tv Jamestown Virginia Settlement in 1619 CSPAN January 12, 2019 6:55pm-8:01pm EST
3. james town, virginia, was the english colonial settled. it marked the arrival of the first african-american slaves assembly rst general which established the beginning of a representative government. next, the rediscovery foundation james horn discusses the two events f these for american democracy 400 years later. the virginia museum of history hosted this hour long program. _-_- >> dr. james horn is president, he original site of the first permanent english colony in america. previously, jim served as vice president -- he was the saunders -- of r of international
the international center for efferson studies at monticello and before that taught for 20 years at the university of brighton in england. fellow ships at the johns hopkins university, mary, e of william & harvard and is a fellow of the royal historical society. i'm also proud to note that he's currently serving on the advisory committee for the the ing exhibition, 400-year struggle for black equality which tells the story f the arrival of african-americans in 1690 and the four centuries that follow that's partilestone of the commonwealth's 400-year pivotalation of several moments in our state's history. this exhibit will open in june this 9 as part of commemoration and we're thrilled to have the expertise of jim and shape others to help that important exhibition. >> jim is a leading expert on early virginia. the author of numerous articles and books including a jamestown, made it,
and the birth of america. a kingdom strange, the brief and tragic history of the lost colony of roanoke and most recently, 1619, jamestown, and the forging of american democracy. which has just been published, copies are available this evening and i know he would be sign them for you. this is such a treat. i have known jim for several mount ince my time at vernon and have always been so deeply impressed with his deep nowledge of early virginia history and i'm sure that this evening will inform us all. inyou would, please, join me jim horn. mra [applause] >> thank you. thank you all for coming out this evening. jamie said i'm a historian. usually work, in a period of years, sometimes 25 and 50, i've to work for a century
long period. worked on one year so it was quite challenging for me for ke this lecture extend 40 minutes when i'm only dealing with one year, although i'll do my best. one year it'sonly a really good year and people don't know much about it. really the topic. working when i began on this book, people, the public, didn't know uch, if anything, about what occurred in 1619. 'm not being patronizing, it's simply a fact that most people no recollection of these people in our deep past. remote place in time. really significant year. going to try and
convince you of this evening. lost in our been historical memory. example, no question about 1620 pilgrims, decade or so later, puritans. we can have a date attach to them. as many of you know, many americans do believe that's when english presence in north america began. all we have is john smith and pocahontas. bit different e because many people don't really have much of a concept of when virginia other than it was very early. pocahontas is one of the early american indian peoples, indian person, around the world, not just in the usa.
that's got something to do with disney, but of course, we know, that predates the limits colony by at least 13 years. it was set up as a company of merchants. it is a company colony. it is a private colony, sanctioned by james the first. they had to have the approval of james the first. this is a corporate enterprise. corporations, then as now, had their own laws, their own councils, and their own form of meetings that took place to elected officials. the virginia company of london , and thep in 1606
colony was established the following year. in a place --shed this is a detail you'll recognize from the john smith map of 1612 originally. it was established in a place tsehacommacah. it was a long way, perhaps even as far south as parts of north carolina today. we have to recognize that this early colony for profit is in a place that is a very powerful indian nation. a collection of maybe 30 or so
peoples who dominated this region. the english is why decided to settle, because there was such a powerful indian presence. there were about 15,000 indian people, and of those, perhaps a third were bowman warriors. a formidable fighting force, as well as a group of peoples in the region. this is the first point i want established for profit, the colony in the early years did not make much of a profit. it very nearly failed on several occasions.
the starting time was probably the darkest time of all, because there was the task of accommodating the indian presence, which is to say, trying to come to terms with indian peoples, and leading into conflict in the first war of 1609-1614. productiveult to be when a war is going on. early virginia is a military regime. virginia legal code in is the marshall code, lies -- extended all the way from the outbreak of the war 1 609-1610 through to 1618. i make this point, because this
is the context, this is the background to the great reforms of 1619. earlier, the colony had suffered from arbitrary government, property owned by the company. this was not conducive to attracting the kind of numbers of immigrants that the virginia company needed. lot of people are familiar that in 1619, the first representative assembly met at jamestown. is fine as far as it goes, because that was the capstone of the great reforms. 1619 are reforms of what you see on the slide there.
the architect of those reforms sir edwin sandys. we will take sometime to talk about him, because he is quite remarkable, and understanding reformstion between the that he proposed takes us some way to understanding the significance of what he proposed. sir edwin sandys was the son of the archbishop of york, his namesake. fled to geneva during the role of the catholic queen. days, hishis younger father was a very hot puritan, i suppose is the way to put it. a. 10 of hot temperament --
temperament.hot heroes steadily through the ranks of the church, bishop, then archbishop of york. what this meant for his son, is that edwin got a first-class education. he was educated in the best schools and universities. he went to london, he was educated, i think we can call him one of the significant intellectuals of his day. he traveled extensively in europe. i will come back to that point, because it is often overlooked, but it is directly relevant to what i am going to be talking about this evening. this english european background. educateds a highly man, and had a first rate
humanist education. quiet -- forty much of his early years, and even into made life, he has a pretty quiet time of it, until james the first ascended to the throne in 1603. then, with the beginning of the jacobian parliament, he shoots into public view. he becomes the leader of the commons for the next 20 plus years. he is the leader of the opposition and in some instances, to james the first. that is also significant, because he is well versed in
constitutionalism. in the english constitution and protecting what was called at the time the ancient constitution. the basic, fundamental rights of english people. that if virginia did not undertake substantial reforms in 19, the colony would have collapsed. there simply were not enough people coming into the colony to sustain it. with a view wars against the indians, there was no possibility that indian peoples were ready to be converted, not only to the anglican church, but also to the english nation. decides, and the company backs him, that's the only way
to sustain the colony and make it profitable was to transfer large sections of the english population to the colony of virginia. we are familiar with the great migration of the 16 30's --1630's, but there was a significant early form of the great migration in the years 619, and the first half of the 1620's. you had to bring a population in from england to create a viable colony, and to create the profit that the company would look for. to do that, you have got to have incentives. what is it that would bring people to virginia on the lophone world. ang you have to cross the atlantic,
a pretty risky undertaking. you have to face unknown -- we areurricanes getting familiar with that these past few weeks. pirates, the spanish, then when you get to virginia, how are you going to fair in the colonies? there has to be a strong incentive as to why you are coming to a place like this in this period. private property. it might seem, surely they had private property in virginia, but the truth is, the virginia company owned the land. some individuals, powerful individuals, had acquired large plantations, but when we are dealing with origins, one question you have to ask yourself is, why did they go this route? when not choose another route? there were other models.
virginia could have been another b meda. bermuda.r bermuda was a pirate base. that was one kind of model for an english colony, preying on spanish shipping in the west indies. the other kind of model, which had been thought about, theorized about, was a society where a few very wealthy groups of merchants or individuals would own properties of 50,00 populate acres, and them with english servants. tenants would not own property, they would work on these baron ial estates. the virginia company did not choose either of those options. they chose to introduce
widespread private property granted in small divisions of 50-100 acres to the set of population as a whole. begins to seety its way in virginia before 1619, but it wasn't systematic, and sir edwin sandys makes it systematic. he has lived in the colony sometime -- if you lived in the colony sometime, you received this land. how do you protect the property? you have to have rule of law. i think that any democracy cannot survive for very long without the rule of law. when i naturalized, it was one of the questions i was asked in my examination. the test i had to take to become a citizen, what is the rule of
law? i was thinking the rule of law means that lie rules -- law rules. it seems to be common sense. but, no one is above the law. and the company are saying is we will get rid of this military government, get rid of martial law, and have rule of law based on english common law. of systemsny number of law in england. wasalll law -- marti law certainly employed at times -- martial law was certainly employed at times. understood by a majority of english people. it protected their rights as a people. the rule of law would be based on english law.
no one would be above the law. it would be changed to accommodate the peculiar circumstances that the settlers found themselves in in virginia. self-government, this is where we come to the general assembly of 1619. why do you need self-government? the company had the authority to rule the colony of virginia, so why did they want to have a legal form of assembly? there wasn't anything like it in england. early 17thin the century, you have got the house of commons, the lords, the court . courts in the shires, but you don't have many
assemblies in the counties. probably the nearest to it is the scottish and irish parliaments. assembly inn america was hugely important, as a precedent. what thetty obvious reason was. hadain people's trust, you to go to a system, and sir edwin sandys believed in this quite profoundly, you had to go to a system where the consent of the governed was in place. that is precisely what he did. a few slides here. to give you the extent of property owning along the james river, this is, by english
standards, quite extensive. if you are looking from point comfort all the way to the falls in richmond, falling creek is there at the top, that is an extensive bit of territory. miles, as the ship sails. distribution, even in 1619, where the population of the colony was probably no more than 1,200-1,500. at the top, the great charter. the great charter doesn't survive, but the instructions to the governor of virginia, who was to implement these reforms, does. it mentions the great charter and that was the basis of these early reforms. underline this early
form of local government, because this is the way in which sir edmund -- sir edwin sandys, in a very systematic way, goes about thinking how to govern a territory as extensive as this. corporations,he and i want to read them out, because they are easy to read on the screen. irste are the four f boroughs. he is thinking like an englishman that these individual own forms ofeir local government, and everyone has a role within that. regionwideit is the --the reason why
here is the statement from the ttent charger -- charter wri 1619, that if you come to virginia you will be governed in the same way as you were or you have been so far in england. just laws for the happy kiting and governing of the people. i was interested in the term the great charger. charter.- great magna carta is a great charter. i went looking for the word magna carta in any document cannot only found one. if anyone has found more references in these early atuments, please let me know
the end of the lecture and i will be forever in your debt. i only found one reference here. as you can see, the reference is talking about laws must be published. people must know their rights. this is really advanced thinking for the early 17th century. nothing like this elsewhere in europe or england. people didn't go out of their way to publicize the laws. you either knew them or you didn't. carta to be magna published for the whole colony. that is the only reference we have from 1618. here's the general assembly. fromve a description of it the secretary of the colony, a description of what took place and what occurred.
it was a wide ranging meeting. describe some of the key characters as far as we know. sir george sitting with his counselors flanking him. then there would be the clark and the speaker of this assembly , which mimics the comments received your. commons ch mimics the procedure. is a single chamber here. it did mimic some of the procedures of english parliament. we have got private property, rule of law, and consent of the governed. aspect of these great
reforms of 1619 that i would venture to say is the least well-known of all of them. stillia is a commonwealth today. there are three other states in the union that are also commonwealths. pennsylvania, kentucky, and massachusetts. ers, there is also a territory that is a commonwealth, puerto rico. context, in in this the early 17th century, had significant meaning. i don't know really that it does today, but certainly it did in this period. its significance revolves byund 150 years of thinking intellectuals in europe about
how to deal with the problems that they were confronted with in the late 15th, 16th, and early 17th centuries. they were considerable. theave in england during 16th century, a period of rapid population growth, where many peoples in the countryside are losing their rights to their properties. poverty and inequality is rocketing across the late 15th and 16th centuries. this quote here from sir thomas some of this, pointing to the suffering of the poor. unemployment and underemployment, vagrancy,
,asterless men and women bringing diseases and so on to the cities. this was the specter of magistrates of the period. it had to be dealt with. europe.s wars in the second half of the century was almost a continuous period of warfare revolving around the great two blocks of power, catholic and distant. tant.d protes 1618, just that before what we're dealing with here, is the outbreak of one of the most terrible wars of all, later known as the 30 years war, where there is absolute devastation in europe throughout
this period. the english stay out of the 30 they can,as much as but nevertheless, the awareness of this carnage that is going on in europe is a powerful one. back to the virginia commonwealth. we come back to a godly commonwealth, a christian commonwealth. this is what is so impressive about sir edwin sandys. background, his father being the archbishop of york. he has traveled in europe, looking at various religious systems and trying to devise a by which different groups of people could live together in peace and harmony. different religious groups, that
could be achieved. better to test that theory than in virginia? and who enter to test it on -- who better to test it on? pocahontas is a story of redemption. converting her to the anglican church, then ultimately the entire powatan nation. this was the first and only effort by the english to convert not just a group of indian people, but an entire nation of this extent. period ofwith a whole church building. they are pretty modest structures. i have this slide to give you a sense of that. this is a theoretical structure,
but nevertheless, this program of church building that is going on, because the commonwealth was to be a moral commonwealth based on the protestant religion, and the anger and -- the anglican religion. the indians would be part of that. they were to be converted to englishness and adopt english ways. they would become part of the english colony. pocahontas, who , but the effort continues with the powatan convert the people to the anglican church. commonwealth also implies other things. it implies ark and
stable society. , there would have been seven men for every woman. just think about that. the company is aware that men are returning from virginia once i have made enough money, they come back to england because they couldn't marry and settle down. in one of the first efforts to socially engineer a colony, the virginia company started recruiting respectable young toen to send to virginia marry the planters. across the period from 1619-1622, about 150 young women, maybe as many as 200 were sent to the colony.
no women, no colony. it was essential to have women and establish these households and communities. englishmen typically did not marry the indian women, so these are not the first women in the colony, but certainly, this effort to provide these respectable young women, the records of many of them still survived in english archives. it is a fascinating story. it was the only profitable part of the virginia company's business across this entire period. if you wanted a wife, you had to pay. it was 150 pounds of tobacco. there are lots of complaints from poor planters who could not afford the price of a wife. work for all. in england, there simply wasn't enough employment for the
growing population in england. not that the virginia company encouraged tobacco, but tobacco was profitable. work for all in the tobacco fields. work along jamestown. -- thehe docs down at docks down at point comfort. what the virginia company wanted industries,eate new manufacturers, glass works, works,ds, silk manufacturers that they could export back to england. virginia had plenty of wood and needed to power these industries. to some degree, the effort here where aeate a society
quality is based on opportunity to find work, productive work, and set up something of a homestead to be comfortable and direeduced to dyer -- poverty. i will shift gears, because it does not appear to me and sir edwin sandys or the virginia company's plans in terms of work to import captive africans. been doing some significant work down at jamestown to look at the , we don'tf a woman know whether she is young or old , we know nothing about her except that she was named angela. we know also that she came from ,hat we would call angola
central west africa. during colonial wars in angola, portuguese troops and their allies marched maybe 150 miles. coast, see here, to the to the principal slave port, then put on board the ships something like this. i can't find a print of a 17th century slave ship that shows the way in which they were organized, but this is an 18th century print. it is a ship that had 350 slaves on. so did the ship that angela sailed on. that was a big ship.
this gives you some idea of what we are talking about in terms of the transatlantic trade. from west central africa up to vera cruz. of thethis really period slave trade. it was established 100 years before virginia. it is the engine of the atlantic trade in this period. slave ship is encountered in the gulf of mexico by two --privateers.rs they plunder that ship of 50-60 africans and bring them to virginia, where some of them are put ashore at various
plantations along the james river. residences ofhe 23 of the earliest africans in virginia from 1625. small numbers. slaves had more than 100 , because they were capturing them from spanish ships in the caribbean. our person is -- angela is a. ela is up hereang at jamestown. here she is. below,l see dumown
angelo, but there is no question she is a woman. i believe that the first africans were enslaved -- there are various opinions on this -- some people prefer to think of them as indentured servants. i believe that the english adopted pretty much the spanish and portuguese way of thinking of africans, and this is the yeardley. george what you see time and time again, no names, but simply negro man, child, woman. this is where she lived. , she ist to your left living on the side about half a mile from the church.
i mentioned that to many people, 1619 is meaningless, yet this is one of the most important years in our history. it sees the beginning of america's experiment with democracy and the year when the first democracy -- the first africans arrived. what are we doing at jamestown to add to the state activities during next year to commemorate 1619? we have got some pretty spectacular results. some of you, if not many of you, will be very familiar with memorial church. youke this slide, because
can see the shadow of captain john smith. you will note that the tower is a 17th century tower, probably 1670's.maybe portions, the upper date to 1776. that is the only structure from the 17th century and immediately behind it is the memorial church built by the national society of 1906-1907 and in open for the 300 anniversary of jamestown. important incredibly historical site, because it is also the site of earlier
churches, one of them being the 1617 church where that first assembly was held. we have the good fortune of having images. i will see if i can point these out. there was a group of ladies from the association for the preservation of virginia antiquities. they are doing archaeology. these are some of the first archaeologists who works on-site. they are doing the archaeology in full skirts. it is a very elegant form of archaeology that hasn't been seen since their day. >> [laughter] mr. horn: despite my efforts. we are looking here toward the river through the church arch, and these are the foundations of the church. this is a remarkable ledger
stone. slumped downow it here and has been broken. this is from the early archives of preservation virginia. we have this remarkable photograph of these early excavations. the last time anyone saw the floor of the church was back in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. that was the last time. documentsnow from what it looked like, other than what you see there. foot. 20 foot by 50 that is all we know. there is no travelers descriptions that we have found. no images, no paintings of it. 56-1957 ihere from 19
will come back to, but this is a drawing from the 1930's. very little to go on. if we're going to find out what was it like to sit in that first assembly, where was the place where democracy began in this country, we have to go to the archaeology. here, look at this slide because this is a couple years ago. it looks neat and tidy. there's the knight's tomb. i'm sure you are familiar with it. prepare yourselves for a bit of a shock. once the archaeologists got hold of it, this is what we've got.
of brain surgery archaeology, but there are some things that stand out very obviously. the originalhere foundations. they used to be under glass. they used to be a sign saying don't step on the glass, because you might fall into the foundations of the original church. so, here we have the floor, and as i say, the first time anyone has seen it in more than 100 years. slidee sense of it, this shows you how it all comes together. isticularly important required is. i've got to look down at this.
the choir is where the first assembly met. location,e particular based on the english word choir, for an anglican church. the western part, the inner chanum, then the inner cel is to the east of it, where the chancel step separates the church from the ritual. you can see that we believe we have discovered sir george a tomb that was set in the choir and that goes up to the chancel step. we know the church was wooden. slides give you a sense of what we think it was made of. a timber frame, we knew that. with slave --r
with lathe. church, a plaster plastered on the outside and on the inside. we discovered the different types of plaster from the archaeology, the interior and exterior. tudor church. it would have looked something like this. this is what it would have looked like. we don't know what the roof was made of. within the last week, we think there is a fair chance that there was not a tower like this. there may have been an early timber tower that predates the stone tower.
tomb, i mentioned. here we are excavating it. stones the oldest ledger in the united states. it dates to the 1630's. older than anything we know of the spanish churches in the west. here, it gives you a sense of the restoration we have done of the tomb and of the monumental brass. lady is best known for her third, andhard the the genomic research that underpinned it. she is now working with us. what she is going to be working of governor sir
george yeardley and the genomic search that is going on to establish his identity. we had to extract dna, and you can only do that in a clean room safely. this is within the church. we constructed this timber and working one and got the church to make sure that sir george was not contaminated. i'm sure sir george would not have liked to be contaminated and we made sure he wasn't. we don't know what he looked like. like so much of this early period, we can only guess. many of the men in king, who was
a truly remarkable artist, had these little beards, the mustaches and beards. for the life of me, they remind moviesrrol flynn's great , but i do not mean to do a king.vice to sidney we have no contemporary parchments -- portraits. i meant to show this slide missing his head. we don't know what sir george yeardley looked like, but we can do a full reconstruction from the genomic analysis, if we find a match, a descendent. we found one in england. we are going to be working with
the descendent to get his genome, then match it to the findings we have. we have worked with the vcu,rsity of leicester, penn dental, to do the micro oral biome. we working with the smithsonian. we have highly significant -- highly sophisticated ground penetrating radar and fbi quantico have been assisting as well. this is to say that archaeology is hard work digging, we have still got plenty of holes in the ground, plenty of pits. you have to shovel out the dirt, get in there with your travel -- trowel. that is called ground truth thing. increasinglyg
scientific. we use this battery of science to learn more about him. that is the way archaeology is developing. how about angela? there are no monuments to africans at jamestown. there is a sign that was put up a few years ago talking about the middle passage. we have numerous wonderful monuments were courting the , the firsters reverend. we have a statue, one of only .wo in existence, of pocahontas a statue of john smith, one of only two. we have no physical reminder of the african presence on the
island. so, we wanted to rectify that. we know where she lived. for those of you familiar with ruin.land, that is the 1930's a slide from the when the civilian conservation corps worked on-site doing some literally groundbreaking archaeology. sorry, i couldn't resist. there were many african-americans involved in that. they were, without knowing it, digging on the site of the first african -- one of the first africans in english america. there is a story that continues from angela 1619 through to the lacks --, when free
blacks went on to these early pioneers of archaeology. they were documenting all of that. we're going to be very interested in working with the to get a wider audience. this is what we have done so far. there is nothing here that necessarily jumps out at you, but this is the first time it has ever been done at jamestown. we are attracting large crowds of people who want to know more about angela, want to know her story from what we are finding in the ground. all we know about angela is her name and that she lived at this site in 1625.
we do not know whether she survived for long. we do not know her age, and apart from general documentation , which tells us where she is from, that is it. if we are to find out something about her, how she lived, what she would have seen, the landscape still intact in jamestown, this is the only way that we can do it, through archaeology. very quickly, i am running out of time. what allo think about this means for us as a people. legacies,ink about democracy, rule of law, consent of the governed, obviously it was very different. democracy was different in the early 17th century compared to today. probably the major difference was that many people were excluded, notably women, africans, indian peoples, and
that did not change for a long time. that underpin our society and our democracy, i would venture to say were founded here in jamestown in 1619. particularly the rule of law, consent of the governed. when i think about this, i think in terms of an anglo-american dialogue. you can't see it, but i'm wearing my anglo american pin. it is pretty obvious, but i am wearing it for this. the kind of discussions going on up the kind of democracy that existed in virginia at that time, you hear those same voices echoing in the houses of parliament in the 1640's, you in the
hear those same arguments in the fields of the british civil wars of the mid-17th century and those same principles are being argued about 130 years later in america during the american revolution and beyond. democracy is not ever a finished item. it is always evolving. it started in jamestown. this is something to give us pause. democracy is precious. it has a sick principles that have been contested, debated, in fought over for 400 years the english american world. diversity, race, and inequality. alongside those remarkable principles that were first
established 400 years ago, we dispossession of the , we havepulation that one can trace, attitudes toward race that can go back to 1619. you can find echoes of them today. most importantly, inequality. that sir edwin sandys wanted to set up a commonwealth, because he believed that by serving the common good, you would serve all. that was based on a society where people had opportunity, but there was also basic equality. we're still struggling with this as a people, and i am hoping
19, but more importantly, 2019, gives us a chance to enter into a dialogue with one another to talk about these issues more. thank you very much. >> [applause] >> have time for maybe two quick questions. >> and interesting talk and a memorable year. on showed some slides angela, the excavation of church and so on. there was some talk a while back , controversy about a power line coming over the james river. to what extent will that impact your work? not in the church or at the angela site.
i am familiar with that actually. thank you for the question. it won't impact where we are at jamestown. if you go to black point at the eastern end of the island, the power line and more particularly, the transmission feet tall, you will be able to see those in the distance. a very interesting talk. i was always taught and the suggests thatrs the ships that intercepted the slave ship were in fact dutch ships, probably pirate ships. you suggested that they were english privateers. i know the difference between privateers and pirates is pretty what makes you think they were english rather than dutch? mr. horn: we have got pretty
sound evidence no that these two ships were owned or partially owned by sir robert. one was carrying letters of mark. from a foreignn nation at war with britain -- at spain, such as the netherlands, as a privateer, you could get a letter of that kind, which legitimized at least in the european sense, not to the spanish, but the europeans other than the spanish and portuguese, any plundering that went on. there is no question that both of the ships captains were english, and there is considerable evidence, but fairly recent, because i recall and i think in one of my books i mentioned the white lion in dutch.
it was carrying letters from the dutch. it was manned and crewed by the english. >> [applause] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> i remember as a little kid, you knew that when a plane went by, you were to stand up with your hand on your heart. you knew that you were to stand and sing the national anthem. you learned to recite the pledge of allegiance. announcer 1: sunday at 4:00 p.m. on real america, press interviews with president ronald reagan from the oval office during the final weeks of his presidency in january, 1989. >> when i said doing nothing wrong, this was, what i have to
say is the total media distortion of the process that was underway. i can't understand it, because the day after that the covert operation, i went before the press and told them exactly what the operation was. we were not doing business with the ayatollah. we were not trading arms for hostages. we had received word by way of a third country, israel, that a delegation of people at a time when everyone was saying the ayatollah was not going to live at the week, and that factions were rising up as to who was going to be the government of iran. this crew was about four by a third country as responsible citizens who wanted a meeting with representatives of the
united states as to how there could be a better relationship between the government of iran and the united states. watch railamerica on american history tv on c-span3. >> monday night on "the communicators." >> we're talking about fiber-optic technology, it has been around decades. basically the idea is a very allows, as of glass far as we can tell, unlimited amounts of information to be pumped through it by lasers. it is used around the world. more and more countries are ensuring that everyone a fair citizens has access to a fiber-optic connection. third -- author and harvard law professor susan crawford discusses her book. bettere will be no wire than fiber that will emerge over the next few decades. and right now, we are leaving
behind a lot of the country when it comes to great communications capacity, and as a nation, we are falling behind in the global race to be the place for new ideas come from. >> watch monday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span two. >> next on "lectures in history come to that history,", class about military engagement in the american revolution from april 1775 through july 1776. he highlights the battle of underhill, the american invasion of canada and the eventual british evacuation of boston. his class is about an hour. prof. gabriel: ok, everybody. last class, we were talking about the outbreak of the american revolution. all of this tension is building in the spring of 1775, in april,