tv Influential Women in Western History CSPAN January 6, 2019 6:55pm-8:01pm EST
all weekend every weekend on c-span3. tv,ext on american history influential western women, including sharpshooter, suffragist abigail scott dunaway and jeanette rankin. hosting the event, it's about an hour. >> welcome, we can be more happy that you are out here to join us. we are so happy there is a center for colorado women's history. i'm the education core nader here. up.ve setting things join us.
her of you probably know and her partner here, wonderful illustrate -- illustrative books. after will answer all of your questions after this presentation. or even sign one of the books if you purchase one here today. we are going to get it started here. thank you for being here today. >> it's great to be with all of you. thanks for many of you who i --w are i'm talking about the women of the west.
i have a timer for myself and i will started. i will stick to a script so i can stick to time. those of you who know me know i can talk forever, and i don't want to do that now since you have other things to do as well today. it will be on c-span3 -- c-span2, i'm sorry. look for it and have that opportunity for it as well. i'm going to do what i describe as a brief -- through history. on -- igoing to focus later fingerede with this. it's going to focus on women in the western part of the united states, how their roles have changed and the issue that women face both historically and
today. i want to note the very contributions women have made to our standard of living. despite the obstacles that face then, and frankly today. examples fromg 850 women, profiled in my book, a timeline of the women that changed america. the two of us work together to create this beautiful book. i'm going to show some profiles of other women who, for lack of a better phrase, didn't make the cut. reviewed over 4000 women in order to choose the 850 that are in the books.
how about so-and-so? is she in the book? go, maybe i of should look in the index or something. there we go. cranky today. i want to thank mike for the education director. , shef course the director standing in the back there. year helped of this usher in this to now be known formally as the center for at theo women's history myers evans house museum. maybe you need an acronym for that. it so important for all of us to continue to -- to continue
telling women's story. its most exciting to me that is a special part of colorado history in this way. i would like to start with a brief overview. to explain the concept. so, very lavishly illustrated. thereare color photos, are brief summaries of the women to highlight of their achievement. i begin with virginia dear, who was born on roanoke island 1587. covering the struggles and milestones of women such as helen keller, suffragist susan b anthony, in continued to the present, around 2011, when the paperbound came out. modern role models such as oprah whorey, madeleine albright,
i'm very pleased to tell you provides the forehead -- the forward. along the way there are names you know, that you expect. everybody knows betsy ross, amelia earhart, condoleezza rice. but there are also unexpected names. just for fun, let's see who you know. how about raising your hand. eliza hinckley? well, good. well she, as a teenager, developed the process to cultivate indigo, which was the basis of the carolina economy for more than 30 years. siebert? we women who developed the 1931,ulin test in still used by the world health organization even today. stephanie quality?
she invented kevlar. protect our police and medicine women in the armed services. this is kind of a trick, lena bryant? bryant, andly lane her name was misspelled on a loan application. but the important thing is that to created in 1904, maternity garments for women so that women could go out of their house when they were pregnant. i love that. dale messick? she was a female cartoonist who created the strip "brenda star reporter," this one you might know. candy lightner? organized mothers against drunk driving when tragically, her
daughter was killed by a drunk driver. this last one i did not know, my co-author told me about it, and it killed me i did not know about it. gertrude elian? a nobel laureate. yeah. who created a drug to fight childhood leukemia. my purpose here is not to embarrass you for the women you did not know, but to help you understand that we just do not learn about these women in history. to provide additional context, and again, to very briefly acquaint you with the book, i thought i would answer a few of the most frequently asked questions that i get. whoselected women are women changed our country with their
accomplishments. both of whom, i already indicated, we have not learned about in school. when i was in school it never occurred to me that they were not teaching me about the women. i mean, men did the alamo, right? men forged across the mountains to discover the northwest passage. men found gold. i did not think about the more than 600,000 women who also moved west. book grewdea for the out of my teaching a year-long leadership development class. when i mentioned to some historic women who what thought everybody should know, i was flabbergasted because these women did not know the women who came before us who contributed so much to our lives. so i went looking for a book.
i had been a university professor, and that is what you do. you find the book, you assign the book, and then people know. well, it did not turn out that way. i reviewed and purchased more than 200 books, but nobody had done a timeline format such as i thought we should do. togethert jill, and we started thinking, well, we need actual criteria for who is going to be in the book and was not going to be in the book, and that is how we reviewed over 4000 women. rule bookthere was no when we started. even if we typed into the computer at well-known name, like clara barton, nothing would have come up. there was no wikipedia, there was no way to find people, especially women, of course, online. so we did it the hard way, with
help from reference librarians, -- oh,s, articles, books many, many books. there was one book at that time, wasen of the west" that done in 1984 and had about 12 women it. and we just kept looking. kept looking. of course there are more books and they are sliced and diced different ways. just yesterday i got a notice from amazon, five new books on american women. so, there are lots of them. , nobody hadtill done that timeline format that i thought of. to also not to compare the accomplishments of one woman with another. after all, susan b anthony worked for all her life to get the right to vote for women. i mean, can you imagine getting
together, "yeah, we should really do this," and it takes 72 years? not one woman from that original group was alive to vote by 1920. so, speedskater bonnie blair, well, she won gold medals in three olympics. she was the first american woman to win five gold medals at that time in the history of the olympics. and it is true, she worked many shes to hone her craft, but did not have to convince people of her cause. she did not have to raise money for her cause. she certainly did not have to be arrested for cause. i fully believe that it is impossible to weigh one woman's accomplishment against any other. ultimately i came to understand that it is the very diversity of achievement that is critically
important to identifying the women'snd depth of contribution to u.s. history. i wrote also does not describe the indigenous peoples of what was later to become the u.s. sadly, there are very few written records of what life was like for women in their time. so, my journey from my book starts with the women and men who mostly colonized our country around 1600. they left wherever they came from seeking better lives here. religious freedom, freedom of opportunity that was not bounded by your class, your ethnicity. and for some, of course, they came for gold. some examples of women in the colonies, they varied from mistresses of large plantations, wives of wealthy merchants.
.omen on the western frontier 600,000 of them. or women of slavery. nevertheless, there was one thing all women had in common at that time. cattle.re legally you know that word? cattle. property. they were subordinate to men, and without any civil rights. the laws and customs in the u.s., even before we were a country, came from england, and that is how we got those laws, based on common english laws. so women, particularly married women, were trapped in a condition that was later called civil death. they had no control over their own property, their wages, and they had no legal rights separate from their husband's.
now, i was asked to speak on women of the west, so i was trying to figure out, what are the western states? stymied by this because i have to tell you, that not even the scholars are in agreement as to what the western states are. depictione this 1840 to show you some of the issues that were present at that time. because when i talk about western women, it is rather challenging to show their roots. even today, scholars talk about five western states, or seven western states, or even 11 western states, or all states that have rocky mountains in them. i mean, people slice it and dice it in many different ways. i have not set up a definitive way for myself. i just thought i would have fun and share some women with you
who come from what was either really a western state, or maybe a western state, or whatever. you to some of our western sisters. not very difficult to research women of the west. their stories are very well documented. of course in the colorado women's hall of fame, the wyoming house for a stork women, which is pictured -- four historic women, which is pictured here. it under luisa swain, i had not heard of her, along with 12 other wyoming women whose lives were impacted. there is also the montana historic society, to name just a few places that one can google or research. other western states such as wezona, new mexico -- might call new mexico a southwestern
state? you see where i had problems, here. but you can find out about the women in those states. icture isin, whose p there, i did not know her before i began my research on western women. think about this -- in september of 1870, became the first woman to cast a ballot. because wyoming gave women the right to vote well before 1920 happened for the rest of the country. now, again, scholars tease about that. they say, well, wyoming wanted to become a state and there were not enough people so they recruited women. i thinkdo not know, but it was kind of wonderful that she was able to have the vote at that time. there were just hundreds of women who stand out in the west due to their strong character,
their contributions to society, or just their plain, old, interesting personalities. think about the many women who were the hardy pioneers. vast prairie,he heading westward. shery and i were talking about it. we said, we did not think if we were on those wagon trains, we would have survived. their lot was in raising children, running a household that included -- oh my gosh, think about it. they made all the food processing, they made all the candles, they made all the clothing by hand. they had chickens and kids and d ucks, milked cow.s s. it just goes on and on, what they did. they nurtured, they nursed.
they nursed illnesses in their own families, they nursed neighbor's. they acted as midwives. in the meantime they started school, started churches. occasionally they warded off indian attacks. now, there were of course other western women who took some roles outside of the home, and they formally began being recognized, too. were were nurses, there stagecoach drivers, even a few physicians. there were a few women who dressed as men to participate as soldiers in some of our country's wars. for those less fortunate women, many forced by circumstance, need, or sometimes just for the adventure of it, in the early west you'll find female outlaws, female gamblers, powerful brothel madam's, sometimes home wreckers, blackjack dealers, and
quite a number of women who were very euphemistically called soiled doves. some wild west legendary women are noted in books such as "10 notorious female outlaws from the wild west." in the days when the west was ruled by the gun, especially if a woman was on her own, it took a woman of great character and great resolve, strong resolve, to survive. really, i've not chosen the best stories to tell you the most poignant stories to tell, the most heartwarming, whatever. i just want you to enjoy the women i bring to your attention as i briefly tell their stories. gun-toting, wild west concept of legend that perhaps if you, pardoning pun, shoots down the view that life as a
female pioneer was about cooking, sewing, cleaning, caring for children, etc. of course i would be remiss if i did not mention briefly ann ev ans, since we are presenting in the byers evans house. the daughter of our second territorial governor, john evans. i was reminded before the speech, i went to northwestern university, which was founded by john evans and four of his friends in evanston, illinois. anne was a very active supporter of the early art scene in colorado. i live in evergreen, and a long time, dear friend of mine until she passed away was barbara sternberg. she wrote a fabulous book called "anne evans -- the things
that last when gold is gone." her co-authorand spoke here about the book and evans. an she was described as american arts patron. she devoted her life to the founding in support of some of colorado's largest cultural institutions, including the denver art museum, the central city opera, and the denver public library. a western woman of some refinement, i would say. after all, she was born in england, after all. anniecompare her to oakley. now, when talking about western women, you have to include her, right? her birth name was phoebe moses. she was born in ohio in 1860.
by the time she was nine years old, she was helping her family to survive. she had eight siblings. she helped them by shooting, hunting, and a selling game and game and -- and by selling game and wild animals. she eventually became a skilled sharpshooter. she joined the buffalo bill wild west show in 1885 and she toured with the show for 16 years. a celebration of the old west, included skits of robberies, gunfights, military exhibitions. so most of the heroes of that show where men. wild west show really celebrated her skills, and she became one of the most famous women of the west. some people say that annie
oakley is our first female superstar. nickname bygiven a chief sitting bull, who was amazed by her skills. he called her "little skill shot." i'm going to stop for a moment and review another serious issue for women of those earlier times. now remember, they had no legal rights. so, limited in their legal rights, excepting the customs of theety, -- accepting customs of society, women mostly accepted the demands of men. say it with me, cooking, cleaning, tending to their children, watering their horses, feeding the chickens, taking care of the endless, endless household chores. but what else were women doing across the u.s. in the 1800s?
and i use that date because of a data point i found. at this time, women were very busy having babies. capita birthper rate in the u.s. per woman was 7.04. per woman. i know,time - i kno -- you are waiving your heads. i get it. at the time, this was the highest birthrate in the world. anychina, not india, not in undeveloped country. no, here in the u.s. 7.04. so, there was not a lot of time for women to have other endeavors, right? furthermore, their life expectancy was a great deal
shorter than ours. , one of, annie oakley nine children. i will bring those kinds of things to your attention as i go on. so, think about it. did women really have the time to be poets and painters, artists, activists, writers, wanderers, an? wheremen of the west, did they find the time, the energy, the money? it is true some women work outside the home, we know that. but oh my goodness, 7.04. of washtubr hear pneumonia? i hadn't until i started this research. on the early life of martha canary, who was now called
calamity jane. was 13, hery jane mother died of what is called washtub pneumonia. the phrase was used to describe respiratory ailments contracted dressesy who were long -- who were in the western mining camps. because they believed was the coal dust mixed with detergents, which was lye, at the time. that is why her mother died of washtub pneumonia. oh, calamity jane. tales aboutare many how she got her name. no one really knows for sure. she was a tough cookie. she liked to dress like a man, dressed in buckskin. when she was 16 years old, her father died.
remember, she lost her mother at 13. she was the eldest of six children. so, she took on the role of being the head of the household. wyoming, her family to then on to piedmont. by the time she was 18, jane had been a nurse, a dishwasher, a waitress, a cook, an ox driver. did everything she could to support her brothers and sisters. she was a model of a western woman, i western frontiers woman. and she even became a professional scout. she is probably most well-known for being a close friend of wild bill hickok, but also she gained fame for fighting american indians. she had a reputation for being able to handle a man, handle a gun, shoot like a cowboy.
skills that took her into wild hill's -- bill's wild west show, too. the love of her life was wild bill hickok, and it is not really clear. allegedly they were secretly married, and in 1870. she had ayears later daughter and she took off. don't know. she did live a very colorful and eventful life, but historians reveal she was very prone to exaggerations about her life. lies, if you would, about her exploits. so, in addition to whatever work , ton did to contribute make money, to be part of their family support, there are six main social issues that women in this country spearheaded, and we
would not be where we are today women's work in each of these areas. and women of the west heard about these issues from women of the east, and also took part in them. although i will not say that they were as deeply engaged as other women in other parts of the country, because it is very important to recognize -- and i'm going to talk very generally here, you'll have to forgive me for generalizations -- that the women who put their energy into these different areas were, generally speaking, married, white women, well off, who had household health and supportive husbands, and also, most of them were quaker. because the quakers do not have a preacher, and they put men and women together in a circle to talk their religious ideals.
so, women who followed that were allowed to talk in public. because in the 1800s, most women did not talk in public. as a matter of fact in 1848 when they held the first women's rights convention, several of the women said to their husbands, "well, you have to talk." the women organized this event, but they were afraid. and they did not talk until the second day. often in my presentations, i use these six points of view, these threads as the highlighting , telling many stories in each of these different areas. with my focus today on the west, i am not going to do that, because most of them, as i said, do not have a western woman as a focus. aware of the
importance of each of these issues. without women taking prominent roles in each of these cultural areas, our united states today would be a very different country. i do want to spend one moment on education, because i did not think we recognize the importance of women helping women as educators. history,our country's women were not encouraged to go to school. the literacy rate at the end of the colonial period for white women was 40%. for whited to 80% men. public education for all had yet to be established, and as men began putting together institutions of higher learning, they did not include women in their plans. so, women took their money and
started schools of their own. and they taught in those schools, because teaching was considered a very acceptable way for a woman, particularly if you are not married -- and many women had to give up their teaching careers and they got married. and think about even the roles of western women early. i mean, schools in the west were few and far between. and all these children that everyone was having were out there doing chores. they were contributing to the family. so, any education that a woman had, even the slightest bit of education, she taught her own children, and that of the neighbor's. so, kind of small schools like that. rights, very, very brief
little connection here to the west. modest connection. so, this is a picture of jane adams. it was in chicago in 1889. she and a bunch of her colleagues helped new immigrants to chicago. and here's the western connection. a lot of those immigrants did not like living in the city of chicago. they had not lived in a city comes, and suddenly 1854 and there is the homestead act. right? city's,people left the came out west, lured by this more rural way of life and the chance to own property. evolution. black and white women, black and white men all contributed.
it is important to know many women who were abolitionists were also deeply involved in the fight to secure suffrage. some people -- historians are do behind theome scenes and under the table, women were told let's get slavery abolished first and then he will give you the right to vote. issue in the western parts of the country was confusing. think to the map i showed you. much of the west was territory, no states yet. every time a state came in, they asked should it be free or a slave state?
a lot of problems. more women than men were against slavery and western women agreed with eastern sisters. the two most famous black women who were part of this was sojourner truth and harriet have been. neither truth nor tubman visited western states. the movement in which they were involved engaged all of the intention of western woman before the civil war -- attention of the western woman before the civil war in 1865. .aren nation, temperance foris most famous spearheading the temperance movement, the battle against .lcohol abuse which was kansas
considered a western state at the time. she is particularly noteworthy because she would go into saloons with a hatchet and smashed bottles. don't you love it? in 1880, she was backed by the national women's christian temperance union and the -- they of kansas passed legislation making kansas the first state to be dry. i cannot imagine. you think about towns like dodge city, always in the westerns. there is a solution on every corner. first state to go dry. i love this visual. i thought you should see it. >> [laughter] charlotte waisman: yes.
lips that touch liquor shall not touch ours. the fifth of the sixth issues suffrage has a interesting western connection. if women were going to get an education and have rights and vote, it seemed it was up to woman to make it happen. the rebellion began in 1848. -- thethe commenters mentors, elizabeth cady stanton and one other were at a anti-slavery convention in 1840. elizabeth cady stanton was on her honeymoon. the other was also a delegate. they bonded when she was denied a seat at the convention because she was a woman. together, they decided they
could hold their own convention form aey return home and society to advocate for the rights of women. these leaders, at a time in history when women did not speak in public, use extraordinary ,cale, networks, their friends articulate like-minded women and their passion to organize this 1848 seneca rights women rights convention. years to makeight good on the promise. she had six children during that time and elizabeth cady stanton had seven. 1869, the know in first u.s. suffrage law in the nation was passed. i will talk about jeanette
rankin later. she is the western connection in wyoming. often thought about as east moving west, did not happen that way. we have to be clear and proud of that as of western women. the national women's hall of fame records there are 200 men and women who did the most to advance suffrage. they contributed in ways big and small. eight western woman, abigail dunaway, was among them, a crusader for woman suffrage. she was born in illinois and ofveled to the western state oregon. i would color northwest. she moved there with her family in 1852 and describes the
arduous journey west in her book company,ptain grays crossing the planes. she was almost completely self-taught. she read newspapers to learn and when she got west, she started her own newspaper so she would continue to be educated. recognized asas the leading woman's advocate in the west. at that time, oregon was a western state. at 70 eight years old, she became the first registered where -- registered woman voter in her county. i love she was able to live that long. another important suffragist was lucy stone.
she has no western connection whatsoever. i had to put her in. i am the speaker, i can do that. there are so many wonderful residences in her stories. lucy stone's mother had nine children. two died young. lucy was the ninth. recognized what it meant to work as hard as a man and be regarded as his inferior. massachusettsm in work worn mother could only explain when lucy was born, i am sorry it is a girl. a woman's life is so hard. that is very sad. in this horrible
circumstance and she was in labor. housed to milk eight thunderstorme hauled all the hands to the field to pick the crops to save the hay crop. that was considered more important than safeguarding a mother on the verge of labor. many women like lucy's mother not only had household tasks but a heavy responsibility of dairy work, which never ends. lucy stone as an adult said there was only one will in our house, my father's. suffragist,ecame a the firstgraduate,
woman to graduate from college in massachusetts. she was a public speaker for women's rights. woman whol-known as a kept her maiden name after she got married. 1855.s married in 1950 that theil u.s. census bureau recognized a woman's right to keep her maiden name after marriage. 1950. 1889, wyoming. still a u.s. territory at this time. constitution that is the first to grant full of voting rights to women. wyoming is known as the quality state because of the rights
women have traditionally enjoyed. wyoming women were the first to juries, andve on hold public profit. as recently as a 1991 in the wyoming legislator, one third of the house are women. i will tell you later about our legislator. it has not happened. jackson, wyoming has a historical distinction of being the first town in the u.s. completely governed by woman. who do i know for montana? that is a question i often get. i struggled to answer that because montana, like colorado, people move and move on. we like to clean them.
-- claim them. well-known most western women of all of us is jeanette rankin. she was the first woman ever elected to the u.s. congress. this was 1916. votes did not happen nationally until 1920. wyoming was ahead of the curve. she voted against entering world war i, one of 50 people to do that. enough in congress long that she was the only person to vote against world war ii. late 70's,s in her there are pictures of her marching to end the vietnam conflict. it is an that she was true to her ideals the whole time.
is we are halfes the people, we should be half the congress. 2017, we comprised 19.6% of the house and 19.3% of the senate. african-american woman in montana were part of a larger experience. not a good picture of them. this is the only one i could find. hard to identify who they were and fight against the negative stereotypes. another western woman i want to is helen hunt jackson
of colorado. she wrote a book that looked at how terrible it was, what we did to american indians. at her own expense she sent a copy of the book to every member of congress. redhad the printer right in they areon your hands, stained with the blood of your relations. disappointment, the book had little impact. goes on. woman were very important to our health, too early outstanding early western woman. aboutced there is a book
dr. suzy. dr. susan anderson was a colorado woman and one of the first women to practice in colorado. even more surprising to me is susan, a here, dr. native american in nebraska. nebraska is considered a western state. women -- don't you love this? [laughter] they did not make the cut in the book. notion ofart of an outlaws and gamblers and madams. there are many people who have written books about them. one book published in 2015 , notorious,d woman mischievous, and wayward ladies from the old west.
some of the women's stories are fun. many are sad. sad tales because they remind us of the few legitimate ways western woman could earn a living in earlier times. i could go on with lots of those women but i want to draw to your attention. woman knownoshone for her help to the lewis and clark expedition. she helped them achieve their target mission objective. she traveled with them. you probably know the story. she also had a child on the way and brought the child with her. there is an interesting fact about her. there are more statutes, likenesses, signs, places, and rivers with her name across the
west than any other woman in american history. you can certainly find more about western woman by reviewing the colorado hall of fame inductees. and evans was inducted. 152 women, i believe. modern day and historical. i am pleased to say madeleine albright who wrote the forward to my book is in it. jill qiagen, my co-author, is also in the home. i am winding down. i said i would talk 45 minutes. i see by my clock, it says 45 and i have two more pages to go. i have talked about western woman, women who did indeed change america, he will continue to change our country.
as i researched for the book, i heard about the glass ceiling, the marble ceiling for judges and clerks, the stained glass ceiling for women in the religion. just recently, i read about the concrete ceiling. the glass cage. self-doubt. that seems to hit women hard. here is what i learned as i reviewed the lives of 850 remarkable woman. women's talents will not be fully recognized and valued unless we make all of the changes to move our country forward. i am talking about all of us expertise,kills, our our time and potential, valuing each other. we, all of us need to value each
other. as we strive to make a difference knowledge the efforts of the thousands of a woman who came before us. who gave us the opportunities we have today. if we want to make a difference in the world, we have to work to do that. we truly have come a long way. surely, all of us will admit, there is a long way to go. where would we be without these amazing woman on whose shoulders we stand? as of western woman, we can be proud to honor all of the incredible women who came before us. now i am happy to take questions. [applause]
yes? >> [indiscernible] something on one of your statistics with the 1800s, the average woman had seven children. farhe 1800s, that was not from 1776 when he became a nation. i think the emphasis was to populate our country. there arewaisman: lots of reasons people give as to why the birth weight was high. another was no more farming. they needed labor. there are lots of different reasons. no birth control. i think the woman, in some
ways, are to be commended for the hard work which they did in building our nation. charlotte waisman: clearly we are to be commended. i don't think that will happen. thank you for your comment. >> [indiscernible] charlotte waisman: that's fine, don't be sorry. retired medicaid administrator for colorado and i remember a gentleman worked with us whose name was gary mason. the second day i said, are you mason and herry said, you know about her? and he said, yes i am a descendent of carry mason. he had three sons, no daughters. he told me all of his boys in elementary school who were told
to write a paper about someone famous and their family, they all wrote about carrie nation. to other discussions and he said a lot of people would not want to say she was an ancestor but we talked about it. the reason so many women were in that temperance union was speaking,nerally women were not allowed in the saloons. too much, involving them to spend family finances as well as child and domestic violence at home. tot was something that led the lot of the antialcohol movements, the abuse that resulted from men drinking and coming home and violence within the home as well as them spending the money needed to survive. charlotte waisman: thank you
very much for sharing that. yes? >> [indiscernible] -- thank you for writing this book. i am in the millennial generation. i have a question. that makesu learn you optimistic in researching all of these women? what do i have to look forward to? charlotte waisman: great question. as i looked at these women, the woman who did something, whatever the achievement was, where women of passion, persistence, determination. they really pushed. despite whatever obstacles were placed there, they did it. i believe the millennial generation -- some of us are well beyond that -- the
generation will stand up and be counted. i believe that. most exciting. good to see you here. yes? coming. you for charlotte waisman: you are welcome. >> could you elaborate a little more on the division that anti-slavery caused within the suffrage movement? my understanding was it split. charlotte waisman: there was a split in the vote, the suffrage movement, yes. -- we wanted and we want it now -- we want it and we want it now. they wear what we may call violent agitators. you see lots of the footage of them marching and other women were white -- wore white and purple with special banners. they were amazing woman.
passion, persistence, determination. other women were quieter about it and felt it will come in time and when the time is ready, it will happen. parts of the huge suffrage movement. took some of the more famous suffragists who sits behind closed doors and put back group together. that was separate from the historians behind the scenes doing the notion of what was happening because of wanting to free the slaves first. >> thank you. charlotte waisman: sure. could you talk a little bit about your criteria used for selecting the woman? created anaisman: we
elaborate scale. she had to be maybe the first to do something or the most famous to do something or invented something without her father's money or husband's money or brothers money. criteria.ut 10 we broke it because there were whon we wanted to include for one reason or another did not meet the criteria. one of the women was katharine graham. of the the editor washington post. it was her father's newspaper. he died. he gave the paper to her husband. >> [laughter] charlotte waisman: nobody thought that was odd. died and the board
of directors was like, what do we do? and theyto the meeting are thinking she will say who on the board will be the editor and she said, i will be the editor. they were stunned. they were thinking this paper is going to die quickly. she said, i grew up at my father's knee. i saw what it is to run a newspaper. i went to college and was a journalism major. a man who ran the paper. i can run the paper. we had her on a lot of good points but it was not her money but she was the one who was willing to publish the watergate papers. that was such a huge thing for our country. jill and i said, we cannot
possibly leave her out. i told you about lucy stone. we are idiosyncratic. it is our work and we can do what we want. [laughter] thank you for the question. moderator: >> all right, folks. thank you so much. [applause] we will have charlotte sitting over here if anyone would like to talk to her or have a book signed. please do come talk to her. otherwise, thank you for coming today. please see us again. our next lecture is on victory gardens and the woman's movement for veterans day weekend. thank you again for coming today. [applause]
[captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> you are watching american history tv. 48 hours of programming every weekend on c-span3. follow us on twitter for information on her schedule and to keep up with history news. commerce"book "dark louise shelley talks about how to close trade is growing. >> last year, 60,000 americans died from buying fentanyl. it is not something you buy on the street corner. if you buy it locally, somebody probably bought it over the internet. it is something killing more americans than our dining in car accidents.
this is a form of illicit trade that is deadly to our population. if you have your bank account boughtut by somebody who the old allow them to penetrate financial accounts, it has an arm's impact on the ordinary citizen. >> will be shelley is our guest on afterwards tonight at 9:00 eastern on c-span twos book tv. ♪ unfoldsn, where history daily. c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television company. today we bring you unfiltered coverage of congress, the white , and, the supreme court public policy events in washington, d.c. and around the country. c-span is brought to you by your cable or satellite provider.
>> next on the presidency, historians and economist discussed woodrow wilson's views on domestic policies including women's and african-american rights and the federal reserve system. the wilson center in washington post of the talk. mayhis, i think, we'll see, treat on wilson himself. but believe me, it will be the legacies. it will be how he, what he did or didn't do, affect us very much. before i introduced the panelists, let me say something about why to concentrate on wilson's domestic presidency. first of all, that's the presidency he wanted to have and expected to have. one of his most famous