explosives and there was a 400 made out here. they sent the charges and blew it up in this cataclysm explosion and it settled down and they took some photos and realized this was effective and it looked like the craters on the moon. not necessarily the great -- exact geology but the
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layout so from 1968 at the end of 1972 really, the astronauts came for training. for the earlier missions before they had that they came out again to practice carrying their tools and described the rocks and surveyed the landscape and on later missions when they developed the rivers for the last three missions they practiced driving and today this area is protected. it has a fence around it and this is national forest service land. a second field that they created a mile away and the open recreational area. this is still in nice shape 50 years after it was created we can see this rim going around it. this is the largest one. we are on the northwest corner
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of the field. a lot of other craters around here that we can say. it is a neat thing that anybody can come out here and say. the observatory responded by an amateur. this guy interested in doing astronomy put his money where his mouth was. he discovered pluto and was an amateur astronomer. he grew up on a farm. in the nighttime in kansas he looked at the sky. he had his own telescope. 24 years old he discovered the planet. all three astronomers could not find it and he did. the professional astronomers are making great discoveries and aspire astronomy but it is in the realm of all of us. if you have an interest in it, you can do a lot with it and just look up and you can get
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excited about it.>> white ho association vice chair introduces panel. this is about 1:45. good morning, ladies and gentlemen. i'm very happy to

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