Skip to main content

tv   Reel America AHTV - War Comes to America 1945  CSPAN  September 21, 2018 10:50pm-12:02am EDT

10:50 pm
of american life. culture, politics, and, in ways you detected, the ways journalists interact with this ongoing story. next, on american history tv, another film from the why we fight serious. in war comes to america, filmmakers take a look at isolationists and americans reluctance to join the war effort before the attack on pearl harbor in 1941.
10:51 pm
♪ ♪ ♪ >> i pledge allegiance to the flag of the united states of america. and to the republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
10:52 pm
>> in the jungles of new guinea -- on the barren shores of the aleutians. in the tropic heat of the pacific islands. in the subzero cold of the skies over germany. in burma and iceland. the philippines and iran. france. in china and italy. americans, fighting. fighting over a maze extending 7/8 of the way around the world. men from the green hills of new
10:53 pm
england, the sunbaked plains of the middle west, the cotton fields of the south. the close packed streets of manhattan, chicago. the teeming factories of detroit, los angeles. the endless stretching distances of the southwest. men's from the hills and the planes. from the villages and from the cities. bookkeepers. soda jerks. mechanics. college students. rich man. poor man. bigger man. thief. doctor. lawyer. merchant. chief. now fighting men. yet two years ago, many had never fired a gun or seen the ocean or been off the ground. americans, fighting for their country while half a world away from it. fighting for their country and more than their country.
10:54 pm
fighting for an idea. without the idea, the country might have remained only a wilderness. without the country, the idea might have remained only a dream. over this ocean, 1607, jamestown. 1620, plymouth rock. here was america. the sea. the sky. the virgin continent. we came in search of freedom, facing unknown dangers, rather than bend the knee or bow to tyranny. out of the native oak and pine, we built a house. a church. a watchtower. we cleared a field and there grew up a colony of free citizens.
10:55 pm
we carved new states out of the green wilderness. virginia, massachusetts, rhode island, carolina. then came the first test in the defense of that liberty. 1775, lexington. our leaders spoke our deepest needs. colonists bound by the law of nature, freeborn, as indeed all men are. it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it and to institute new government. these are the times that pine men's souls. as for me, give me liberty or give me death. in the midst of battle, it happened. the idea grew. the idea took form. something new was expressed by men. a new and revolutionary doctrine. the greatest creative force --
10:56 pm
all men are created equal. all men are entitled to the blessings of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. that is the goal we set for ourselves. defeat meant nothing. victory meant a world in which americans rule themselves. 1777, valley forge. we fought and froze. suffered and died. for what? for the future freedom of all americans. a few of us were in despair. most of us prayed and endured all. 1781. yorketown. now we were a free, independent nation. the ideas first tested, now to pass on to future americans. the constitution. the sacred charter of we the people.
10:57 pm
the blood and sweat of we the people. the life, liberty and happiness of we the people. not the best people or the worst. not the rich people or the poor, but we the people. all the people. in this brotherhood, america was born. one nation. indivisible. with liberty and justice for all. we pushed across the alleghenies. the ohio river. the mississippi. the last far range of the distant rockies. we carried freedom with us. no aristocratic classes here. no kings, no nobles or princes. no state church. no courts. no parasites. no divine right of man to rule man. here, humanity was making a
10:58 pm
clean, fresh start from scratch. behind us, we left new states. chips off the old block -- >> ♪ sweet land of liberty, of the icing ♪ ♪land of the pilgrim's pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring. ♪ >> until finally, we were one nation. a land of hope and opportunity that had risen out of a skeptical world. a light was shining. freedoms light. every country and every time men saw that light and turned their faces toward it. give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free.
10:59 pm
the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. send these, the homeless, tempest tossed to me. i left my lamp beside the golden door. as strangers to one another we came and built a country. and the country built us into americans. the sweat of men from all nations was poured out to build a new. the english, the scotch, the dutch, building the workshop of new england. of the italian and the sulfur mines of louisiana. of the frenchmen and the swiss in the vineyards of california and new york state. of the dane, the norwegian, the swede. seating the good earth, to make the midwest bloom with grain. of the polls and the welsh, of the [null] harvesting cotton in the hot southern son.
11:00 pm
of the spaniard. of the mexican. the oil fields of texas and the ranches of new mexico. of the greek and the portuguese, harvesting the crop the ocean yields. of the german, with his technical skill. of the hungarian and the russian. of the irishmen. the slav and the chinese, working side-by-side. the sweat of americans. and a great nation was built. ♪ ♪
11:01 pm
♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
11:02 pm
>> yes, the sweat of the men of all nations built america. and the blood. for the blood of american has been freely shed. five times in our history have we withstood the challenge to the idea that made our nation. the idea of equality for all men. life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. the ideas that made us the people we are. let's take a look at ourselves before we went into this war. >> well, first of all, we are a working people. on the land, at the workbench, at a desk. and we are and inventive people. the lightning rod, the cotton gin, the telegraph, the anesthesia of ether, the rotary printing press, the telephone, electric welding, the incandescent lamp, the submarine, the steam turbine,
11:03 pm
the motor driven airplane. the x-ray tube, the gyroscope compass, the sewing machine, television. all these and countless more bear witness to our inventiveness. and this inventiveness and enterprise, plus the hard-won democratic ideal of the greatest good, created for the average man, the highest standard of living in the world. 32.5 million registered automobiles. two thirds of all the automobiles there are in the entire world. we demand high standards of sanitation, food and medical care. our hospitals are models for the world. we want the best for the average man, woman, or child. we have reduced the hazard of being born. from then on, we protect,
11:04 pm
prosper, and send on the majority of our children. they go to school. all kinds of schools. kindergarten. public schools. trade schools. high schools. there are 25,000 high schools. and to college. in the last war, 20% of all the men in the armed forces had been to high school or college. in this war, 63%. we are a great two weeks vacation people. we hunt and we fish. up north, down south, back east, out west. when the season opens, we hunt and fish. we are a sports loving people.
11:05 pm
♪ ♪ >> and we are probably the most traveling nation and world history. we love to go places. we have the car, we have the road, we have scenery. we don't need passports. we sleep by the road and eat by the road.
11:06 pm
the world is enchanted and amazed by what we like to put in our stomachs. ♪ ♪ ♪ >> and we are a great joining people. we join clubs, fraternities, unions, federations. shove a blank at us, we will sign up. radios -- we have one in the living room, the dining room, the bedroom, the bathroom, in our cars, in our hands and up
11:07 pm
our sleeves. >> does your cigarette taste different lately? >> music, we couldn't be without it. ♪ ♪ ♪ >> the press, yes it is the biggest, the most important, and the freest on earth. over 12,000 newspapers. books on every conceivable subject.
11:08 pm
and more than 6000 different magazines, not counting the comics. churches, we have every denomination on earth. 60 million of us regularly attend and no one dare tell us which one to go to. we elect our own neighbors to govern us. we believe in individual enterprise and activities for men and women alike. we make mistakes. we see the results. we correct the mistakes. we skyrocket into false prosperity's and then plummet down into needless depressions. but in spite of everything, we never lose our faith in the future. we believe in the future. we build for the future. >> yes, we build. and the future always catches
11:09 pm
up with us. before we are done building, we develop something new and have to start rebuilding. that is the kind of people we are. boastful, easy-going, sentimental, but underneath, passionately dedicated to the ideal our forefathers passed on. the liberty and dignity of man. spiritually, we are still in the frontier days. yet deep down within us, there is a great yearning for peace and goodwill toward man. somehow we feel that if men torn -- men turned their minds toward the field of peace, as they have toward transportation, communication, wars would be as old-fashioned as the horse and buggy. in war it is the common man who does the suffering and dying. we bend over backwards to avoid it. but, when our freedoms are endangered, we will fight and
11:10 pm
suffer to the last man. that is the american. that is the way of living for which we fight today. is that fight necessary? did we want war? ♪ >> in 1917, before most of you fighting men were born, our fathers fought the first world war to make the world safe for democracy and the common man. they fought a good fight and they want it. there was to be no more war in their time or their children's time. faithful to our treaty obligations, we destroyed much of our naval tonnage. our army went on a reducing diet until it became little more than a skeleton. for us, europe was far away.
11:11 pm
and as for asia, well, that was really out of this world. everything looked like it was torn from a national geographic. yet in this remote spot in asia, in 1931, while most of you are playing ball in the sand lots, this war started. without warning, japan invaded manchuria. >> once again, men who were peaceful became the slaves of men who were violent. in washington dc, our secretary of state made a pronouncement. >> the american government does not recognize any treaty or agreement brought about by means of aggression. but we the people, having much
11:12 pm
time to think about manchuria. we were wrestling with the worst time in our history. some of us were out of jobs. some of us stood inbred lines. some of us suffered homemade aggression. some of us were choked with dust. some of us had no place to go. two years later, in 1933, while most of you were graduating from high school, we read that a funny little man called hitler had come into power in germany. ♪ >> we heard that a thing called the nazi party had taken over. the day -- today we rule
11:13 pm
germany, tomorrow the world. what kind of talk is that? it must be only hot air. in 1935, about the time you had your first date, we read that mussolini had attacked far off ethiopia. the disease seemed to be spreading, so congress assembled to insulate us against the growing friction of war. >> we want no war. we have no war, save in defense of our own people. >> toward this end, our chosen representatives past the neutrality act. no nation at war could buy a manufactured arms or munitions from the united states.
11:14 pm
1936, when you were running around in jalopy's, we were disturbed by news from spain. in our newsreels, we saw german and italian air forces and armies fighting in spain and wondered what they were doing there. for the first time, we saw great cities squashed flat. civilians bombed and killed. ♪
11:15 pm
in november, 1936, the american institute of public opinion, known as the gallup poll, asked a representative cross-section of the american people, if another war develops in europe, should america take part again? no, 95%. we the people had spoken. 19 out of 20 of us said, include us out. to further insulate ourselves, we added the cash and carry amendment to the neutrality act. not only wouldn't we sell munitions, but we would not sell anything at all, not even a spool of thread, unless warring powers sent their own ships and paid cash on the line. in 1937, the press services received a flash from asia.
11:16 pm
yes, asia was turned into a slaughterhouse. for us, asia was still far away. in september, 1937, the gallup poll asked us, in the present fight between japan and china, are your sympathies with either side? we answered, china, 43%. japan, 2%. undecided, 55%. we had not made up our minds about china. our utility act brought sales of iron two countries at war. japan had not declared war, so we went on selling scrap iron to japan. hitler had not declared war either, but his armies suddenly
11:17 pm
occupied austria. six months later, hitler and his stooge met the anxious democracies at munich. hitler promised peace if britain and france would give him that part of czechoslovakia known as the sudeten land. britain and france gave him that part of czechoslovakia, hoping to avert war. now he had his word. peace in our time. at home, we began to read the strange headlines. >> extra, extra. read all about it. nazi spy gang captured. >> we sat in our theaters unbelieving, as motion pictures exposed nazi espionage in america. >> we must destroy the chain that ties the whole misery of
11:18 pm
american politics together and that jane is the united states constitution. >> could these things really be? yes, these subversive acts were happening in real life, every day. german-americans organized for the purpose of destroying us marched under our very noses. >> i pledge undivided allegiance . allegiance to the flag of the united states of america. and the republic for which it stands. one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. >> in our press, we read the news from abroad.
11:19 pm
the nazis were spending millions, arming germany to the teeth. we read that tokyo was appropriating tremendous sums, converting japan into one fast munitions plant. -- one vast munitions plant. we watched these nations spend huge sums on armament and we wondered why. arrogantly, they told us why. they declared war on us before the shooting started. >> we have declared war against the democratic world. the germans are a noble and unique race to whom the earth was given by the grace of god.
11:20 pm
>> the world must come to look up to our emperor as the greatest ruler of all nations. >> when the people of these three nations elected to follow their leaders, death inc. they organized to smash personal freedom. equality of man. freedom of speech. freedom of religion. organized to smash the very principles which made us who we are. so, in december, 1938 when the gallup poll asked us, should the united states increase the strength of its army, navy and air force? we answered yes, 85%.
11:21 pm
it was time to look to our defense. >> gentlemen, this is the committee of the united states house of representatives, meeting for the purpose of considering national defense. >> the navy is asking for an increase of 25% and authorized naval tonnage, in view of the grave, international situation. >> congress, reflecting the voice of the people, awarded the largest sums ever awarded in military history. we didn't realize a few months later it would look like peanuts. on march 14, 1939, adolf hitler broke the pledge he made in munich. he took over the rest of czechoslovakia. there would be no more peace in our time. april 7, 1939. as we in america observed good friday --
11:22 pm
>> mussolini invades albania. extra paper, extra paper. >> the picture was becoming clear. the conquering forces of violence were being sent -- being set loose in the world. in a last, desperate effort to avert a world war, president roosevelt sent messages to hitler and mussolini, asking their promise to respect the independence of the remaining 33 countries. to adolf hitler, this message was a huge joke, as he repeated the names. >> portugal, luxembourg --
11:23 pm
>> this was the only answer the president received. on september 1, 1939, the nazi army smashed into poland. >> england and france had a treaty with poland. would the act now?
11:24 pm
at home, we listened in suspense. >> adolf hitler's attack on poland -- prime minister chamberlain gave the nazi dictator a zero hour to withdraw his armies from poland. that zero hour ins now. >> up to the very last, it would have been quite possible to arrange a peaceful and honorable settlement between germany and england, but heller would not have it. it is a situation in which no word given by germany's ruler could be trusted. no people or country could feel safe. it has become intolerable. now, may god bless you all and may he defend the right. it is evil things we are fighting against them -- fighting against, and it is
11:25 pm
against them i am certain we will prevail. >> the republic has fallen. the line has already opened fire on the germans. a sparring offensive. world war ii has begun. >> at home, we were asked, what country do you consider responsible for causing this war? germany, 82%. we americans had no doubt who started it. also we began to fear this war was going to concern us. president roosevelt called a special section of congress to reconsider the embargo against selling munitions. >> i have asked the congress to reassemble in an extraordinary session, in order that it may
11:26 pm
consider and act on changes in our neutrality law. >> the men in congress wrestled with their beliefs. they debated and they argued. >> the arms embargo is far too great a security to american piece to permit its surrender without a last-ditch fight. >> the embargo act, as it now stands, is one-sided and works entirely to the advantage of one side. therefore, the embargo act should be modified. >> we the people also debated and argued whether we should sell arms and munitions. when the question was put to us, we had an answer. should we change the neutrality act so we can sell war supplies? yes, 57%. shortly after, our representatives changed the neutrality act. we lifted the embargo on arms and munitions. now we would sell, if purchasers would pay and take the stuff away in their own ships. american ships were still
11:27 pm
barred from combat zones. meanwhile, on the other side of the world, japan was busy trying to bomb, shoot and terrorize the chinese into submission. we began to realize that if japan conquered 400 million chinese, she might become so strong as to run us right out of the pacific. you will remember that two years earlier, in september, 1937, when we were asked in the present fight between japan and china, are your sympathies with either side? only 43% voted china. most of us were undecided. in june, 1939, when we were asked the same question, 74% said we were with china. now our minds were made up. when we loaded japanese ships, citizens protested.
11:28 pm
let's let mister acheson, secretary of state, tell us the story. >> the restrictions of exports to japan took the form of embargoes of airplanes and direct munitions. then congress passed the export control act. it -- and cutoffs of other strategic items followed. exports were limited. it was a responsibility. on one side was the possibility, in fact, probability, that one day these materials might be used against us. on the other side was the possibility, in fact, probability, that to cut them off would provoke an attack, which we were not then prepared to resist. finally, in the summer of 1941,
11:29 pm
as it became clear that japan was turning her back upon every possibility of reconciliation and adjustment and was determined upon her great gamble of conquest, all exports ceased. >> the leaders of nazi germany shifted their war machine into high gear. they overran denmark and smashed into norway. on may 10, 1940, they entered holland and germany. >> the nazi army is marching ahead. all roads are choked with slow moving masses of refugees. dive bombers are strafing and bombing thousands of helpless women and children. >> good evening everybody. tonight it seems fairly apparent that the first great phase of the war in the west has been won by germany. the army of the french and british has made a valiant effort in its effort to retreat
11:30 pm
to dunkirk, where -- >> adolf hitler's mechanized forces are racing towards paris as french resistance collapses. >> on this 10th day of june, 1940, the hand that held the dagger has struck it into the back of its neighbor. >> this is william -- speaking from the forest where adolf hitler is handing his armistice terms to france. adolf hitler strides slowly toward the clearing. i can see his face. gray, sullen, and brimming with revenge. off to one side, a large statue. hitler does not appear to see it. now we see the french walking
11:31 pm
down the avenue. hitler and the other german leaders rise as he enters. the general reads the preamble to the german armistice terms. the whole ceremony is over in a quarter of an hour. >> ♪ the heart was warm and gay, i heard the laughter in every sweet cafi. ♪ ♪i left my heart in paris ♪i dodge the same old taxicabs, that i had dodged four years ♪ ♪the squeaky tires was music to my ears ♪ ♪the last sign -- the last
11:32 pm
time i saw paris, her heart was warm and gay ♪ ♪no matter how they try, i will remember her ♪ >> conquering armies now stood on the shores of the atlantic. >> fire. >> the danger was suddenly close. countries had possessions outside of europe. some of these possessions are in america. with the french naval units -- would they sees the french naval base or invade south
11:33 pm
america? already in brazil, there were over 1 million germans who lived exactly as they did in germany. 1200 german schools with nazi textbooks and nazi teachers. nazi newspapers. also in brazil, there were 260,000 japanese taking order days taking orders from japan. german airlines had been established. german pilots were reserve officers. the planes had bomb racks already put in. in argentina, german athletic clubs had been organized exclusively for germans. here was a fifth column, ready to take over. in havana, we met with 20 other american republics.
11:34 pm
>> there must not be a shadow of a doubt anywhere, as to the determination of the american nations not to permit the invasion of their hemisphere by the armed forces of any power or any possible combination of powers. >> 20 american nations stood firm. the americas would not allow any european colony in this hemisphere to be transferred to a non-american power. we said keep out. we meant it. >> we must increase production facilities for everything needed for the army, navy, for national defense. i believe that this nation should the plan at this time, a program that will provide us with 50,000 military and naval planes. >> to protect our shores, we authorized construction of the
11:35 pm
greatest navy the world had ever known. at least it would be, when completed in 1944. in 1940, it was only a paper navy. our fighting forces consisted of 180,000 men, a navy of 120,000, and this thought was the air corps. all told, 330,000 men. we had makeshift supplies, makeshift equipment. stovepipes for cannons. bags of flour for bombs. and trucks were labeled as tanks. our infantry had exactly 488 machine guns. we possessed 255 pieces of artillery. 10 light and 18 medium tanks. that was the army of the united states in may, 1940, the month in which the nazis overran france. so we called our minutemen, the
11:36 pm
national guard from 48 states, and placed them into federal service. and most importantly, congress passed the selective service act. for the first time in our history, we began mobilizing an army, while still at peace. >> the first number is serial number 158. >> the second number, which has just been drawn, is 192. ♪
11:37 pm
♪ >> it wasn't too soon. time was running out. the nazis had begun their shattering blitz on britain. >> hello america, this is edward murrow speaking from london. there were more german planes over britain today than any time since the war began. antiaircraft guns were an action along the southeast coast today.
11:38 pm
>> back on main street, usa, daily we followed britain's life struggle. for if britain died, we would be in grave peril. our first line of defense in the atlantic, the british fleet, might go to nazi germany. we would be unprotected. britain must not fall. in our harbors, idle and rocking the ancient destroyers, built for world war i. but this was world war ii. this gave us an idea. 50 tired destroyers were revitalized and transferred to great britain. in return, we acquired further protection of our shores. we obtained a chain of bases stretching from newfoundland. these bases created a wall
11:39 pm
around the caribbean and gave new safety to the panama canal. it was now clear to the aggressors that we were conscious of the threat they represented to our country. the assistant secretary of state will tell us how they got together and tried to scare us off. >> from 1936 on, it became increasingly clear to the world that germany, italy and japan, are pursuing a common pattern of aggression in europe and the far east. on september 27, 1940, these three powers signed the so- called pact of berlin, a treaty of far-reaching alliance. by that treaty, it was provided that the three countries would assist one another with all political, economic and military means when one of the powers was attacked, most
11:40 pm
particularly the use of the word "attacked" by a power not yet involved in the european war or in the chinese-japanese conflict. the last of these provisions was aimed directly at the united states. >> tokyo celebrates. rome cheers. berlin -- it was clear now that the three axis countries definitely stood against us. more anxious than ever, we watched the life-and-death struggle for the progression -- for the possession of the skies over great britain.
11:41 pm
>> despite the propaganda and confusion of recent months, it is now obvious that england is losing the war. >> england will not only survive, england will win. ♪ >> so, when we were asked, should we keep out of the war or aid to britain, even at the risk of war? aid to britain, even at the risk of war, 68%. but the march of conquest of the self termed master races changed our attitude from 1936, when only one out of 20 americans thought we would be
11:42 pm
in war. in 1941, when 14 out of 20 americans were willing to risk war, if war was necessary to ensure the axis' defeat. >> i have asked for funds sufficient to manufacture additional munitions and war supplies of many kinds, to be turned over to those nations which are now in actual war with aggressor nations. our most useful and immediate role is to act as an arsenal for them, as well as ourselves. we shall send, in increasing numbers, ships, planes, tanks, guns. that is our purpose and our plan. >> by an overwhelming majority, congress passed a bill number 1776. another declaration of independence. independence from tyranny, 1941 style.
11:43 pm
on april 6, 1941, the nazi juggernaut overran yugoslavia and greece. on june 22, 1941, the nazis took their longest step toward world conquest. without any declaration of war, they blitzed into russia. we were determined not to let down any nations defending themselves against unprovoked attacks. so we extended land lease to these new victims. now the products of our factories were being unloaded in the ports of great britain. at the red seaports of the british in africa. land lease was being hauled over the burma road. it was piling up in iran and russia.
11:44 pm
why did we supply war materials to the countries defending themselves against axis aggression? was it our natural sympathies for people unwilling to lose their freedom? was it our ancient antagonism to conquerors imposing their will on others by force? yes, partially. principally it was become the american people had become certain they were on the list of free nations to be conquered. >> one of these two worlds must break. >> and we were the leading example of the free world that hitler was committed to breaking asunder. what would have been our defensive position if the aggressors had succeeded in conquering britain, russia and china? >> german conquest in europe and africa would bring all their raw materials, plus their entire industrial development,
11:45 pm
under one control. >> of the 2 billion people in the world, the nazis would rule roughly one quarter. the 500 million people of europe and africa, forced into slavery to labor for germany. german conquest of russia would add vast raw materials to the production facilities of another of the world's industrial areas and another 200 million people would be added to the nazi labor pile. japanese conquest of the orient would pour into their factory the almost unlimited resources of that area. and of the peoples of the earth, 1000 million would come under their rule, slaves to their industrial machine. >> we, in north and south america would be left with the raw materials of 3/10 of the earth's surface, against the
11:46 pm
resources of 7/10. we would have one industrial region against their three industrial regions. we would have one eighth of the world's population against their 7/8. if we, together with the other nations of north and south america could mobilize 30 million fully equipped men, the axis could mobilize 200 million. thus, an axis victory in europe and asia would leave us alone and virtually surrounded, facing enemies 10 times stronger than ourselves. these were the reasons that led us, the american people, to change the neutrality act. to send equipment to russia and china. to make ourselves the arsenal of democracy. these are the reasons the first troops were sent to the atlantic, to occupy new bases
11:47 pm
in greenland and iceland, with the consent of their governments. in our hands, bases of defense. in german hands, bases of offense. the germans opened unrestricted submarine warfare. >> if today the navy should make secure the seas for the delivery of our munitions to great britain, it will render as great a service to our country and to the preservation's of american freedoms, as it has ever rendered and all of its glorious history.
11:48 pm
>> we want those cargoes protected. >> congress repealed the entire neutrality act. we armed our merchants and for the first time, the steamed into combat zones to deliver lend lease. while this was going on in the atlantic, the japanese with an agreement of the government to defeated france, moved in on indochina. there were now only two threats to their plan for conquest of greater east asia. first was their northern neighbor russia. the only military power within striking distance of japan. the nazis were taking care of
11:49 pm
russia. the second threat to japanese conquest was us. expansion was too difficult to attempt with our bases still standing in the philippines and our supply lines open in midway and hawaii. we were in their way. we had to be removed, but in the japanese way. after washington went a special ambassador on what the japanese said was a mission of peace. but carefully synchronized with this departure was the departure of a task force, not on a mission of peace. on november 14, the ambassador arrived in san francisco, smiling and singing the old song of japanese friendship. >> the japanese are a peace loving people. we are devoted to the establishment of peace. >> our refusal to sell them oil and scrap was refusing -- was interfering with that establishment.
11:50 pm
it was an interruption to the establishment of that piece. all they wanted was peace. on november 17, mister curagao and the japanese ambassador were received by the president in the presence of the secretary of state. it quickly became clear that the japanese had brought no new proposals and the japanese intended to continue their campaign to conquer china and all east asia. however, on november 26, our secretary of state presented the basis for a peaceful agreement between the two nations. the proposal was forwarded to tokyo. they had to stall for time, but only a short time. the task force was nearing its goal. sunday, december 7, 1941.
11:51 pm
1:00 p.m., eastern standard time. the japanese emissaries are expected at the state department to keep a 1:00 appointment they had requested to present their answers to our proposals. 1:05 pm, japanese planes are approaching hawaii. 1:10 pm, the japanese emissaries telephone to postpone their appointment until 1:45 pm. 1:20 pm.
11:52 pm
11:53 pm
2:00 p.m., the japanese envoys arrive at the state department. 2:20 pm. japanese planes had been sowing death and destruction for an hour on an american outpost in the pacific, when the japanese envoys presented a memorandum. >> here is the memorandum presented to me. as you can see, it is quite a lengthy document. i read it, discovering that it contained a recital of
11:54 pm
monstrous accusations against the united states, charging it, among other things, with "scheming for the extension of the war, preparing to attack germany and italy, to powers trying to establish a new order." and, ignoring japan's sacrifices. menacing the empire's existence itself and disparaging it. after reading the note, i said to the japanese emissaries, i have never seen a document that was more grounded with infamous falsehood and distortion on a scale so huge. i never imagined that any government on this planet was capable of this.
11:55 pm
♪ >> i ask that the congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by japan on sunday, december 7, 1941, a state of war has existed between the united states and the japanese empire.
11:56 pm
♪ on newsmakers this weekend, our guest is charlie kelly, executive director of the house majority pack which is working to help democrats gain control of the house. he talks about the strategy, heading into the midterm. watch the interview sunday on c- span. the c-span buses traveling across the country on our 50 capitals tour. we recently stopped in des moines, iowa. looking forward to the midterm elections, we are asking which party should control congress,
11:57 pm
and why? >> i feel the democratic party should control congress next year. i feel with the current administration, it would be a good idea to have a check on that administration. some of the policies that are being done, i don't fully agree with. i am not always going to agree with everything. i just feel that having one party in the position they are right now, is not getting a lot done. it would be best if we did have a check on this current administration. also, i would like to see both parties getting back to some civility. it seems right now all we do is spend time talking or bad mouthing one party or another. it would be wonderful if we could get back to a more workable agreement between the parties.
11:58 pm
>> i personally believe that if the control of congress changes -- you think things are not getting done now, wait until that switches. and there is obstruction. there is vindication. there are recriminations against more and more obstruction. we finally have progress. not all of it is done as gently and sold as well as it should be, but think of what an insult it is to legal immigrants. people who go through all that process. we keep counseling but have done nothing for illegal immigration. we need to address that in a gentle, positive way. it has never been addressed by the democratic party. we are headed for all sorts of landlocked, standstill, big problems, if power changes hands.
11:59 pm
>> sadly, it doesn't matter what party wins, as long as that party does something. progressives lean more toward the democratic side, but if you only want to get in there and argue about getting rid of president trump, that does not solve anything. transbay supports him because he is getting stuff done. that is the point. i am not saying i support the president or anything like that or anybody, it is what are you going to do for us? i think the democrats could get the house and senate back, just to have a stable floor. >> if it changes, we will care about education policy. right now the act is still pending in congress and how title iv funding is affected has a huge impact on our student body.
12:00 am
when we think about the future of education and workforce, let's think very carefully. if we don't provide the right support for our students, they can't be successful in the workforce in the long run. voices from the state, part of c-span's 50 capitals tour. c-span, where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television companies. and today, we continue to bring you unfiltered coverage of congress, the white house, the supreme court and public policy events in washington dc and around the country. c-span is brought to you by your cable or satellite provider.
12:01 am


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on