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tv   American History TV Visits Hawaii  CSPAN  September 20, 2020 3:47pm-4:01pm EDT

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the american story. since 2011, we have been to more than 200 communities across the nation peered like many americans, our staff is staying close to home due to the coronavirus. next, a look at one of our cities tour visits. ♪ >> the battleship missouri, 53,000 ton whole ship of the fleet. become the scene of an unforgettable ceremony, marking a complete and formal surrender of japan. in the bay of tokyo itself the , united states destroyer buchanan comes along, bringing representatives of the allied powers to witness the capitulation. general of the army douglas , macarthur, supreme allied commander for the occupation of japan, boards the missouri. fleet admirable -- fleet admiral nimitz and admiral halsey
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welcome macarthur and his chief of staff, general sutherland, aboard. the admiral escorts general macarthur to the lander deck, where the ceremony is supposed to take place. it is september 2, 1945. >> right now, we are on the 01 level of the battleship missouri, also known as the veranda deck. we now call this deck the surrender deck. this is where september 2, 1945, the japanese signed the unconditional surrender ending world war ii. the pocket behind me is where the table sat that day. the ship looks different, the shady canopy overhead was not installed, and the torrent behind me was rotated 30 degrees to star board to make more room for all the officials to be on board. if you had looked above us that day, you would see thousands of members of missouri's crew, crews of other ships, hanging onto anything they could trying to get a glimpse of what was
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about to occur on this deck. at 9:00 in the morning, the ceremony was supposed to start. members of the japanese delegation were making their way on board. there were 11 of them that made their way up the ladder behind me, and at 9:02 in the morning, they descended from above to start the ceremony. the first person to sign the surrender documents was someone signing on behalf of the japanese delegation, than the general of the navy signing on behalf of the japanese military. the third person to sign the documents was general macarthur himself. he signed as supreme allied commander he did not represent , the united states peered that would be their fourth person who signed, admiral nimitz. following them, china, ussr, australia, canada and, netherlands. there are two copies of the surrender documents because one was to be kept by the united states and one kept by japan, so we do not display the original,
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for obvious reasons. we have replicas on board. the originals are in the national archive and no and -- in washington, d.c. and a war museum in tokyo. we have a replica of one of macarthur's pens. he used six pens, and he only had to sign his name twice, one on each copy, but he used one each for "douglas," "mac," and "arthur." he did this for a simple reason and one we do today if you look at lawmakers when they sign important laws. what he wanted to do afterward was to give these pens away as souvenirs. following the last, macarthur set up to the microphone and said simply "these procedures are closed." over a thousand allied aircraft flew information. from the beginning of the ceremony at 9:02 to 9:25, 23 minutes, that is all it took to end the bloodiest conflict in human history. ♪
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now we are back in this area of the uss missouri, and we recognize part of the ship for an event that happened in world war ii. it is a touching event, and it tells you a lot about the ship and its crew, particularly its commanding officer. the battle of okinawa, the last great naval battle of world war ii, the missouri saw herself under kamikaze attack. the word is older, win twice -- there are a lot of feelings attached to it because of world war ii. the word is older when japan was found itself under attack by a mongolese fleet. twice, it was wiped out, and it was viewed as divine intervention, so that was known as a kamikaze, or a divine wind. it is this threat that the missouri found herself facing april 11, 1945.
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the pilot was about 7000 yards off of star board five, where we -- the starboard side, where we are standing currently. he came in low. missouri and her five-inch drums took up firing on the kamikaze, hitting her a few times, so that he came in, and at 14:42 in the afternoon, april 11, 1945, he planted his plane on the side of -- slammed his plane into the side of the missouri just behind here where you see these moorings. that day, the left wing of the his plane in the 500-pound bomb he was carrying fell into the ocean, did not cause any damage to the missouri or crew, and the bomb did not detonate. the wing, however, flew onto the missouri, and ignited a future -- ignited a huge fire. other people thought the missouri was sinking, but her crew was so fast that they put the fire out in minutes, and they did a headcount afterwards
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and found out that nobody from the missouri crew had been killed, and there were only two minor injuries. as they began to clean up the wreckage of the wing, they found the body of the pilot. captain callahan, the ship's first commanding officer, after finding out the pilot's body had landed on the missouri, made the order to take the pilot's body below deck to prepare it for a full military funeral. you can imagine members of the missouri were not particularly happy, but they respected their commanding officer, and they follow through, and that night, they handsewn a japanese rising sun insignia. you should be buried with the flag of your country. the next day, april 12, 1945, on the deck behind me, there was a funeral held for the pilot. six men holding the body of the pilot, the chaplain, the captain himself, "we are no longer your enemy." then at 9:00 in the morning,
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they committed his body to see. -- commit his body to the sea. not many people have heard of the story, even though it is one we like to tell at the missouri, and the reason no one heard of it is a got no press coverage, no one really talked about it, and that is because april 12, 9045, the day of the funeral, was the day that president roosevelt died and harry s truman was sworn in as our next president of the united states. now we are inside the captain's cabin on the missouri. this is a large space that is very well decorated. it is for the captain of the missouri when the ship is in port specifically, when you have visiting dignitaries, and he needs to act as a diplomat in a foreign port. the uss missouri memorial association has a very large, historic collection. a large part of it has actually been donated by former crewmembers, and the collection itself spans from the turn-of-the-century with the original battleship missouri all the way to modern day, with the current uss missouri submarine.
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while we are in here, we pulled out some artifacts for display. the two here are two very important pieces of the ship's history. they are both fragments of the plane, the kamikaze plane that hit the missouri in 1945. the piece on the left still had factory paint on it. the piece on the right was actually taken and painted. so they had very different lives but they both ended up back here on the missouri. the next few things that we have on display here today are, again, from the kamikaze attack on the missouri in the 1940's. these two artifacts are actually two pieces from something larger, and they were both recovered by two members of h division, which is the medical division aboard the missouri. when captain callahan gave the order after the kamikaze attack to take the pilot's body below
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deck, they brought the body down and prepared it for a funeral, and at some point, in that process, that commanding officer of that division, dr. lamson, as well as a corpsman, came upon two fragments of the scarf that the pilot was wearing, and we have them here. one is quite small, and then this one, from the medical officer, is quite large. now, they both bear the same pattern, a very faint floral pattern, in addition to the oil you see on them. they are two of our most fragile artifacts. as we redo our display for the 75th anniversary of the attack, one of these fragments will actually go on display to the general public, but for now, they are so fragile, we keep them in a climate-controlled area. one of the most important set of artifacts that we have on board the ship are known as surrender
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cards. they were given to crew of the missouri who were on board for the surrender ceremony as a way to verify, for them to prove to everyone that they were on board. each one is signed, you can look very closely. it is signed here by the fleet nimitz, andsey and you also get the captain and commanding officer, and you also get douglas macarthur's signature, and also the crewmember. and we have only a handful of them. they are incredibly rare and incredibly important to the story on the missouri. the next two documents we have here actually show the timing for september 2, 1945. they reported each person who
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came on board, and when each person and ship leaves as well, and you will notice that the ceremony ends at 9:25, and the japanese officials have left the ceremony by 9:29 in the morning. so we have already seen how detailed a battleship's schedule and plan can be, and they detail everything that will happen on board that day down to the exact times, and we have one from august 30, 1945, that bears a line written in it by the ship's second in command, commander leon, that is incredibly telling and bears the weight of what was about to happen in just a few days' time on board. it says we have the energy, ability, and strength to prepare for and put on a glorious show for the grand finale, as each of us does all we can on the last push, then, when our grandchildren gather around and
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say grandpappy, what did you do in the great war, we will all answer simply, "i was on the missouri." i think for today, the uss missouri is bow to bow with uss arizona. the attack on pearl harbor was december 2, 1941. the final end to world war ii was that surrender ceremony september 2, 1945, aboard the missouri. so by having the missouri at pearl harbor, we have the bookends for world war ii, the beginning on the arizona and the end on the missouri. as she sits bow to bow with the arizona the uss missouri's , 16-inch guns pointed symbolically over that ship, she is able to watch over those >> you can watch this and other
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programs on the history of communities across the country at c-span.org, cities tour. this is american history tv, only on c-span3. every 10 years since 1790, the u.s. government has set out to record data about the u.s. population. the count is mandated by the u.s. constitution. and the 24th census of 2020 is currently underway. this week on our series, "reel america," films on the u.s. census from 1940 to 1990. first, 310 minute training films designed to show enumerators how to do their jobs in 1940. that is followed in 30 minutes by "the big count: the story of the u.s. census," from 1960. and in an

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