Skip to main content

tv   History Bookshelf  CSPAN  December 30, 2018 8:00am-8:46am EST

8:00 am
8:01 am
im the curator at the air and space museum and i want to welcome you and send a quick thank you to our sponsor, boeing. of you are all excited as i am, as somebody watches a lot of programs on space, jeffrey kluger is familiar. he is a local who grew up in baltimore and went to the university of maryland. he is the author of multiple books. today, at least in the context of this museum, he is the author of two books that we will bring up. first, a book and 1994, the apollo 13 and today, he will be talking about his new book but also signing the book
8:02 am
afterwards outside the gallery. the book is "apollo 8" please join me in welcoming jeffrey kluger. [applause] book "lostned the moon." what brought you back to that story line, that exciting moment? from my of it came young adult book editor who has a great book of her own now. she and i were having lunch one day, speaking about great yarns that work for kids and adults in the story of apollo eight came up. when the great tale of american history, american space history is written, it will be apollo 8,
8:03 am
11, 13. 13 was the tale of survival. eight was the first time human beings left earth. we have lived for our entire existence as a species at the bottom of the gravity well of earth. managed to haul ourselves out of the earth, get spacecraft around the earth. orbiting the earth is stop paddling in the harbor. for apollo eight, it was the first time we sailed across the deep space, went to another world and for the 24 hours those guys were there, they were creatures of another world. they were moon men. it was a mission that made all of the landings possible. what makes apollo eight
8:04 am
special? apollo 11 was special because of the first step on the moon. apollo eight was a dramatic shift in the plan. talk about what made it so special at that moment in time. know was1968, as we the most bloodsoaked year in modern human history. assassinations, riots in the , the the tet offensive gue, thenvasion of pra world was bleeding from 1000 self-inflicted wounds. in the summer of 1968, a handful of people realized there was a the ship of the space program and is a dividend, read deem the year and the
8:05 am
country. this was one year after the fire. the dream of getting to the moon by 1970 seemed beyond reach. the spacecraft had to be built from the bottom up. the lunar module was hopeless. it was nowhere near ready to make a landing. here we were, 16 months before president candiotti -- kennedy's nasa,ne and the guys from they said, we can fix this module and we can fix this set are in five and do it fast and get our guys trained to and catch a couple of breaks, we can be in orbit in 16 weeks and kickstart this. they did it. >> you mentioned some of the
8:06 am
people who helped make this happen. are they what draw you to these stories? people and you have three characters in your book. tell us about those people. guysey: these the three are bill anders and frank gorman. the factose sight of of how privileged i am to call jim lovell a friend. all three of these guys in some ways represented something and particular about why human beings travel in space and frank gorman and why we do these ambitious things. they all went into it with different motivations.
8:07 am
lovell is never as happy as when he is space and he is never as happy as when he is doing something crazy like flying to the moon. machines,rs adores the way a lunar module worked. he made himself an expert of every little rivet and bolts on the module. this mission he did not get to fly. to him it was taking a machine and making it doing something amazing. frank gorman is and was a patriot. he trained to be a fighter pilot. he joined the air force. he wanted to fight in korea. his country needed him and he was ready to fight. he was grounded for about a year due to a burst eardrum. his window of opportunity passed to fight in korea, and when this opportunity to be an astronaut and fly this improbable mission
8:08 am
was presented to him, he knew this was his chance to fight the very important battle in the cold war, go out, win, and come home. for him it was a mission. all three guys knew about the epic nature of the mission, that this was a mission for the species at large.
8:09 am
they all came to it with different personal agendas. >> that is brought out nicely by their patch, drawing things out, having people go there. lovell and bormann had an interesting connection. it is a unique crew, but in part because they had flown together before. jeffrey: that's right. look at the gemini iv spacecraft. it is basically two coach seats. you are wearing inflatable suits, so your shoulders are touching. the overhead is three inches above your head when the hatch was close. they lived in that spacecraft without ever getting to open the doors for two solid weeks. bormann described it as a fortnight in a men's room. that is how he described it. they joked when they came home. they said maybe we will get married. >> >> they spent so much time together. jeffrey: it was a mission nobody wanted. they did it. they performed it brilliantly. that cohesion what was -- was
8:10 am
what made it work so well. they brought in bill anders, a smart, energetic hotshot in all the right ways. he rounded out that group. >> he didn't get to drive like he hoped that he ended up role.g a substantial he immersed himself in studying the lunar surface. we have a photo, one of the most photos -- famous photos, he has talked about it extensively. these kinds of things, these stories are covered through academic histories, biographies, and earth rise here. what is your take on this flight that is really new to add another voice to that story? what did you learn you can convey in a book that is new for readers?
8:11 am
jeffrey: before i answer that i , want to say this is not by accident this picture is sideways. bill anders insist on rotating it 90 degrees. they were flying around the flank of the moon. the earth rises in a lateral way. the lunar surface was below them, so they saw it right side up, but this is the way it looks in space. what made this a new experience for me, i knew it was going to be thrilling to write everything that happened when they got to the spacecraft. my editor, john sterling, who was my editor when i wrote apollo 13, he said i want those guys in that spacecraft 40% of the way through your book. if you have not got them there by then, cut 10%. he is a smart man. he knows how to pace a book. i worked hard to make that happen. what struck me also was that
8:12 am
window they had to get this mission out of the planning stage and on to the launchpad. it was that monomaniacal focus they showed at nasa, particularly in houston, to get the systems ready, to sell the necessary nasa brass on the idea of doing this. the original subtitle was the "ingenious, outrageous, insane nation saving mission of apollo 8." the marketing crew almost hit me over the head with a newspaper. they said enjoy that, because it will never see print. it did capture the nature of the mission. in, inspired, outrageous, insane. yet, every single person who was brought into the room for these quiet conversations, every higher level of nasa brass who was told we have a way to get to the moon in 16 weeks, they all
8:13 am
said you are out of your mind and it can't be done them and then they listened, and they said, well, i think we can get it done. i think we do have the hardware. we just have to fix it. todo have the manpower sprint to this mission. we certainly have the astronaut personnel. they were great people for this mission, but as chris craft, the director of flight operations, once told me, i asked him what is the best pilot and crew you ever flew, and he said people always ask me that and i always say you think i will make it up but my answer was always it is what ever crew i am flying right now because every crew benefits from what the previous crew did. even if they had not been able to fly, they had these trios of extraordinarily gifted men. they just had to pick the one
8:14 am
right for this mission. >> we saw an image of the launch there. that is what is audacious about what they did. they put people on top of the saturn v all the way to the moon. there had been previous saturn five launches that went all right but not perfect. jeffrey: the first one was perfect. the second one almost shook itself apart getting to orbit. chris craft went out to give his , post-launch press conference and nasa expected him to be politic about it. he had a two sentence statement. he said, this was a disaster. write that down, disaster. there is no way to fix that. and walked out of the room. eight months later they said we will put three guys on top, but it was because they had faith in their ability to sort out the problem, and they did. >> we are talking about technology.
8:15 am
the museum is home to a lot of that technology. apollo 8 is housed in chicago. we have an interesting picture of its arrival there, which everybody will find interesting. when you see these objects, how does that connect your research and what happened? you talk to the people, now you are seeing the technology. talk about your reactions coming to a place where we have that stuff. jeffrey: i was never quite so happy about my schedule this most -- morning as when jennifer told me you have one hour to kill. i said, get the security team and drag me away from the display or what ever else it is. i believe these machines in these museums are powerfully, important for a lot of reasons. i don't think anybody fully
8:16 am
realizes the scale of them and until you are standing next to them. the lunar module is so ugly it is beautiful. it is the perfect machine. i can look at pictures of that all day, and to stand in the vicinity of it and see the scale, the tactile nature of it, even though we don't get to touch it. this is what it would have looked like to be a person engaged with that machine. the apollo-soyuz is another example of that. you have the sleek apollo spacecraft. you have two different machines built by two empires on two sides of the world, empires that were at nuclear dagger points . yet, between them, connecting them, there is this chunk of
8:17 am
seven-ton black hardware. it had a port for the american ship, a port for the russian ship. it was the greatest engineering metaphor for global geopolitics, for how you could bring two spacecraft together and bring to wo nations together to see the hardware, to make it tactile, to make it real. it is the reason i never tire of these stories. >> where happy to have you come anytime. a modern manifestation of what you're talking about is the international space station. it is the size of a football field, and yet many nations came together to build this thing. time magazine chronicled some of this by way of a documentary of the last few years, especially in going to the space station.
8:18 am
thinking about those stories together, apollosoyuz, the international space station, these partnerships, what you have been doing lately, how do you see in this political climate and technology sharing or not sharing, and the general public support, can we expect to see this continue, can something like a partnership from the international space station will go forward and take us to the next place? jeffrey: this is one of those questions that i actually feel i can answer optimistically. i think the collaboration can and should continue. part of it is because we are invested in it. 17 nations who have collaborated to build this, if you took 17 families and they built an apartment building and live together, you are stuck with each other. you better make this work. i also think that will serve as
8:19 am
a template for future international collaboration. getting spacecraft to mars, getting human beings to mars will be an order of magnitude more difficult than it was to get human beings to the moon, but if you can bring 17 countries together to do it, you cut costs, time, build collaboration, bring special expertise from different people, and i was touched by how readily and how poignantly that u.s.-russian collaboration in space transcends petty politics. when we were over in baikonur and watched the launch of a rocket at 1:30 on the bitter cold steppes of kazakhstan, i could have died happy at that point. they are spectacular.
8:20 am
as i was saying earlier, there was such a granular level of collaboration. one astronaut and two cosmonauts climbing into that ship. there was an american flag on the shoulder of one and a russian flag on the shoulder of another. all the way down to the details and when they got to kazakhstan for the reentry, a miniature flag. everything about it is a symbol. the semiotics are collaboration, cooperation. scott kelly has a twin brother, mark kelly, nothing more defining than his relationship with his twin, he calls me my brother from another mother because they have that year in space together. >> i wanted to bring this back to the apollo 8's story as folks may have seen a photo that popped up there, the moon as
8:21 am
seen by the apollo 8 crew. seeing something like that, seeing earth from that perspective, is really something that was brand-new. this was huge. they broadcast this from the moon on christmas eve. l moment. pivotabl people are able to see this live on their television from 250,000 miles away. is that something that is helpful for us to think about today as far as space and the media and how they interact? there is this partnership between the two. nasa's job can't be done without public support. the media brings that story to the public. talk about your role as a writer
8:22 am
in the space community, the excitement that you are helping of that of -- impart story. jeffrey: that is something i like to think about. i would love to be an astronaut. i wanted to be an astronaut when i was a little boy. i always realized as a little before eight that i was so ill equipped to be an astronaut. it is not something i have the brass to do. but to be in the vicinity of that. to orbit around that, to be in mission control, to be sitting here. marilyn lovell once said to me on the set of the movie, and i was already feeling close to marilyn, and the family at large, she said something to me that i took exactly the way she meant it. she said i have come to believe that jim was born to fly the mission of apollo 13 and you
8:23 am
were born to tell that story. i know she wasn't disparaging my other things that i had written, but that is ok to think that i was a little boy in maryland and my favorite astronaut was jim and human beings are like subatomic particles. if that collision involved my running into jim lovell and being able to make people understand why that story was important with apollo 8, that is a good day's work. i feel both humbled and privileged to be able to do it. >> if you have a question, sit in the back row where you can stand. before my last couple of questions, the crew successfully returned. what happened next? they parted ways, of course.
8:24 am
they went off to do other things. in the immediate aftermath, where did their lives take them as far as the crew? jeffrey: their lives went to very different places. frank bormann was done. it wasn't like he didn't have a good time. he did. it wasn't like he didn't realize the epic nature of the mission. he did. he knew this was my mission. i am home. at the end of the book, he gives the spacecraft a pat, walks off, and doesn't look back. he was a man with a patriotic job to do and he did it. bill anders would have loved to go back into space but he knew the byzantine nasa flight rules meant that if he did get assigned to another mission, the odds are good he would have been in the center seat, which means he would have gone to the moon again and still not have gotten
8:25 am
to lands. so he was offered a position in government as a consultant' to president nixon, then went into private industry and was very happy doing that. jim level was halfway to the moon and he said, baby, i am coming back here. he knew what he wanted to do. he traveled a quarter of a million miles to get to the moon and got within five dozen miles of the surface and was determined to close that last five dozen miles. as history proved, he flew on apollo 8 and learns what happens when the spacecraft is -- does everything right would later learn what happens when these spacecraft does everything wrong. >> i was born after apollo. we have those who don't remember
8:26 am
apollo eight or 11. i grew up watching the space shuttle, the international space station. my children won't remember space shuttles flying, other than seeing discovery. what does apollo 8 and the experiences of those astronauts how is that instructive or , helpful for thinking about spaceflight or inspiring new generations to think about where they can go? jeffrey: there are a couple of things about that. i will briefly include an anecdote in the summer of 2012, my family went out to visit the lovells for the weekend, and jim was taking as to the museum to see the apollo 8 spacecraft. i pulled my girls aside and said, 'ladies, you may be too young to appreciate this right
8:27 am
now but this is columbus showing you the santa maria. keep that in mind for later.' they did keep that in mind and until they got back to the house and they saw the big shaggy dog toby and then everything was about toby again, but for a minute they had that appreciation. the other thing is if you look at the three qualities i was talking about with the three astronauts, anders is a man of engineering, lovell a man of exploration, bormann a man of patriotic duty. those are good qualities to take three into any career if you are a 20-year-old student looking at your future, so you could do worse than follow the example of these three guys in planning your own future. >> i think we have a question from the audience. >> good afternoon. i was a college student home for christmas during the apollo 8
8:28 am
mission and i would love to hear your experience of that christmas eve broadcast. i know i wept. it was so beautiful. how did you experience it? how did the crew experience it? jeffrey: i could lie and say i was too young to remember it, but that would be a complete untruth. i was old enough to remember it. i was a very young adolescent, and i had learned one of the rules, show no emotion. you certainly don't cry over things. i could not abide by that rule, even as a kid i felt that , excitement. i felt tears coming into my eyes, because i knew this was something wholly different, and when they read on christmas eve the verses of genesis, i did not grow up in a terribly
8:29 am
religiously observant family, i knew what genesis was, you could've been a person of faith, an atheist, it didn't matter. the verse of genesis is a beautiful verse. what was it speaking of? it was speaking of birth, or in the case of 1968, rebirth. it was speaking about a way to read deem this year. that was not lost on me. i was devastated watching bobby kennedy's death, martin luther king's death. i lived in baltimore. baltimore burned in the riots. i knew how dreadful, how mortal that year had been. it was the ability to redeem a year, and i believe the astronauts themselves appreciated that, but not until they came back. of all of the telegrams, letters, awards they got from leaders around the world, all three of them say that what
8:30 am
impressed them and touched them most was a simple card for someone whose identity still remains unknown, a woman who wrote them a card and simply said to the crew of apollo 8, "thank you for saving 1968." i think they felt that that is what they did. they went back to the rest of their work, to the work that consumed them afterwards, but they knew what they had done for the world. i think that it's a darn good legacy. >> i think there was an element of surprise to hear religious texts coming from a mission, because already we were thinking of nasa and spaceflight as being all about science and technology, and the fact they literally were in another world and out in the cosmos, i don't think anyone expected them to
8:31 am
convey that particular message. jeffrey: there was a suit or a threat to file a suit because this was mixing church and state and they had read scripture and the world basically said, fight a different fight. when frank bormann spoke, they all addressed congress, and when he addressed congress, the supreme court was sitting right in front. he said, i was very happy to be able to read the verses of genesis, but now seeing the nine gentlemen in the front row, i'm wondering if maybe we should not have done that, and everybody laughed. everyone knew abiding strictly by separation of church and state, that technically broke the rules, but it broke the rules for such a grander good,
8:32 am
so i don't think reasonable people objected. >> thank you for your comments. jeffrey: thank you. >> i want to thank all of you for joining us today and join me in thanking jeffrey kluger for joining us. [applause] announcer: you're watching american history tv, all weekend, every weekend. to join the conversation, like us on facebook at c-span history. >> each week, american history tv rings you films that provide context for today's issues. -- brings you films that provide context for today's issues. ♪
8:33 am
>> in a typical city or town, on a typical street, we find a typical home occupied by a typical american family. like millions of his fellow ic earnss, john q publ enough to keep up the payments on a new car. in owning a new long-term mortgage home, built to last a lifetime. mrs. public no longer finds housework drudgery thanks to laborsaving devices, including
8:34 am
her husband. because of a 40 hour week, he has the leisure to dream about his favorite sport. >> darling. often, in a secluded corner hn q reflects on some of the better things, insurance to protect his family, money in a savings account for emergencies, for vacations and jr throught john q college. in spite of the high cost of being a husband and father, john q has a private nested. it ought to do more than collect moths. >> stock?
8:35 am
do i own any? it might be ae, good idea to get information. let's start with a fellow who owns and operates a company that makes and sells oil drums. each year, customers by more because he makes a better drum than competitors. one day, customers demand more than the owner can produce. he will have to expand production. about $3s it will take million to do the job. he decides to form a corporation to sell shares to raise capital he needs. first, the owner goes to the state government to get a charter and permit to sell shares. next, our friend goes to a banker and shows him the record of the past performance and
8:36 am
plans for expansion. the banker decides to help our thend sell shares to raise $3 million. ,efore any shares can be sold certain information must be filed with the securities and exchange commission in washington. investment banker and owner must wear the information they file contains nothing but the truth. not imply thates the government approves the stock issuance but only assures the public that if any of the statements about the stock issue are false, punishment will be according to law. effective,tration is the banker pays the owner $3 million in exchange for a certain number of shares in the corporation. the investment banker sells a shares of the stock to people at
8:37 am
a price which returns his investment and shows a profit for his services in selling stock. money received from the sale of shares builds a new and better plant which produces more and better oil drums. the people who bought these plant,own shares in the tools, equipment, and its assets. common stockholders elect the directors of the corporation. directors represent stockholders and are responsible for the way the business is run. directors determine the amount of dividends to be paid stockholders. when stockholders invest, they hope to receive dividends to pay for necessities of life. years, increasing
8:38 am
demand for the product poses another problem. how can he fill orders? to build more plants and by more tools to increase production. it will take about $20 million to do the job. one way to get this capital is to sell more stock to more people. the oil drum manufacturing corporation votes to send his president to the new york stock exchange to kiev their stocking qualify for listing. it wants to list securities on exchange so the additional stock they need to sell will be more attractive to investors all over the nation. securities on the stock exchange can be sold for cash anytime in this marketplace. many as 100s corporations inquire about listing securities.
8:39 am
only 20 or 30 are excepted for listing and only after a thorough diagnosis of the financial health. the president of the oil drum manufacturing corporation. report to examination. all members of the stock list department, report to the examination room. the stock list department investigates the qualifications for listing on the exchange. corporation must have assets in the form of plants, tools, equipment, and cash. it must have at least 1500 stockholders who own at least 300,000 shares of stock. show aporation must management and sales records and annual met earnings of at least
8:40 am
$1 million. meetroposed issue must federal, state, and new york stock exchange regulations. the corporation must report to stockholders at frequent intervals. if the examination indicates the corporation meets requirements , the application for listing is recommended. the board of governors of the new york stock exchange approves it isplication and sees made public. the oil drum manufacturing corporation stock is listed, it's name is abbreviated. each time any stock on the exchanges bought or sold, the tickertape flashes all over the nation.
8:41 am
buyer in colorado wants to purchase stock. the last purchase was at $10 a share. to buyer could buy from one 99 shares. our colorado friend decides to invest in 100 shares. known as a round lot. the colorado broker wires the order to his new york office. the order is telephoned to the floor of the exchange. it is given to the floor partner who becomes the representative of the buyer in colorado. the partner goes to the post where that stock is traded. the representative of the buyer in colorado bids $10 a share or 100 shares. at the moment, there is no stock at this price. maine, aantime, in
8:42 am
stockholder who needs cash decides to sell his 100 shares if he can get $10 a share. the order tores his firm's representative on the floor of the exchange. representingrtner, the seller, offers to sell 100 shares at $10 a share. the price of $10 a share is acceptable and the transaction is made. colorado andoy in the fisherman in maine, investors all over the country use brokers who are members of the stock exchange when they want to buy or sell stock of companies listed on this market. yesterday's savings finance the growth of our railroad.
8:43 am
automobiles, airplanes, farm communications, electric light and power, , and countless other industries contributing to a more enjoyable life. if a part of our savings continue to flow into industry, american labor, management, and capital can continue to build. industrial expansion creates a jobs for thousands of people who must find employment each year. a growing capacity to produce things which make life better can be our greatest protection in time of war. threatens, we can convert industry to produce the things we need to defend ourselves.
8:44 am
haven stock investments helped to make our country prosperous. owning a share in american industry is like owning a share in the future of our nation. remember, there is a risk as in owning property. get the facts before you point your money to work. -- put your money to work. when the new congress takes office in january, it will have the youngest freshman class in history. new congress, new leaders. watch it live on c-span starting january 3. next, on american history tv, military historian talks about his book "sons of freedom, the forgotten american soldiers who defeated germany in world war i
8:45 am
." he argues that without the american effort in 1918, the french and british could not have defeated germany and achieved the armistice. this talk is part of a daylong symposium hosted by the national world war i museum and memorial in kansas city, missouri. it is about one hour 10 minutes. >> good morning. i am the curator of education at your national world war i museum and memorial, located right here in kansas city, missouri, where it has been since 1926, and it is an honor to welcome you back for the first time to what is centennial symposium series. our with that, we will begin fifth with our kickoff speaker. ladies and gentlemen, it is my honor to introduce the professor of history and director of the


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on