Skip to main content

tv   Lectures in History Dwight Eisenhower and 1950s Political Advertising  CSPAN  August 13, 2019 10:19pm-11:35pm EDT

10:19 pm
lectures in history series hears from purdue university on political advertising in the 1950s highlighting dwight eisenhower's presidential campaigns. she compares radio and early televised ads and examines what components made them successfulo her class isliti about an hour, minutes. >> nothing perhaps captures the popular memory of the 1950s like the slogan i like ike. this idea that this pin that so many people wore around the campaign of 1952 and 1956 conveys a notion of nostalgia and simplicity. it emphasizes the 1950s as this era of prosperity where america. was a world leader and the american people were happy in
10:20 pm
suburban homes with their nuclear i like ike, it's so simple and k it conveys that happiness. this idea, however, is a myth and it's a political is construction. the 1950a s in fact was a time wroughtth with racial discrimination, conflicts, intense political and social pressures to conform to a suburban ideal that imposed gender hierarchies and mandated heterosexuality in the law. it wasimpose a time in which anti-communism targeted the liberal reform impulses of the new deal and frequently anti-communists took away civil liberties. and these are all different areas of political pressures in. terms of enforcing certain ideals and resisting against and those that we will look at next week.. but i like ike as a political
10:21 pm
construct shifted attention awa from those divisions and it and created a sense of consensus. in many ways again this is political construction. co at the root of it was a very innovative and transformative marketing campaign that transformed a military hero ino a political celebrity. and he used that attention to win the presidency. often we think of john f. kennedy or ronald reagan as pred ushering in the presidency but na fact it was dwight eisenhowerpn and this is what we are going tr look at today.and dwight eisenhower brought dw several important developments o the modern americanight t presidency through his presid leadership style and his
10:22 pm
organizational approach. in doing this he built on a lot of the transformations we've already looked at this semester. for example franklin roosevelt executive office of the presidency.. and last week we looked at how harry truman expanded it with lo the national securityoked a sta dwight eisenhower, however, formalized it. he ran his office very much like he did the military. the bureaucracyri becamety a ve entrenched and well focused and executed component of the american presidency under eisenhower. in for example, he had weekly cabinet meetings and he formed a the office of congressionald gd liaison so he could have a formal link to the legislative process.coul and this was especially important becausese throughoutlk 1950s the democratic party controlled congress.1950 sos, eisenhower recognized thato get things done he needed to gnd have a really smooth operation indo terms of links with congre
10:23 pm
but he also brought this organizational focus to this shifting media environment and transformed the white house into a production studio. and to do that he worked very wd closely with hollywood figures and madison avenue television executives and companies to navigate the new mass medium of television that ultimately really transformed american political communication during the 195050 s.olitic so this post-world war ii era is really a key moment to isderstand the rise of entertainment, advertising, of t television and hollywood in american politics because on television really does drastically change the political scene during the 1950s. so the questions that i want us to think about today as we study this particular period are how does television change leadership styles?
10:24 pm
how does it change strategies of political communication and led qualifications needed to succeed politically? and the key question that we're going to come back to at the en of class is does television revolutionize the american revo presidency, or does it build ony trends that are already in place? so to get at that question we need to start by thinking aboute what are the trends that are tt already in place. does television launch a significant break in terms of leadership strategies and a communication strategies. so what trends are already in ofce before the launchch tegy? television in the 1950s? what does theodore roosevelt we bring to the presidency? >>theodo theodore roosevelt bro like increased media connections at the beginning of the 20th
10:25 pm
century to start formalizing the process of like the executive office and the media. ecutiv excellent. >> didn't he also setup the west wing as a sort of source to have the press like within the whites house in order to have a a have connection with them as well? >> yes. and again these are key in terms of he valued the press. he saw the press is as an asset, something he wanted to capitalize on their place to control and help shape public opinion. excellent. >> he also had the fireside chats, so there was already this idea of there is this e personalized president that if h every person has a radio in their home, they can listen to him and it's like he's speaking to them using rhetoric easy to i understand, not super complicated political >> solica franklin roosevelt re brings in this idea of a fireside chat. so theodore roosevelt uses the presidency as a bully pulpit. he creates heez relationships
10:26 pm
with journalists and again uses public opinion to launch and advocate for a very specific policy. franklin roosevelt takes this ao stepr ve further. so he capitalizesa on radio an uses that to create an intimate connection with the american public. and i'm going to play you a quick clip just to give you a sense of what this sounded like. again, thinking about if you were a listener, you were tuning into your radio during the 1930u to listen to your president, to this would have been what you gt heard. >> ladies and gentlemen, the of the united states. >> my friends, i want to talk for a few minutes with the people of the united states about
10:27 pm
more particularly with the overwhelming majority of you whr use banks for the making of the products and the drawing of change. >> what did he do just in that very simple opening? >> he definitely personalizes the chat.the chat he uses i, you, we, and he creates this personal link between the presidency and the people so that they feel like he's on their side and that the also have a place in this huge bureaucratic thing that he has begun to create.ic >>thin absolutely. personalizing the presidency, en that is so key. for those of you who looked at a lot of critics of new deal wh programs how does he bypass thas with the radio? if someone doesn't agree with am particular program what is heeo
10:28 pm
able to do with radio? >> he's able to directly appeal to the american people with th radio andra bypass like say newspapers that have editorial slants against new deal policie and just to work around old poli institutions that were against him. >>ar absolutely. that's really key. thinking about the power that this gives. it creates that personal relationship, that intimacy between the president and an au individual in their home.t ves. and then it also allows him to -- to challenge the also narrative. overwhelmingly at this time people got their information from newspapers. and many newspaper editors weres against a the new deal. overwhelmingly at this time newspapers were conservative, more critical of roosevelt's di policies so the radio becomes a
10:29 pm
new opportunity to connect directly to audiences. and if you recall, it's not jus radio that he uses.s. he also usedd theaters and motin pictures to sell certain programs. hece capitalized on the news res that would have been shown at the beginning of a motion on th picture feature.uld've but he also worked with a variety of different studios ine hollywood to create productioni shortsff like this one which on promoted the national recovery administration. ♪
10:30 pm
♪ you and you you you've got a e president now.hold you and you put shoulders to the plow, he gave us what we asked for now pay him back somehow ♪ ♪ stepp out in front and give a man a job ♪ ♪ he bore the brunt now bear with the president and give a man a job ♪ makes the old heart proud, you take this message straight from the president and give a man a job ♪ you look like a banker.look who drives your car?r? > i drive it havese a cigar. >> keep your cigar and hire a
10:31 pm
sho shoefer. >> i'll need more men to kill the rats. >> he wants you to u lo hireok a crowd. you langute a sign that means no rats allowed. what's the matter with you? >> i'm a very sick woman. >> oh, a hypo condriac. o or any kind of an itis that will delight us.that w listen to me, everybody, step u and get back out front and give a man a job.a you know that, i know it, so i n
10:32 pm
step up and give a man a job. i'll tell you and when i do it'll give your heartno a start you take this message straight from the president and give a a man a job. >> so what does this do that's different from the fireside chats? go ahead, brent. >> it turns presidential policyr into an entertainment product. >> absolutely. >> it's very much like the beginning of the whole concept of marketing. >> absolutely. excellent. excellent. >> i was going to say very it llent. takes -- it's no longer the presidentka advocating for himsf but it's normal people r advocating for the president that normal people would want the president and that they areo
10:33 pm
veryca much for his policies an that he has caused all of this economic boom and all of these -- all this prosperity within the country.ed >> the yeah, so the focus -- t hero of this story is franklin roosevelt. right,focus, he's featured at t, his portrait. but he has a variety of other people who are helping sell this. a comedian in this capacity, a variety of different celebrities come out for franklin roosevelti to doen this.brities radio spokesmen and radio personalities all are selling the president for him. so again a different kind of production team in terms of selling a particular policy.diff excellent. adam? of creates the sound bite. so if you can take different snippets of what the guy was saying like give back to the president or give a man a job, those are easy to remember take jingles, so you could put thoses into some sort of radio man
10:34 pm
advertisement or, you know, that appeals too a more general audience. they're going to remember that n message whether or not they gena heard the whole song or not or whether or not they heard about all the different ways they can help. they're going to remember given man a job. >> absolutely, the slogan. so again bringing some of these features, the advertising at >>s this time, and hollywood, bringing them into politics to sell particular policies. and the only reason you will not be humming give a man a job later this day is because you'ro going to hum the i like ike one because it'sth a lot catch yr. lucas? >> i thought it was interesting holding the president up but using it as a selling point.use in this case it was actually po. getting the people involved ini specific policy so it's actualle helping the common man or the middle class man to come out an without you we can't do this, but with you you can be part ofo this grander thing that's helping all out americans. >> and thatdo is really key as
10:35 pm
well when we think about media and new media and the , presidency. because really effective anesidents are able to use new media to win elections, but thes also to govern. to use it as a tool to sell their agenda as well. and making that transition from communication on the campaign d trail to communication once in t office is really key. and this is why what dwight re eisenhower does with television is also really important because he follows that trajectory.t, in term of using new media to win an election and then reshape how he governs and how he sets i the agenda as lucas pointed out. so, again, we see a lot of the new possibilities in terms of preventing an agenda, shaping public opinion andnd promoting personality that comes with
10:36 pm
radio and motion pictures. so what about television?o and o does television bring something fundamentally new to american i politics and to the american presidency? i want to throw a coupleam of a numbers out because i think it really conveys how dramatically colevision grew and reshaped americannv politics. in 1949 only 172,000 television sets had sold. that number jumped to over 52 million by 1953. this is an incredibly dramatic growth of a new technology that forced politicians to grapple with presenting themselves and t theirh policies to voters thro tv screens rather than newspaper articles, radiotv broadcasts or even these motion picture shorts. and one of the key things to think about is that this growth of a new technology caused thin
10:37 pm
tremendous anxiety and concern. and it'sanxi really important t understand that this is post-world war ii, that it becomes so powerful. this there was deep concern over the manipulative powerpo of propagaa at this time.was de and the ways it could be used to undermine democracy and to promote totalitarian governments.could after all adolph hitler and the nazi party in germany had a ver effective propaganda machine. it's how they were able to rman consolidate power by limiting information over new medias. in too did joseph stalin in the soviet union. and so these concerns about the manipulative power of the new media and even old media, motion pictures in particularly, were really at the core of a lot of anti-communist investigations
10:38 pm
particularly the ones that featured the motion picture industry in 1947.on pict the central question that was debated in the halls of congress asestion a variety of to testi, their political activity was us were they using entertainment,wer thentertainme were they using their celebrity for anti-democratic purposes. quote, glamour is appealing, the communists have made shrewd in excellent use of it for their purpose. they are tryingng tocommunis bedazzle audiences with celebrity. and so this is a question that pervaded national politics. is entertainment media, motion pictures and this new media of television that people weren't s quite sure what to do with, is this going to undermine democracy?
10:39 pm
does it focus more attention o entertainment, and can it be used as a way to advance to communism? these were central questions that people had.. so thesese fears of entertainme and propaganda and manipulation are really important to understand when we see the are differentre ways that politicia grappled with television. some of them embraced televisio and theth opportunities that it had to offer, but overwhelmingly in the 1950s they were very war of it.g to and the argument that we don't . want to manipulate others by do embracing advertising, sales advertising in madison avenue, that really dominated public discourse during the 1950s. for example, the democratic nominee for the presidency in 1952 and 1956 stevenson looked
10:40 pm
very disdainfully on the medium that sold presidents as commodities. quote, the idea you can merchandise candidates for high office like breakfast cereal i think is the ultimate intigdy to the democratic process argued stevenson. he wanted to use this new medium to perhaps expand his message, to deliver longer speeches but h not to use any of those slick sale techniques that madison avenue executives were using to sell cereal. he wanted to use this new medium to perhaps expand the message n that he was already delivering to audiences. and so what he did during the 1952 election is that he did 192 allow some advertisers to create some catchy jing lgz fles for h he refused to be a part of that
10:41 pm
production. he said if you want tobut do t like the way we did with radio that's fine but i'm notot going to appear the short advertisement.n there's no way i can talk about a policy in 30 seconds. so instead adlai stevenson worked with the democratic national committee and purchasei longer chunks of so an hour perhaps where he would then go in front of a tv camera and deliver a long speecr about a particular policy.delive well, if you're going to purchase an hour of tv time and you have a limited budget when will that time be? and he thought when can you afford that time, right?ti >> whenever it'sme cheapest. >> absolutely. >> which would probably be late at night when it's not prime time. >> exactly. so when adlai stevenson did appear on tv it was late at night, when the only people watching were perhaps those
10:42 pm
people who were committed democrats that wanted to watch what stevenson had to say. so that's only time he appeared in these purchased periods on television. and he had his that advertisin make ads again that reflected radio strategy.vertis i'm going to show you two of them and i want you to think about how these are perhaps reminiscesent more of something you'd hearmore over the radio something you'd see on tv. ♪ old mcdonald had a farm back in '31 just broken down farmland everywhere ♪
10:43 pm
♪ farmer mack knows what to do,, election day of '52 to look for adlai stevenson ♪ ♪ well if it's good for mack you see it's good for you and good fororif me ♪ ♪ vote stevenson today >> all right, one more and we'll discuss. >> ike.e.♪ bob. >> ike. >> bob. i'm so glad we're friends again, bob. >> yes, ike, we agree on everything. >> let's never separate again, o bob. >> never glad again, ike.neve >>r bob. >> ike. >> bob.
10:44 pm
>> ike. >> will ike and bob really live happily ever after? is the white house big enough for both of them? stay tuned for a musical interlude. ♪ with the general in the white house who will give the orders bob or ike ♪ >> so bob refers to robert taft who was the other contender for the presidency in the republican party. >> the more conservative candidate. and eisenhower was promoted at this time as the moderate republican.ed and so that, you know, makes a particular argument about their relationship. so what did you noticerate abou these two commercials? carolyn? >> all the visuals were merely like ornamentation, like you
10:45 pm
mentioned earlier these could have just been played over the radio anduld honestly it would n had the same effectiveness and a also it doesn't really feature t any of the candidates at all, like facial so people watching it might not really make that rhetorical connection. >> excellent. >> this might just bepe looking things from like a modern lens, but they're not very good.bu like, from the base standpoint of getting are a stance across don't know who farmer mack is. we don't know what caused his n farm to be bad and how voting for stevenson would fix that en problem, and that was awo bigge problem with the first one than the second one. the second one just doesn't go it's 30 seconds of can i change the channel to see literally an other political advertisement especially that really catchy i like ike one that seems to be e, going around that my friends are talking about. >> excellent. >> well, it's a lot like what ad
10:46 pm
you see today where it's like slander campaigns. you're getting nothing of yours across, just bashing everything what they do. like talk nothing about you, just them. just talk about all the negatives. >> and that's what's really r ca seempgettin that do. approach of let's ves. critique eisenhower and critique the republican party. so that negative aspect is in absolutely there.see rather than a positive message about why you should vote for the democratic candidates. >> it seemed therather commerco were really just preaching to the choir because the first one was just saying adlai is good for farmers but doesn't say how. so it'd seem like the only people who would agree with tha are people familiar with his farming policies. andwith in the second one tryi compare ike and bob it doesn't explain why. they're going to see that have their beliefs either ignored or offended.
10:47 pm
>> absolutely. and i think that'sing really be important too when you think fed about the. democratic party at this time, is that media is -- is a side component. it's clearly not a priority. for stevenson, for the democratic national committee that this particular why? where is the strength ofic the democratic party at this time? how do they win elections? >> it'd be like remnants of coalition from the 1930s and something else, the first advertisement especially pointed out is look back to 1931. they're like look 20 years ago o when republicans did bad things. i mean i feel like in the modern 20 years ago is a completelyin different environment than tno so it's really trying to harken backis to arguments they've bee making for the last two decades. >> excellent. kayla snpg. >> i was goingto to say you ca
10:48 pm
see the contrast between the democratic party and they're continually asking people to look back at what we've done, not even what stevensonlo has d necessarily but what other done democrats have done and linking the party together, that's the only thing they share because w he's a democrat, he will be as successful as past democrats whereas with ike's campaign it was very much looking towards the future and not -- well, gn, because they didn't really have a great past in recent years to look back to that they would lo want to advertise.d so they had to push past that h and you can see that contrast here. and also a lack of prioritizing media and honestly there's no creativity here, which would make sense because they didn't prioritize it, and that in this.y hurt them >> and i think that's really important to think about, the t democratic party had been in pon office for 20 years. that is long time to control thc white house.en in and they had done so in a way that built a coalition with very
10:49 pm
specific new deal programs that gave benefits to voters that th brought workers and farmers int that democratic coalition with all of the programs that we've looked at.the and so they were relying on those structures as economic incentives to bring voters to the polls.centiv they weren't worried about e pol getting news. voters. they just wanted to capitalize on the coalition that they had mobilized for the last 20 years so in manyto ways they're usingd the same strategies in terms of the rhetoric and who they're appealing to turn out to the s polls. >> on the subject of lack of ap creativity one thing i just th realized is that both of those ads used already commonly known usmmonly accepted meters and musical structuresed that they e just twistedrs slightly. there really was no creativity at all.just >> theytw tried to build on
10:50 pm
familiarity rather than bringing something new and innovative. fa again i think it's really important to kind of think abou that there's no one way that is predetermined how american politicians will turn to a new medium. there are a lot of different strategies that play and even dwight eisenhower was really relaxed to embrace a more madison avenue dragons the best driven style. nothing exposes dwight eisenhower like his announcement speech when he announced his dwcandidacy on th campus. he turns out to a park in abilene, it's raining and stormy and everyone tells him we have television cameras and you need to go into this barn to deliver
10:51 pm
your address to tv audiences across the country. so he was proud to support them and he wanted to connect the my audiences and so he endured the wind and the rain and all of this is captured on a camera here's what it looks like back . >> i believe in the future of
10:52 pm
the united states of america. >> te >> i think if you muted this you would think he was at war speaking to his troops. wa is award general with hair
10:53 pm
flying everywhere he has a grimace expression. he looks like award general, that's what's good for him and what he's running on . rah r >> excellent . >> he >> later in the speech it rains harder and he can't really see through his glasses gl >> robert montgomery at this time is a trhollywood actor and republican. he watched the speech and was horrified. he immediately picked up the rr phone and called the republicant party and said let me work on your campaign with you. to shift from this idea from the american hero and emphasize you are a aspolitical leader.
10:54 pm
you want to be president and you can command, not just audiences in front of you but audiences across the country. so, robert montgomery asked, can i work on your campaign and he was not the only one. dwight eisenhower was friends with a lot of aiexecutives in n york city that worked on e. madison avenue advertising executives. they also worked very diligently to revamp the media strategy. he was originally very resistant to this and was not wanting to make television such a priority in his campaign but over and over again figures ca like robert montgomery
10:55 pm
>> he also had a very innovative series of camping spot called eisenhower campaign , think of what this does as presenting eisenhower >> here is the first one and the song you will be singing the rest of the day. [ singing]
10:56 pm
[ music ] [ singing ] rr y ♪ le get in step ♪ you like ike ♪ i like ike ♪ we get together where we are going ♪ ♪ we go all the way, we all go with ike ♪ you like ike, i like ike, everyone likes ike, for president ♪ we will take ike to washington ♪ is >> now is the time for all good americans to come to the aid of their country the aid of their country. >> this also uses cartoons, but what is it do that's different >> >> yes, so this one has more of
10:57 pm
a bandwagon effect and he even says it's time for all good americans to come together so you should join in on this party . >> it is catchy in that it has a chorus that repeats rather than farmers relied on the fact that the people would know the song already. we do 40s and 50s music so people were listening to music like this it would appealed to the masses in the pop culture idea . >> >> we already commented on how democrats are looking backwards in the campaign and republicans are looking forward. i looked at these in the past and one thing that stands out to me is the sun rising at the end and it seems like a new day after the 20 years of democratic, democrats being in office . >> all the different visuals .
10:58 pm
>> the music, the sound it all emphasizes innovation, and enthusiasm, creating the bandwagon, this is something exciting moving forward so you want to be a part of it, right? >>reporter: >> i also noticed how the visuals were important because there was a vision to harry truman because truman is on the campaign trail, even though he wasn't up for election so i think, unlike the democratic so the visuals, they were very important for selling the message of the advertisement . >> they still have the critique of the democratic party but the emphasis is definitely on the positive message you don't want to be a part of the party of the future. >> .
10:59 pm
>> first, to continue, it helps with the rewatch ability. you could probably recite not bob and night because it was too boring but the other piece, i could probably recite that from memory after watching it once but they have all the different visuals subtleties like a donkey in the background . >> i didn't even catch that the first three times i watch that but i've watched it many times. so digging into, i don't know if this had been explored in psychology but the idea of peer pressure
11:00 pm
11:01 pm
>> had we present i in an efficient way . >> eisenhower was not happy with this but reluctantly agreed to do it because he saw the potential of reaching new audiences. he grumbled along the way to one of the most famous quote was that he was exasperated after an entire day of filming all of these commercials and he said, why don't you just hire an actor
11:02 pm
and it does for shadow so you will see how this production played the spot campaign . >> eisenhower answers america . >> >> prices have doubled in taxes bigger back to were still fighting in korea it's tragic and it's time for a change expect then this one . >> eisenhower answers america . >> you know what things cost today, high prices of driving me crazy . >> yes, mimi gets after me after the high cost of living and it's another reason it's
11:03 pm
time for a change, time to get back to an honest dollar in an honest others work . >> what you notice that the two quick clips say expect both are looking up at him at a steep angle like putting on a pedestal . >> leave looked up like we need help . >> . >> so, he uses a unique selling proposition in saying that the short spots, he does it -- she gives simplistic answers, not detailed. >> no in-depth perception . >> he's refuting the slogans, you've never had it so good as its democratic slogan. he's refuting that, my cost of living tries to point the
11:04 pm
slogan. so it's not specific in terms of details but there's a little more specifics to the slogan so within the 20 seconds he can try to review democratic slogans . >> kayla? >> >> i think today, we can laugh at these because you can clearly see him reading the cue cards in the awkward pan to the front but for the time it's brilliant because it's a person in eisenhower for talking to each other and it's not just personal, not just personable over the airways it's personable in person with the candidate in the american people with a chance to directly talk to him about concerns . >> again, it does personalize
11:05 pm
the conversation that ordinary americans are talking with presidential candidates. so the people they bring in allows them to speak to particular demographics. women, african-americans are trying to bring them into the republican party. and the timing of the matters. so, purchasing longer chunks of time later at night, what the republican party did is that they purchased expensive flats that were only 30 seconds long and maybe a minute long but they purchase those at the end of the most popular shows. so frequently going to caroline's point earlier about how this fits in with the popular culture, when isherwood and and this would seamlessly come on, you're capturing viewers tuned into a television
11:06 pm
variety show and they continue to watch that because it fits into the themes that they are used to hearing. . >> they reach out to new voters and reach out to independent voters were previously voting for the democratic party or you emphasize this idea that perhaps you haven't voted before. but, we reach out to people as media consumers, that's a word that was used in the campaign. how can we yield to voters as media consumers? here's another innovation that they brought on the campaign trail that you can find where they have all these
11:07 pm
programs. this is their election program. you can see richard nixon and dwight eisenhower sitting next to one another looking clearly uncomfortable on camera but, they went on camera and that's the key thing, they went on camera the night before the election, they talked about what they wanted to do in office and then the election special goes from them to showing scenes of them eisenhower leading troops in world war ii and scenes of them campaigning around the country. so, again to give a personal connection. the program from 19 6056 goes further in that they organize celebrations across the country. in the san francisco and detroit and they had cameras there. capturing the surge of support that eisenhower had across the country.
11:08 pm
it showed link to region to region through the election special and ended at the white house. so, again it's trying to create a national electric to overcome different devised regions and in even class and social status through the republican party through the language of television. for the republican party and dwight eisenhower it worked. the media analyst, after the 1952 election noted that eisenhower and republicans used this new medium more effectively to attract a wider range of voters and to bring in new people to the republican party. i
11:09 pm
i like you building will economic on the your appealing media i finding a way to get emotionally political what i you bring the in any to the white house i the white house to a production video i very literally i of the white house i turned i had the help of robert montgomery helped with the advisor as an official
11:10 pm
function of the white house staff and, ultimately i house those researching ways capitalized on television to get people interested in what he's doing as an individual from the white house. so he experimented with television the same way that fdr had experimented. again, this is on purpose. what robert mann company talked about is fdr was very innovative and we need to pick up where he left off and take the presidency into the next chapter with television so, a variety of tactics he introduces. so in 1954 there's a first televised cabinet meeting also available to the c-span archives . i would show you a clip but
11:11 pm
it shows how it's not effective. eisenhower was reluctant to have a televised cabinet meeting , but the press secretary said it's a great opportunity to, like radio before, james haggerty says that television allows you to go to the people and go directly to them without them having to read stories by the press. so, the same way using the same medium to bypass critical coverage in the press and allow eisenhower to correct -- connect directly to viewers. we tried the televised cabinet meeting but the issue with the meeting is that it was incredibly scripted. they set up cameras and people had scripts they were reading it was clear this script did. so, yes, they talked about the
11:12 pm
issues of the day, foreign policy, economic challenges and they did so in a way that didn't seem like it was actually a fly on the wall where you were seeing policy discussions. rather, it was just another opportunity to bring other figures of the presidential administration into the media i to talk about policy. he also had the first televised press conference. this is a tradition that is become ingrained in the presidency ever since then. but, again, he had reporters it was televised but not life. he had reporters come in to ask certain questions, but at the end of the day james haggerty, robert montgomery were able to editing , with they didn't like from the press conference. so, some people celebrated the innovation is democracy in action. others, lamented that it was white house censorship and that
11:13 pm
this was just another form of manipulation. perhaps the biggest innovation that dwight eisenhower brings with television to the office of the presidency is the position that still persists to this day, the idea that still sitting at his desk, giving an address about a national crisis as it unfolded, i wanted to play a quick clip of an address that he delivered during the little rock crisis, when the segregationist who didn't want to integrate in little rock, refused to allow african- american students to enroll in their high school. so, ultimately because they had recently passed this, dwight
11:14 pm
eisenhower decided it was his role as president to enforce the decision and send federal troops to little rock to ensure the african-american students can enroll and integrate the high school in little rock. he delivers this address. during this moment of national crisis and during this moment in which he had just sent federal troops to the south to implement a national law, a decision that had been handed down by the supreme court. think about the controversy we've looked out, the debates of race and federal authority and how they've embroiled american politics over the previous century. there's a moment of crisis. he uses television to frame what's happening. as its unfolding. so we want to think the this is
11:15 pm
different than the newsreels in the chat that franklin used . >> in the white house in washington dc, we present a special address by the president of the united states, dwight eisenhower. he discusses the integration problem at little rock arkansas . ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states. >> good evening fellow citizens. for a few minutes this evening i like to speak to you about the serious situation that has arisen in little rock. to make this talk i am come to the president's office in the white house. could've spoken from rhode island where i've been staying recently. but, i felt that in speaking from the house of objection, my words better convey the sadness
11:16 pm
i feel in the action i was compelled today to meet and the fairness with which i intend to pursue the course until the orders of the federal court at little rock can be executed without unlawful interference. >> in that city under the leadership of extremists, disorderly mobs have deliberately presented the carrying out of orders from the federal court. local authorities have not eliminated the violent opposition. and, under the law, he issued a proclamation calling upon the mob to disperse . this morning, the mob again gathered in front of the high school of little rock, obviously for the purpose of again preventing their carrying out of the first order relating to the mission of [ null ] children to this rule .
11:17 pm
>> whenever normal agencies prove inadequate to the task and it becomes necessary for the executive branch of government to use its powers and authority to uphold federal court, the president's responsibility is inescapable. in accordance with the responsibility, i have today issued an executive order, direct being the use of federal authority to aid in the execution of federal law at little rock arkansas. but this came necessary when my observation was not observed and obstruction of justice still continues . >> so what is he do here, what power does this give him? said so, he is an executive shows he's listening to it's happening around the country
11:18 pm
and he's the first one to have a stake in this and talks about the executive order and talks about this of cream court where the enforced the brown decision but, as the executive, he showing yes it's the figure and i'm here talking about this and i think the premise of that is really interesting . >> i was gonna say that he shows very clear executive power . that they will obey the executive order and i'm trying to enforce this because of the extreme decision. but he calls out the police in little rock but puts the emphasis on the extra messed of
11:19 pm
the people rather than the government, the local government . i'm from little rock so it's important to me but, he doesn't callout the government for not enforcing anything because it's interesting and in some ways he's trying to, not trying to isolate and push them away, for not doing their job buddies putting the emphasis on the people and the mobs other out- of-control but it's not the politicians that are really to blame for this . >> why do you think he does that? what's the goal >> that's on purpose. >> yes, he's trying to keep them draw them into the party as they undergo the shift from the democrats and republican parties starting to shift and the democrats, the idea of the southern democratic body is changing so he's trying to pull
11:20 pm
in southerners and southern politicians into the republican party . >> absolutely. at the same time, he's forced to take a stand on little rock crisis. he does feel it's his obligation as the executive, to follow the law of the land. but, at the same time, the republican national committee is undergoing a variety of studies that they call operation dixie where there thinking about ways in which they can capitalize on what's going in a democratic party between southern conservatives and more liberal democrats but it's a really calculated move in terms of how he frames it that you absolutely head on, excellent . >> i find it kind of ironic that he chose interjection of all people to talk about the when talking about the enforcement of us up in court decision, given that one of
11:21 pm
jackson's most famous decisions was not to listen to the supreme court in the case of the indian removal act. but, also, one thing he makes clear is that , to continue off of absolving government, he makes it clear that this is a last resort it's very much the people are not listening to what is been said previously. so, we half to send the army and to enforce the decision because were nation of laws and the laws must be followed . >> excellent. great . >> i want to highlight what was said at the beginning. i've come to the white house when i could've just been in rhode island and that's clearly for the visual aspect of the address. but, it doesn't matter where he is, he goes back to the white house to lend credibility to what he is saying and to draw
11:22 pm
comparisons to the president mentioned in jackson not respect thing the supreme court. he wants to lend legitimacy to the actions of the supreme court and federal government through the location he's giving the address . >> this is key, you're right, he recognizes the visual power of the oval office. this is something that presidents time and time again will continue to invoke, that visual power. they will use the addresses from the very same spot to talk to the country in moments of crisis . so, again, this is a new development that eisenhower recognizes in terms of shifting the power dynamic. as you and caitlin mentioned, overwhelmingly it's the president that's taking action the president dominates television and especially in comparison to congress.
11:23 pm
but, it's part of the visual shift and who is leading the country, centering more in the executive branch than in the legislative ranch. so, to get to the question that we started with today does television revolutionize the presidency or does it just build on and trends that are already in place, did something fundamentally change with television in the presidency? >> i think it's a mix of both. but, obviously the trend, there are always trends in the media and even within the presidency we talk about teddy roosevelt being the first president translating into fdr addresses where he uses rhetoric that every day americans can understand. the biggest thing with television being introduced is the idea of a media institution.
11:24 pm
douglas and the article gets into that later with kennedy but, this idea that there are agencies now, pr agencies, pr's are in existence because of the idea that there's a way to use media, not even paid advertising to make your message more known to make it incredible and make people jump on board with it and the idea that there are also norms that have to be addressed and understood with television as well, the idea that there's an institution about television, not just the medium itself and not the fact that it's a visual but the institution surrounding it is important and what changes . >> that's excellent. a great observation, you saw that in the beginning of this where, if you notice, they should him walking up they showed the tv cameras and, frequently, footage of eisenhower in the openoffice
11:25 pm
would show the open scene around it. newspapers would report on that and say the real excitement was behind the camera and they would describe what's happening. so, there's an education that the entire public gets about how the media institution works this comes with the use of television in the implementation of the studio in the oval office. excellent. >> with television now, it's gonna bring a lot more transparency to the executive branch, now that they do have visuals it's more personal, like when they get into a family home and gather around the tv and get to watch the president give speeches and address certain agendas and everything else >> excellent. great. >> i think the use of television is revolutionary in that it changes who can be a major party candidate, it would've been difficult for fdr
11:26 pm
with polio to be a successful president in the 50s because his campaign and staff is doing everything they could to play down his physical ailment. but, instead with television, it's much easier to use the cult of personality to appeal to the people and then you will see later candidates, kennedy and reagan use different backgrounds than the party politics that truman or mckinley or any of the other presidents came out of that i think is the biggest change television creates on the presidency . >> certainly it challenges party structures and allows for people who can command media attention to not have to negotiate and wheel and deal behind the scenes to gain power and privilege within the party butts to go to the public. but this does set up very
11:27 pm
nicely, what comes nice on thursday, the 1960 election when john f. kennedy does exactly that . >> sorry. what i was going to say is also on the opposite side of that, as kelly mentioned in the article that we read, you had things like the eisenhower nixon group that codified a party machine version. it was less about being the kingmaker and more about taking what limited money they had to which it was millions of dollars, not limited by a normal skill but they did have a budget and, figuring out what the most effective way to spend the money was . >> absolutely. so, new challenges within the party itself, thinking about how to adapt and take advantage
11:28 pm
of the media landscape. and then the role of individuals , those who are not a part of the party can think about ways in which they can foreground themselves to make the party take them seriously. that again is something that stanley kelly talks about in this expert. i will give you a brief second to read this. part of the reading really gets the core of what you're talking about in terms of changing party structure that happened because of public relations and television. >> so, if you're a candidate that is looking to win a presidential nomination from your party and it's really telling that this is stanley
11:29 pm
kelly junior which you read from today. he's one of the first people to that he this question of public relations and power dynamics, how would this industry of public relations shift the power dynamics during the 1950s . this comes out in 1956. if your student eager, public official and you want think about a presidential nomination, how would you take this advice that he gives and apply it? to the campaign caitlin i think you have to become a celebrity within your own right, somehow, politically or otherwise, you could be reagan and be an actor or a radio talkshow host or
11:30 pm
something but you could become a political celebrity but either way you have to make publicity for yourself in order to capture the public imagination before you talk about policies. in order to get the attention that your person and that you're seeking this nomination and you are a person to the people again, a celebrity . >> absolutely. the importance of a systematic large-scale privately sponsored publicity buildup in order to gain political publicity this is something john f. kennedy studies and recognizes and uses in his campaign to win the democratic nomination in 1960. it's notable, as we we'll talk about on thursday, that the challenger was lyndon johnson, the most powerful democrat in the country. they had all the authority of
11:31 pm
working within the democratic party since the new deal building up credibility and the ability to manipulate votes in the senate. with leading contenders for the democratic candidates in 1960 and it's telling that is on the ticket and lyndon johnson is on the ticket as vice president. so, how that came about in the 1960 campaign we have conflicting ideas about who should have authority all of that will be the story we look into on thursday. >> we look into that on thursday. >> all week were featured in american history tv programs is a preview of what's available every weekend on cspan-3 lectures and history, american
11:32 pm
artifacts, real america of the civil war, oral histories, presidency and special event coverage about the nation's history. enjoy american history tv now and every weekend on cspan-3 >> weeknights this month we feature american history tv programs is a preview of what's available every weekend on cspan-3. wednesday, look at a recent conference held that purdue university titled remaking american political history tv. we feature programs from the gathering focusing on u.s. politics and governing from the earliest days of the american republic. american history tv airs wednesday the p.m. eastern on cspan-3 >> sunday at 9 am eastern, washington journal of american history tv large special:
11:33 pm
program looking back at woodstock, the 1969 cultural and musical phenomenon. david farber, author of the book the age of great dreams, america in the 60s the joint is to take your calls. >> drugs matter but who takes the drugs and why the drugs have the effect they did in the 60s and 70s is again something we are still wrestling with a scholars understand the technology of drugs, we have david courtright and people who thought long and hard about this is imperative not just for the 60s but of the production of history. what drugs we give have the incredible ability to change the direction of a given side . >> calling to talk with david farber about the social movements of the 60s leading up to woodstock and its legacy. woodstock, 50 years, sunday at 9 am eastern on c-span's washington journal, also live in american history on cspan-3
11:34 pm
>> >> watch the national book festival august 31 starting at 10 am eastern. the coverage includes ruth gator innsbruck book my own words. the book is the heartbeat of wounded knee . >> childhood of the green. rick atkinson, the author of the british are coming in thomas malone, family directors of counterintelligence super minds, the national book festival is live at 10 am eastern on book tv on cspan-2 . >> soldiers, soldiers and airmen of the allergen airy force. you are about to embark upon the great crusade


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on