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tv   Presidential Legacies  CSPAN  September 16, 2018 9:03pm-9:59pm EDT

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tofrom george washington george w. bush, every sunday at 8:00 p.m. we feature the presidency. series. you're watching american history tv on c-span3. american history tv is in prime time next week on c-span3. starting monday at 8:00 p.m. eastern, a discussion on the role of black teachers who fought against segregation with the nasa locker. tuesday, a symposium on the concept of liberty, exploring how the idea of freedom, law and liberty have changed throughout history.
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women in congress series continues with glenn wilby and nancy johnson. on thursday, historians look at the role of espionage. on friday, on railamerica, the world war ii series about why we fight. in rise of authoritarianism germany and japan. watch american history tv on c-span3. what does it mean to being -- be american? that is the question. we are asking middle school and high school students to answer that. want them to us when having to find the american experience. awarding $1000 in total cash prizes including a grand
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prize of $5,000. this year's deadline is january 20, 2019. for more information, go to our website, >> next, mark of the growth, the former chief of staff, anita mcbride and stuart mclaurin on presidential legacies. conferenceat a attended by representatives from presidential sites around the country. robert: good afternoon. good
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afternoon. my name is bob mcgee. i serve on the board of directors of the white house historical association. as you continue to enjoy your lunch i want to introduce our program for today. you may have heard that we were planning on having our wonderful friend of the white house historical association, the renowned historian dr. william seal with us for this lunch session but he's been unable to join us. we, however, have a terrific plan b for you. and that is a ,onversation with anita mcbride mark and stuart. i know if time allows they'll take questions at the end. now to the panel.
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career related to the white house and presidency spans more than 30 years as a white house adviser, chief of staff, and diplomatic adviser. currently, she is executive in residence at the center for congressional and presidential studies in the school of public affairs at american university in washington where she directs programming on the legacies of america's first ladies and their historical influence on policy, politics and global diplomacy. anita served as assistant to president george bush as well as chief of staff to first lady laura bush. she directed the first lady's travel to 67 countries in four years to support foreign policy objectives in human rights, women's empowerment, global health, education. she is a member of the u.s. afghan women's council, the international republican institute's women's diplomacy
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network, the national italian american foundation, and most importantly a board member of the white house historical association, and chair of the committee that organized the presidential sites summit. mark updegrove is an author, presidential historian and president and ceo of the lbj foundation in austin, texas. until recently, he served as the director of the lyndon johnson library and museum for eight years he has authored four books on presidential history, including his newest book, the last republicans, inside the extraordinarily relationship between george hw bush and george w. bush. mark is commentator for abc news. good morning america, and this week. and, finally, our third panelist
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mclaurin. he's president of the white house historical association. his 30-plus year in washington has been in senior roles, georgetown university, red cross and motion picture association. he also worked with the reynold reagan presidential foundation to conceptualize, plan, and execute the ronald reagan centennial celebration in 2011. please join in welcoming today's panel. anita mcbride, mark updegrove mclaurin.t [applause] >> thank you very much. and i'd also like to recognize the wife of our other board member barrett that couldn't be here today. wonderful board members.
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and anita is on the board. these men and women give extraordinarily guidance and governance to our organization. it was founded by mrs. kennedy in 1961. we are honored to be conceiver this site summit this he can -- let's dive into lbj. mark your leadership with the , lbj foundation monday would have been 110th birthday of president johnson. he was larger than life as president, larger-than-life post-presidency. what would we think of his legacy as we see him today? well, first of all, stewart, to you and a knit -- anita congratulations on this
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, conference. [ applause ] i know how much work they have put into this, and it is clearly paid off, because it's been a rousing success. so congratulations to both of you. thanks to all of you for what you do. i mentioned it yesterday to the group that convened around lunch, but i'm not only historian, i'm a patron of your establishments and i appreciate so much not only what you do, but the passion that you put into what you do. so thanks so much for preserving and perpetuating the history of this great country. stewart, to answer your question, i told a story yesterday that i'll repeat, but lbj when he was a senator was campaigning for re-election, and he convened his speech writers around a stump speech that he wanted to take around the state. they brought in a speech, and a -- they brought him a speech and addressed. he starts reading it, and he
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comes upon a passage from plato. he says, plato, plato, let me get this straight. i'm going back home to texas to talk to just plain folks, and you have me quoting plato? he said keep the quote but start it with my daddy always used to say. [laughter] i mention it because my daddy said certain things about lyndon johnson. and what he said contemporaneously when johnson was president was very different from what we are saying today. presidential legacies evolve. i think it takes us at least a generation, and even more than two in some cases, to get a clear perspective on how basically a president will be remembered in perpetuity. lyndon johnson it took much longer, because vietnam so divided this nation, and it took at least two generations for passions to recede around vietnam.
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but when they did, and we got clearer perspective, when that dark cloud of vietnam dissipated, we saw what lyndon johnson did in the legislative arena, and in particular what did he in civil rights. and there is no president, say other than abe lincoln, who has done much in the way of cause of civil rights as lyndon johnson, >> so i think in answer tour -- your question, stewart, he would be pleased. >> well, we can't talk about presidents without talking about first ladies. and a and a and -- anita you've done a terrific , john and favorite to laura -- mrs. kennedy had done so much. mrs. johnson continued that in
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her own way. whoe were 45 men and women had been very unique in their presidencies and in their personalities, also in the legacies. that is evidenced in these wonderful presidential sites. tell us about mrs. johnson and her role as first lady and that transition, and the very painful way, and what she did in the white house in our space. anita: well, first, i think -- let me put my microphone on, that would help. thank you, stewart for that question. and first i want to acknowledge a couple of really terrific first lady historians are in the audience with us, too, katie sibley from st. joseph university, and nancy smith is in the back of the room who did oral histories with lady bird johnson and got to know her quite well. then at the archives for many, many years. i'm always struck by -- and i happen to live in the neighborhood just around the corner from where the johnsons
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at the l. where he lived as vice president. that is where they lived for several weeks, if not almost a month after he had become president. she had become first lady after that. i so i always walking by that house always feel the presence of the johnsons still looms in the spring valley neighborhood of washington dc. i'm really struck by the quote from mrs. johnson herself about how she felt about becoming first lady after the assassination of john f. kennedy. also how she said people look at , the living and wish for the dead. you just can't imagine really the personal pain that was exhibited that the whole country was feeling. and here were the johnsons front and
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center that take over leadership of the community at that time and feel the challenge to also help comfort the nation in a certain way. and to help mrs. kennedy through it all, which of course they were incredibly gracious as we know. she told her she can live and stay in the white house as long as she needs to to get her children packed up and moved out and to move on with her life. mrs. johnson, again, having a front row seat of working with laura bush for so many years, and she would say very honestly, that in addition to her mother-in-law, of course, lady bird johnson was her favorite first lady. she learned so much from her. from watching her and being a texas woman herself and sort of the graciousness of mrs. kennedy. also, mrs. kennedy of course,
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and also mrs. johnson how she provided over the white house. -- presided over the white house. and mrs. bush who loves the outdoors and loves flowers and plants and natural landscapes and the national parks always looked to mrs. johnson as an example of, you know, someone who so appreciated our natural beauty. mrs. bush would say, you no he, -- you know, people would look at mrs. johnson and say oh she loved flowers. but really what she was was our nation's first conservationist first lady. so i think that her preference -- and once of the personal recollections of i have mrs. johnson is seared in my memory for the rest of my life, is mr. johnson, rob, who we heard from last night on the descendants panel. linda had called me when i was chief of staff to mrs. bush, and had said i'm bringing my mother back to washington for what i know will be her last time to
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see some of her friends. of course, we know she had a stroke. she wasn't speaking. she was in a while chair but still very vibrant. she said do you think we can come to the white house? well, i knew instinctually mrs. bush's reaction would be of course. and i never answer for anything on mrs. bush's schedule without talking to her first but i know the answer would be yes. i said i'll call you back with dates and times that could work. mrs. bush was so thrilled to have mrs. johnson come to the white house, that she is now the sitting first lady can take the former first lady through the white house. mrs. bush had made sure that any of the resident staff that were still working in the white house, that had been there in the johnson time, were there to greet mrs. johnson at the diplomatic reception room door when she stepped in. and in addition, one of the butlers who
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had worked for the johnsons, mr. german, was now a part-time elevator operator that operated the president es operator in the elevator just a few days away. mrs. bush made sure he was there, and he was the one who greeted mrs. johnson when the door was opened of the car for her to get out. the way that mrs. johnson reached up in recognition to embrace mr. german and how he embraced her would really make you weep, but would also, the two last things that i'll just say about mrs. johnson's visit, -- her last vitsit to the white house, is mrs. bush wheeled here into the room on the ground floor which had just been repainted under one of the restoration projects that mrs. bush did, thanks to the white house historic association, and mrs. bush had had the walls of the verma room painted the same
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as mrs. johnson wore in the official portrait. she moved to the portrait right above the fireplace. there are three very striking portraits. and moved the portrait above the fireplace in the room so very striking striking. there is three striking portraits in that room. jackie kennedy right when you walk into the room, the beautiful painting of her. mrs. johnson's over the fireplace. then eleanor roosevelt. so, mrs. bush said to her, lady bird, i wanted to see -- i want you to know that i had this room repainted in a color
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that would match your dress. they brought her by her husband's portrait. this is to embrace her husband. it is just one of those things as a staffer and the white house, you don't live there. you worked there. it is one of those incredible privileges and opportunities that you get to see firsthand that really reminds you what a blessing it is. quote.mentioned a the way in which the johnsons took office was through tragedy. , mrs.ntioned a quote johnson describe that. after president kennedy's
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assassination and americans looking at the living and wishing for the dead. that really puts into perspective the difficult situation that she wanted to. >> we talk about death and grieving. these are recorded times when a president passes. tomorrow, most of our group will be going up to washington national cathedral which has been the stage and setting for a number of presidential funerals. this saturday senator mccain's funeral will be in that cathedral. eight have died in office, that's significant office, and elements state funerals taking place in the white house. tonight we'll be in east room where kennedy laid in state. and then post president sit we -- and then, we remember mrs. reagan and mrs. bush, what is it about these moments of death and
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focus on a former president for a living president? one of my probably earliest memory of a living president was four years old sitting in front of a black and white television of the kennedy funeral and being and scared about this. what is it about death and presidential funerals or first lady funerals that brings home to us who they are to us and what we remember them to be? >> we are naturally divided as a nation. we were divided when our founding fathers came. they were divided by ideological differences. they found common ground in which a plant the seeds of democracy. that is the story of our country. we are naturally divided as a nation but there are moments in our nation's life when we all come together as americans. one of them is when we have the death of a president.
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we don't lose a republican president or a democratic resident. president. it takes us back and we think about that time and we become united as americans. there weren't that many opportunities for us to have these moments of unity which are so needed in our nation. it is interesting that not more was made of this. senator mccain was one of those few americans that we all revered and cherished. he is my example of what it means to be american. we can celebrate in his legacy, the things that we all hold dear as american values. we talked about the passing of george h.w. bush. he came very close to death in the past several years. this man is a beacon of character at a time when we need humility.
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peoplehat these represent and with his people is by to be as americans that we celebrate around the passing of these people. >> we were talking yesterday about this, it is like america's mom had passed. about who shecing was. tell us your first impressions about a first lady's funeral versus a president's. what does a first lady mead was at a time like that? >> she was like a mother and a grandmother to the nation. she left an imprint through her example, someone who loved her husband, her family and her country. she really lived her life so openly and with such great joy. things, a of those
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mother, wife and first lady of our nation. i think she was a very gracious second lady. in the shadow of mrs. reagan. they could not have been very easy. the whiteed over house with such joy and one of the things that she said to her staff, people knew this about her when she became first lady. she gathered her staff together and said i want to do something that helps an american every single day. that is quite a charge to get to the staff. that is what they set about doing. had she had another four years or he had another four years, who knows what that could have been? i think the post presidency too, both of them, her life with him after, i think that was again a great example that continued to endear her to the country. i think there is something too regardless what you might feel about george w. bush, this
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family, father and son, lived lived through each other's presidencies and those two first ladies had that opportunity to, you know, help each other. laura bush said i learned a lot about being first lady from my mother-in-law. what a great example. no other first lady has had that. because as al gore knows back there about the adams, louisa adams did not have her mother-in-law to ask questions about being first lady. it was just so different. barbara bush left an imprint just by the sheer force of her personality and her character. of course jon meachum who spoke , earlier today on the presidents and the press panel of course is the only person in america other than barbara bush who has read her full diaries. she kept incredible diaries.
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mrs. johnson kept incredible diaries. as we know jon was eulogy atst -- gave a her funeral. she could slice and dyes too and , people likedice that about her personality. >> we had george w. bush around the library around the 50thanniversary of the passage of the civil rights. we were in the great hall and the presidential seal was etched in marble. around the perimeter of the hall are portraits of all of our presidents and first ladies. barbara bush was infamously known among the family ranks as the enforcer. george w. bush looked at the portrait and leaned over to me and said if you look carefully you can see her eyes move. [ laughter ] and i was relieved at
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the funeral that it was so short. that's what she would want. >> she planned it. >> she absolutely planned it meticulously that way. and i'll never forget, it was a couple years before her death, the bushes asked me to did a fundraiser in the public library. and the evening before we had dinner, my wife and i had dinner with the bushes, and i walked her to her car, the bushes came in separate cars. as she was getting into the car, she said george and i are many coming tomorrow. i said i'm honored. she said tell me about the format. what are you doing? i said i'll speak about 40 minutes and take ten minutes of questions. as she was going to the car she said make it a half hour, no questions. [laughter] >> well, we talked about presidents and first ladies and their roles. but we have 45 descendants that have been with us this week going back to james
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>>ta weir talked about the first ladies and their roles. 45 people who have been with us this week, going back to descendants of james monroe who are here this week. presidential ut amilies' descendants, in keep keeping the legacy. > it's a huge factor, and i think we heard that through the panels and summit this week. heard it even at the philanthropy meeting, where people have that buy in and feel connected. feel connectedan
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to the human side of the person their being honored with name on the building is important, and passing these stories along is so important. struck this week, too, susan ford is here. panel.s on our he's always terrific about representing her parents' legacy. he brought her daughter with er time because she wants her daughter to now take up this uccession planning for passing on the legacy. and the ancestors who have had the incredible role of leading country. think it's hugely important. >> yeah, i think that's right. though, t's important, not to direct, and i talked to eorge h.w. bush, he said we're
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not trying to build the legacy. we'll let historians decide what be. legacy should that's advisable for family members, too. fortunate of t working with linda, lucy, the daughters on projects -- ted to the presidential the lbj presidential libraries. handed.en't heavy they trust the historians will get it right. been difficult to see their father so defined by vietnam for so long. hen president johnson was in office in 1968, both of the johnson daughters were living with the white house roof their parents, and both of their husbands were in vietnam. husbands were putting their lives on the line in of the decisions their commander-in-chief, their ather-in-law, and they are hearing protestors outside the hite house gate chanting, hey, hey, lbj, how many kids did you
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kill today? could see him striving for peace and knew how painful this was for him. i really admire their not being heavy handed in terms of trying legacy but at letting history sort it out and it has. have s been special to this week integrated into our programs and how special was it last night at the kennedy center have john tyler there, the grandson of john tyler. ot the great grandson, or the great-great grandson, the grandson. spanning over 200 years of merican history in three generations. you just feel like you're seeing through the window into american history. they playing?re >> a big part of what we do, education related. teaching and telling stories of white house history. george ck to 1792, when
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washington selected this piece of land just two blocks from where we are right now. young irish architect that designed the white house. we have these institutions and presidential ites, libraries, to develop education programs that unpack and tell the story. let's talk a little bit about importance of the education process, connecting with the next generation, which did not these men and women as a living president. how do you put those programs how do you do your outreach to take legacy and take to students of all ages? >> well, you know, here's one thing i would like to add. this rse, i know, afternoon, our next panel at the civic education civiche role played by the net important. i think our kids in middle
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chool, i still have school age kids, middle school and high school kids aren't getting the that we of lessons were getting on the blackboard. different.le so i think that there are many opportunities, particularly, all the sites, the ceremony, the lincoln memorial, when we brought the three actors "hammelle" to the stage, not to sing and dance but say, how do you feel about bringole that you have to history to life in a way that's and really, what responsibility they have to educate our young people. really pleased to hear that ay the partnership they have with the institute in and ork on middle school high school education around
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figures.unding father to really explore the courage, took to fice, that it found the nation. so i was very encouraged by that. we've tried to really tell that message throughout our summit this week, but the libraries, with the rich material that they have. archives. the papers. the artifacts. one of the earlier panels said thing, i think allen on philanthropy panel said, it's one thing to have the artifacts. t's the stories you have to tell and how do you tell them and keep telling them, to keep people engaged? i work at a university. people at universities, every class of ave a new students that comes in, you now, freshmen, you realize, okay, this is sort of the next group that you have to teach it might or whatever be because now they were two
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when 9/11 happened, so what do they know? what's their frame of reference? they don't. the president had to deal with those decisions, how the forever.changed but you feel this obligation when you're around young people, constantly, educating them about history. >> i know this is the very of preaching to the choir but that's what do you is so vitally important. an education gap in this country. kids don't care about civics, them -- u can get engaged on stories about the president, i'm looking at joe donna russo, gerald ford, typical, you know, michigan kid, president of the
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united states, and does something to heal the nation at our y perilous time in history. they will start to get interested this civics, and can only make at us a stronger country. > i think we have time for three questions. there is a microphone right here ut i would like to begin by inviting steven -- from the ennedy foundation to the microphone. one of the great privileges of my professional career was to the ronald reagan centennial celebration in 2011. not because i thought he was a reat president or not necessarily because of what he meant to me but it was an opportunity to take the life, the legacy of and the 40th president of the united states, and to share that with next generation that did not as a living president, partnerships and clab races with eureka college. illinois, school in nd with other sports teams and
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high schools and to teach the stories about this man. that was in 2011. was the i believe, kennedy centennial, and they also did an extraordinary job of reaching across the country. i would love for you to talk a little bit about that, in terms legacy of a president and taking an occasion, a the moration, like centennial and sharing that president in new and fresh ways with the country. >> thank you very much. you were talking about the pastime of a president or first lady, that we come it, your and think about know, today, 80% of the people in the united states were born kennedy administration. 80%. so it's those folks, we're connect with, so the first thing i did to be honest out ead the report you put about legg, learned all the great ideas. it's thinking about partnerships. over 200 partnership arrangements with museums and organizations. 896 places in the
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world named after john kennedy and we reached out to them from to new york enter airport and things like that. really not just telling the history but why is it relevant today? we use this expression of of onnaries never go out style. when you think about world peace corps ea of is just as relevant today. talk about commemoration, next year we as a country will be 50th anniversary of landing on the moon and today we think about big ideas. we think about big idea, whether it's in your company or organization you call it a moon shot. literally was the first moon shott it's a way to think about brings it that together. not that he did everything right. e made his series of mistakes but looking at those key points commemoration, like a centennial or next year's celebration of landing on the moon. so thanks again for all of your leadership. example. >> thank you very much. anybody else have a question to group?ith the
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>> well, while we're waiting if there is anyone else who has a question, i'll going to put hese guys on the spot really quickly. other than the presidents that you've worked with or represent give me your two favorite presidents and first ladies, if you would like to have dinner would you onight who like to have dinner with? >> well, i'm going to steal this mark but i think almost everybody in the room would say lincoln. i would absolutely love that opportunity, and also, you know, i would love to talk to martha washington. i know love to know what it was person to the first have to do this job and really of the responsibility setting the precedent, to be the even lady of the nation though it wasn't called that at the time, of course. i would ld really -- love to meet the trumans. by this cross country trip that they did in their car, in the just like that,
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like mom paul kettle. i was living in the white house and now i'm going to every motel 6 that exists. that's so american. cool and decent people. to drive it. going >> steve represents the kennedy going to well so i'm borrow from john f. if kennedy, when he was with a noble lawyer rest, i elieve, in the white house, there have been so many great minds here since thomas jefferson died. i would forego all, just to have abraham lincoln, but i would dolley madison to host it. >> yes. > going back to the trumans, ast what anita said, there is great story about harry truman who goes bounding with his driver/bodyguard mike westwood from independence to
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jefferson city for a meeting. seat uman is in the front nd he spies this woman whose pigs have gotten loose and they are running all around. truman demands that westwood stop the car and truman hops out her to corral these pigs. of this r gets wind when truman, you know, arrives jefferson ination in city. they ask him if it's true, he said, yeah, of course it's true, a farmer er, i was before i was president. earth.o down to >> american. >> yeah. trying to tie into your mark, and i appreciate the gerald ford story. we did a year gs ago was to come up with the idea story, president ford's standing up for diversity in his senior year at university of
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michigan, where his traveling room mate, because of the color play on in, couldn't that football team. a historical group, put this pbs thing together and students would fall asleep, you he said, let's turn it into a play. 40-minute it into a play. half my board was ready to lynch i doing?am thewe did 10 productions of play in february. we've got -- we've got waiting lists of schools that want us to go in and do this play but it's a 40-minute play talking about locker t ford in the room with his traveling roommate, willis ward, talking that why he can't go on football team. so i think, i just wanted to share that. we need to make these stories relevant to our audience, and i discussed, and that's the way to do it is to iconic, and that's make it in a format that we want
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to do. i appreciate you highlighting that, mark. really creative. >> one thing i want -- that is a to mind in that way new tool that we have at the white house historical ssociation in partnership with services. it is a white house tour app. search white house experience. takes you on a virtual tour through the public rooms, estate rooms in the white the nonpublic s historic rooms but eventually we it teach rhaps have the stories of what the white house was like at different presidencies, t like you represent, and tell other stories and teach other aspects of white house history, in the meantime, we would love for those watching by to an and those of you here download that app and explore the white house with us. all ofeally grateful for you, and you're on the tip of
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out thereof the spear in american history, and white ntial history, and house history, and it's been inspirational to us this week to have you here and we look with you working collaboratively moving forward. this to be an every four-year or two-year experience. we want to be arm in arm and tell these great stories of great men and women who have led our country and prepare the next generation who will be leading it in the future. thank you all very much. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp 2018] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] american history tv is in rimetime next week on c-span 3 starting monday at 8:00 p.m. eastern. a discussion on the role of in the south who
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fought against school segregation with emory professor walker. symposium on the consent of liberty, how freedom, law and liberty have changed history.t wednesday, on "oral histories," our women in congress series former s with congresswoman lynn woolsey and nancy johnson. historians look at the role of espionage in u.s. past century the and a half, and on friday, on america," the world war ii film series why we fight about the outbreak of world war ii, to harbor and the rise of authoritarianism in germany, japan.nd watch american history tv next primetime on c-span 3. history tv's ican real america brings you archival films that provide context for
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today's public affairs issues. challenges in france were monumental. e had the task of shaping and training an army force which in expand to a half to two million men. would expand to two million men. three qualities victory.ssary for a an offensive spirit. mobility on the battlefield, and effective use of individual weapons. he trained his growing army in these principles despite the system of trench
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defense which had been paralyzed. [gun sounds] wasarshall decided the time right for one grade coordinated defensive. was tos first assignment be the reduction of -- a projection 16 miles into the the dunn whichow the germans had held for four years and which hampered lateral along the ons battleground. the offensive, which began -- the first operation in the out by a complete american army. under the independent control of general peshing. it was a striking success.
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in two days, they took it. this and other american history programs on our website where all of our video archived. that's >> this weekend, american cable tv is joining our partners to showcase the history of lake charles, louisiana. you learn more about the cities current tour, visit online. e continue with a look at the history of lake charles. a very unusual town in the sense of the south. of unusual in the sense louisiana. it is not -- it doesn't have a plantation economy. have a civil war issue that has to drag along with it and it's a town that's reinvented itself a number of
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times to make it work. >> while in lake charles, we driving tour of the city, lake charles author adlai cormier. >> tell me a little bit about your tie. from here originally. >> i wasn't born here. i've been here for 45 years, time. is a pretty long i'm a native of eastern louisiana. i came here to work for the department of labor. that, i had to learn the community, had to learn the history, andarn the with the history background from in you become interested where you are. > i can't wait to hear all about the history of lake charles. tell me about the city today. >> lake charles is in southwest, louisiana, about 30 miles from he gulf and the great state of texas. it's a town that's sort of on the cusp. french cusp of louisiana, english louisiana, louisiana. t's sort of population of
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80,000. collar nally, a blue town. petro chemical and railroads to what we find now hich is a wonderful mixed economy, that includes a fair amount of gaming and recreation as well as blue collar. should we see? >> let's see it. the corner of louisiana was no man's land. it wasn't part of the louisiana urchase so for 50 or 60 years this no man's land served as a united states the and the umpire of spain. that meant this was an area as ahad quite a bit of use refuge for scandals and pirates. e knew most of the early settlers in lake charles. >> what year are we talking about? >> we're talking about the late s, early 1800s, 1803 to 1820.
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that's the period in which -- he was responsible for about 25% of in the lower mississippi valley. it was his black market. e would relocate people for money. he dealt with all sorts of commodities. it wasn't just the gold and silver. talking about johnny depp here. lakeshore drive converting into shelby drive. we're seeing actual lake charles? >> you're actually seeing the lake. namesake.s of course, like charles's name, one of those people who was to this area, probably by jean le feet. french rong side in the revolution and had to escape to europe and came west. ushed further west than louisiana, and then settled along the bodies of this particular shore. other side of the lake you can see the working side but on this side, there were workers as well. i'm seeing refineries and
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petroleum. >> we have a huge refining industry two major oil refineries. the philip 66 refinery and the refinery are both located here, and they are among the top 10 refineries in the united states. >> is that the city's biggest economic driver? >> the biggest economic driver casinos, in terms of actual payroll. >> so we can get a glimpse of bridge?t by the >> out by the bridge. there is one casino out there. casinos, golden ugget and a second one, are sited on the property. they are a billion dollar investment in southwest part of what moves the economy now. we're moving from a blue collar chemical to tro essentially a more mixed economy hat includes a lot of resort and hospitality industry. and now we're seeing a little -- river. it's the lifeblood of the area. the port to exist.
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it provides for recreational and down., up >> let me ask about the relationship here with the with particularly weather. i mean, we know a lot about iuisiana, getting hurricanes, mean, are these buildings just up?sed >> we're actually designing buildings to be much sturdier they were before, and so houses that have withstood ecades of existence are doing fine. the thing is, new construction has to meet the requirements of fema. ow this body of water is tidally effective and storm surge comes right up to this ody of water, so we do get flooding, you know, periodically. >> what really affects live down here? thing that people can't notice as they are watching, it's hot and >> it is very hot and humid. degree days hundred a will occasionally have
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hundred percent humidity. >> so it's tied as one of the most humid cities in america? your life of design to live inside during the summer and outside during the other seasons. we're on ryan street named for jacob ryan who laid out the city lake charles. and it also connects north lake charles.and south lake it's the main drag of the city. >> tell me, what would this have ooked like early on in the city's history and how has it evolved? been ly on, it would have essentially a wooden fronted buildings, sort of like a wild town. acked closely in, and built of ine and cyprus, rich in turpentine. it was such a city in 1910, the demolished most of lake charles leaving us with several souvenirs of the great fire in the rebuilding including 1911 city hall and the
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wonderful courthouse. really o buildings are wonderful pieces of architecture that remind us that you've got well, build strong, and billed for the future and that's what they most of lake charles fell victim 1970s, renewal in the these parking lots were put in. 2018, do you see, there has been maybe one all of.on renewal of this i mean, it's now a fairly with street scape wonderful additions. additions, sidewalks, cables, and all the other stuff that's been added to enhance the downtown a erience, and it's sort of mecca for entertainment, music, energy is eneurial being spent downtown and we're andg to stay on ryan street
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go right to the river. we'll see how close lake charles we're he wilderness, going into the industrial part of lake charles. all of these vacant lots here have been covered with saw shops andconstruction mill work fabricators and that sort of thing, using the lumber harvested have been along the river. you can actually see we're going river.closer to the and you can see the trees that lined both sides of the river. >> and you're seeing that morphing, that you typically associate with louisiana. >> right. follow we're going to the river, this is their double loop of the river. --s is north >> we're on the river. there is no guard rail. you're in the water. and this is what, on the bank, this is what the early settlers would have seen then, in river back the


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