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tv   The Civil War Little Round Top Union Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain  CSPAN  October 31, 2020 6:55pm-8:01pm EDT

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before we go, i just want to thank our participants who are here. i want to thank you again for being here with us. thank those in the background who are getting us set up. thank you for this wonderful work and i hope we can continue the conversation. much.rner: thank you also this was a pleasure. , ourxt on the civil war guest talks about the interpretation during the battle of gettysburg and the role of union colonel joshua chamberlain. college civil war institute provided the video for this event. >> we have a great topic tonight because it's a topic that many people visit gettysburg to talk
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about and that is interpretation at little round top. joshua lawrence chamberlain. why did we choose this topic? >> i think i pushed it. last fall, chris took my civil war class out to little round top. notid an incredible job just telling us about what butened at little round top he did an insightful job of helping my students understand the construction of historical narratives. focusing on chamberlain and the different accounts from joshua chamberlain. way ford up a different my students to understand. i want to do a quick plug.
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is aould note chris gettysburg college alum. 2006. while at gettysburg, i believe is when you started to do some volunteer work for the park? >> no. my first year at the college, i worked at [indiscernible] i got an internship at the park, that was my first national park experience. i fell in love with it and i have been fortunate to be able to make a career out of it. it's a wonderful journey. i wish i was a student now. the program does amazing things across the parks. the public history at the college, so many things.
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that i wish i had at my disposal when i was a student. hiredhould add, we just another civil war historian. he is currently at connecticut college. you might have read his book. call ant i will important impressive piece of scholarship. the students at gettysburg college and the ones who are future gettysburg college students will have jim to take classes from. is this the official announcement? >> it's breaking news. >> it's kind of breaking. last week is a think when everything was finally settled. he signed on the dotted line. he will definitely be here in the fall. >> that's fantastic. >> chris, i will get it started.
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you gave us a little bit of background about your early experiences of the part. sense, like to have a how visitors who came to little round top who came to the monument, would you tell us what informed their thinking? what were their >> that is a tough question to be able to answer. one of the things i find fascinating about little round top is you have these layer's of history stacked on top of one another. you have the pre-battle history which is fascinating. the battle itself. then the development of the battlefield at little round top, the organizations that managed the landscape, and that is fascinating. then you have this additional
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layer of popular culture on top of it. started with the park in 2003 and if you were to ask me what the general visitor experience was at little round top in 2003, a lot of it was driven by popular culture. the movie gettysburg, the novel the killer angels, something about those pieces of work really brought joshua chamberlain and the story to life. early on in my career, gettysburg the movie was a touchstone for people. set, they sawox the director cut. there is respect i have for visitors, they are trying to story and thehe
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battle with joshua chamberlain, because it has become a fixture of american fabric. i want to go to a place like little round top and feel as if they are communing with the authenticity of the hill. , iflook at little round top you were to go to the 20th main 1982, you would barely find a trail out there. overgrown. it has evolved so much. now you go in a portion that was once called the chamberlain avenue was repaved. the site gets incredible visitation, it is the single most visited spot. we get one million visitors a year and almost every of them
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goes to little round top. this sense of, these rocks were here, and that sense of communing with this and the spirit of the past. chamberlain't think -- i don't think the movie gettysburg has significance to our visitors today as it was 10 years ago or as it was 15 years ago. , joshuatain sense has kind of outlived the movie. he has a significant now in his own right in terms of how americans who visit little round top are thinking about the past. you can buy t-shirts with joshua chamberlain's face, go to the chamberlain tavern, joshua chamberlain action figures.
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he has outlived the popularity of the movie. >> what you think about the movie gettysburg and its depiction of chamberlain? you can talk about the combat, jeff daniels. to be ableugh for me to look at that movie sense,vely because in a i'm emotionally attached to it. when did it come out, 1992? >> 1993. >> i'm 10 years old and the movie captivated me. i fell in love with joshua chamberlain, with that depiction of the battle. i dislike it when individuals look at a movie like gettysburg or a novel the killer angels and try to pick it apart, try to
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critique it as a work of history. i was listening to john stephanie, and she was talking about the movie the patriot and how that movie took liberties with the story of the revolution. i think hamilton, the broadway play -- it is a work of art. it draws from the past, it is kind of its own thing. the value of those things, gettysburg, hamilton, is not that they are this analysis of the past but they are entry points for people. they get people interested. they ignite some sort of spark that hopefully, and in my case, encourage you to want to learn more, to visit places like gettysburg.
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in thek saw a huge surge mid-1990's after the movie came out in that social trail to the monument became the table and highway. -- the joshua chamberlain highway. >> just as joshua would have wanted it. >> no doubt. [laughter] culturevalue of popular is that it provides people with that entry points. it gets them interested. value in those , than those mediums things that detract from the film or the play.
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openedn, after that play , the hamilton national historic site saw an increase in ititation 174% higher than had been. >> i'm sure they were not prepared for age. >> no, no. i think, with a great deal of respect for the agency i work for, a lot of times the parts services are reactionary. >> that happened with ken burns as well. >> that is what i was thinking. >> chris is overwhelmed. >> that was back in the day when fall was not particularly busy. your season was mostly the summer. burns was in the fall so they did not have people staffed to observe that visitation, which is a good problem to have. that pointuld say to is what we are seeing at parks like gettysburg is this
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evolution in visitation where on aations are somewhat downward trajectory, it is not as calamitous as some people make it out to be, but what is more interesting is patterns of visitation are changing. on a normal day in the summer, little round top is busy. october, little round top is incredibly busy. summer time the visitation is when people go to parks, that is true, but we get a ton of people in the fall now. >> [indiscernible] >> yeah. >> they were all over the place. >> they still are. we can talk about that too. the effect that has had on the around top is increased visitation. people want to go to the hail, they want to touch the name on
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it, they want to climb up on the boulders. management,the park little round top is one of the systemsgile park diesel -- park ecosystems. we have a little -- we have a lot of challenges. , works that had been built during the battle and we staffed over the years. but it fragile place, receives incredible visitation. >> i was going to say two points. my father took me to gettysburg in 1988, i had visitation with my father on friday. it happened to be the 100 wendy for the anniversary, he had no idea.
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125th anniversary, he had no idea. we took my picture in little round top in 1988, this little where leeng next to fell. we have double the amount of people watching this live then we have ever had, so this shows you what little round top is. name recognition coming around. up tobout people going see the scope of the battlefield? you have seen most of the battlefield on the hill area. you can see the scope, you can see straight up on a clear day. did you see people doing that to showcase how broad -- >> certainly. we are fortunate that we have this amazing cohort of battlefield guidance. es.guids
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these are contractors or self-employed. virtually all of them get out to little round top. much that appeals to the visitor that you can find. one, it is this iconic landscape. it is unique, it is this hillside covered with rocks and boulders, it is this iconic terrain. you can see almost the entirety of the battlefield and there is , giving people the spatial understanding of the battle. but at the end of the day, it is beautiful up on little round top. you can watch the sunset over the hills. such a poll little round top has on people. little round top has on people.
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you have to park your car, go out to the summit, take that expanse in. you go up to little round top any day of the week, the place is packed. our childhood memories of gettysburg and little round top. a powerful reminder that often that first connection to the past is an imaginative one. it is not necessarily historical. public historians don't cite that very often. academic historians almost always lose sight of that. it goes back to your point about the movie and what you said about the movie minded me of what steven spielberg said when he gave his november 19 address at the national cemetery. he made an obvious but important points. what he does is different than what we do.
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we have different purposes and we connect with our audiences in different ways. that emotional linkage or connection is vital in that is why it is reaffirming in the spring to be driving around the battlefield and wherever you turn, there is another school bus. even if those kids are not paying the best attention to the guide, i see them climbing over those blocks, hoping that they don't fall and break an arm or leg. i'm thinking, they will never forget that. maybe someday, hopefully sooner rather than later, they will pick up a book and think more seriously about the civil war. >> i absolutely agree. the education specialist at the tellary park will often our young interns or seasonals about that very thing and oftentimes, we ask them, how did you get into history?
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what propelled you to want to work at gettysburg or take this internship? more often than not, it comes from a shared experience as a child. that might be visiting a place like gettysburg, it might be talking to your grandfather about his experience in world war ii, any host of things. --on't think most visitors for most visitors, it is not an intellectual exercise, it is an emotional exercise. that is what is pulling them there. the value of that is it provides an entry point to study the past and this is something the park service cares deeply about, it transitions people from not caring about parks and the past to becoming stewards of parks and the past. that is a job that the national park service takes seriously, so this idea of stewardship.
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we have to preserve this place because we want to pass this legacy onto our kids. talking about childhood experiences on the battlefield, i will bring a back to joshua chamberlain. i was fortunate to get to know alice locke and her husband jim, alex wrote what i think -- a biography of joshua chamberlain that is exceptional. she did not find much fault with joshua chamberlain but she did a lot of research. the book is called in the hands of providence. she told me they met joshua chamberlain's granddaughter and jimshared with alice and some mementos and stories, including the story of joshua
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chamberlain taking his grandchildren to little round , got a the monument picture taken. recall that the grandchildren called joshua ginnie, for general. there might be a good point here. help us understand how chamberlain made sense and depicted what happened at little round top and the immediate week of the battle and maybe our audience has some questions, then take us into the postwar period, if you could, starting at the end of the battle, chamberlain writes a series of accounts. how should we understand how he understood the fighting? >> the first thing we need to do
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recognize that civil war combat is inherently confusing and chaotic and any one individual has a very limited scope and understanding of what they went through. in the case of gettysburg, is 90 minutes. the fighting at little round top is relatively brief. chaotic, itsing, was an assault on the senses. it was this crucible of fire and confusion. chamberlain is a brilliant guy, a brilliant man. he was a so-called novice in terms of commanding men in battle. he had been in the army for less than a year by that point. he is in his mid-30's, he fights
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this 90 minute battle commanding 350 men. when all is said and done, otherrlain, as with every general in both armies, had to write a report that is submitted to his superiors outlines -- that outlines his role in the fighting. that is written by chamberlin i want to say on the sixth of july, 1863, a few days after the battle. in that report, he tries to make sense of what is inherently confusing. firsts chamberlain's attempt to put into words what he and the surviving men went through. what we will see with joshua chamberlain -- to get to your point about chamberlain bringing , thatandkids to the help
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is something many veterans did, but it is a testament to how, for joshua chamberlain, the battle of gettysburg and specifically those 90 minutes on little round top would come to define and dominate his life. it is how he understood himself. we have seen before his academic career, his time at bowdoin, and everything after, governor of maine, president of bowdoin college, all of that is important but it is in the periphery. his life is built on this 90 minutes at little round top. time -- as is at time passes, chamberlain's understanding of what he survived and what he did kind of -- kind of evolves, it
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changes. he wrote seven accounts of the battle of gettysburg. 6, 1863, hisjuly official reports. the last is in a magazine. between those, you have these other accounts and none of those accounts agree 100% with the other. departure points, they are all slightly different in how chamberlain understands what he did, what he ordered, what he said, and his role. throughout this postwar period, post-battle period, chamberlain understands how important that moment was in his life and he will guard the story of the battle of little round top and the hill itself, he will guard very jealously. your point that there is an
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evolution in how chamberlain remembered and wrote about the battle, and his depiction of the contradictionsre among these accounts. mind,hat make a, in your -- does that make, in your mind, joshua chamberlain unreliable as a historical witness? >> that is a great question because we talked about that the other night, diaries, memorize, stuff like that that is written after the fact. when you have all these different narratives from one person and they are starting to not talk to each other, it makes you question some of the legitimacy of some of what he is saying. whoow that there are people have questioned that before,
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there are people like we have in our discussion area online who is a biggestrren are then chamberlain. you have to take that into consideration when you look through all this. butays this in 1863, saying this in the 1870's or 1880's. which one is the real one or which one has been blemished a little less? i think it goes into the historical memory of the veteran and showcasing what he believes he did himself, what he didn't thingd i think that is a that is sometimes a timeless thing with some veterans and i think we have to take all six or so of those and put them into perspective. believe the accounts
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that chamberlain wrote, they were closer to the event itself, do you believe those accounts, by the very fact that they were closer to the event itself, that they are more accurate, more trustworthy, or should we not even be asking that question? is the question i'm asking not a valuable question? to behink everyone wants the hero in their own story and that is true for joshua chamberlain. idea, the facts that he buys that initial report , to we after the battle believe that account more? i don't know if that is always the case. if you look like -- if you look , the first real official historian of the battle up whileburg, he shows
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the wounded are still in field hospitals, dedicates the remainder of his life to the study of the battle of gettysburg and arguably he knew more about the battle than a lot of them who thought -- who fought at little round top. with chamberlain, how his story -- evolvesd morphs and morphs, i don't think it is something he is doing intentionally to blow his own horn. they might be a little bit of that but what i think he is doing is he is hearing these other perspectives on the same moments, he is getting these other viewpoints and he is compatibleake them with his own understanding of what he had gone through and and the roleyed -- he palyed.
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that men who this, wear their saw things differently, it does not mean they were wrong. as his understanding and what he did changes and evolves, his understanding of what he did specifically evolves as well. police interrogators -- i say this not from experience -- through interrogations, they say if a person gives them a story, they call that person back in a day or two later in the person gives the same exact story, no changes, they are suspicious of that individual. ideaoint being that the you have alluded to, that over jar, there are things that
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their memory, things that they remember this time or a point they put more emphasis on. the idea that account -- that an account written in the immediate aftermath is more truthful, i don't think that is a good question or revealing at all. the big question -- we will get back to this at the end because it is a big question, and i'm sorry that chris could not be an hour class the following thursday because many said, i don't know if there is such thing as truth. they had not gone to the , but i wantm camp to be specific here, then john, you can jump in. was there a bayonet charge and did chamberlain order it? isfirst thing i will say
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most of us familiar with the story, because of the way it is depicted in the novel the killer angels in the film gettysburg, and what that does is it portrays this moment in the heat of the fighting when they are on the verge of collapse. are gettingates ready to renew their assault, and in a moment of divine inspiration, joshua chamberlain, as portrayed by jeff daniels, brings his company commanders together, his lieutenants together, he can hear everything, the crescendo dies down, and chamberlain gives this well choreographed and orchestrated maneuver that they will swing down the slopes, the left lane will come into
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alignment with the right and they are charging down the hill and drive the confederates back. is portrayedysburg as this will orchestrated thing. the accounts of the men that were there, there is not one individual uber members that moment in the same way. who remembers that moment in the same way. charge -- this bayonet charge is a perfect example. chamberlain and his initial report says, i ordered the charge. fast forward a few years later. 1880's, the government is creating the official records of the war of the rebellion, 127 volume series, primary sources on the battle.
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memos, i have some of them over there. reports compiling these from the battle of gettysburg. chamberlain's a is missing so they have him write it from memory and that is the version that is published in the official record, not the 1863 report, it is joshua chamberlain in the 1880's trying to remember what he wrote in that reports. you will notice differences. in the original report, he says, i ordered the charge. in that report, he had no idea the name of the hill he fought on. he called a rocky hail. in the 1880's report that he redid, he says that he ordered the bayonet. he does not say he ordered the charge.
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he refers to the hill as little round top. , he isond-in-command commending the left wing of the regiment, and he is in many ways the anti-joshua chamberlain, he had a different understanding of findar, he did not anything noble about the conflict, it was just something he was compelled to do because it was the right thing to do, and he would write, i got no order from chamberlain, i did not hear him say anything, he looked to his rights, he sees the colors going down the hill and he is like, i guess that is what we are going to do. that is what happened. that it was this bill orchestrated thing, no -- this well orchestrated thing, no.
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virtually everyone agrees the regiment advanced and charged down the hill. but no one remembers that moment the same way. what did oates say about the charge and its impact, if it had an impact at all? rhodes -- oates, he will remember the battle for a variety of reasons. his brother is killed on the hill. they will say at the time advanced, he had made the decision to retreat. he was getting ready to pull back. he knew he was not making headway, so he was saying, ready to fall back anyways. he would later say, the impact ranhe charge, that his men like a herd of wild cattle.
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oates is physically and emotionally spent, he passes out. so oates will say the charge , but that was not the point of the story. he was already pulling back. gilbert dontching, originaln was the report if it was missing? >> i want to say a copy was found -- don't put me on this, but i believe a copy was found in the main state archives in new england. eventually, a supplement to the believe report, and i his original report may have been republished, but don't quote me on that. i believe a copy was forwarded to the governor of maine in 1863 and it was filed in the state
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archives and that is how we got the original reports. play devil's advocate. we have this focus on chamberlain. forgotten think is about on little round top the most? for what their actions were. >> that is a tough question. for a lot of the gettysburg , we try to pick out the real hero of little round top. was itwarren, chamberlain, was a patrick o'rourke? thing, reductionist taking something complex in trying to boil it down to it was this guy, this is the man. more often than not, what i find
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compelling are the individual soldiers that make up the ranks of the 20th maine or adf pennsylvania. pennsylvania. the rank-and-file individuals combed the hill for 90 minutes under on conceivable stress in this on conceivable moments. i think the rank-and-file, how they remembered the battle. >> i am right there with you. i have always been somewhat distressed when it comes to any battle and they want to extract a moment from that battle in which all the events hinged
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upon, which is incredibly reductionist. chrisds me to ask something that i have sensed from my students, certainly i have sensed when i have given talks, and that is a backlash against chamberlain. , whatu talk to was about is this backlash? why is it happening? >> i think there are two backlashes. what happens at the end of his life in the 1910s and more recently following the movie gettysburg, the renaissance of chamberlain. he was a relatively unknown figure, he was not the joshua chamberlain we know today for most of the 20th century, he was
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seated into the pack and became a footnote. i don't know if this is that is the american thing to do, when anybody gets too high, we want to drag them down a little bit. become a bit skeptical of our heroes, so we want to find some third on them, make them human maybe. i want to say there is this kind chamberlainagainst and i think that has nothing to do with joshua chamberlain. withnk it has more to do people in my position or your position we see this focus on this one guy and it's one moment in the battle, all of this intellectual energy is spent talking about joshua chamberlain and the 20th maine, meanwhile, there are moments of cowardice
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and desperation and bravery and ignorance and stupidity across the battlefield that are just as compelling and just as significant as what joshua chamberlain and the 20th maine did. sometimes, i think we have this habit of trying to course correct and one individual monopolizes the story too much, so we pull away from them, sometimes we paul too far away -- pull too far away. doi think it has a lot to with the lost cause. inone has any issues the mistakes at cemetery hill and jackson's absence. no one has reservations to elevate james long street as the
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person who if only lee had listened to him, things would have turned out differently. but i think what bothers those of the lost cause, they see in chamberlain a man who upheld higher ideas about the union cause. abolitionist, but he came to understand, as others , that union and emancipation were inseparable. what strikes me is the resistance to chamberlain is much of what you have said, but i think it speaks to what persists as an interpretive colleagues,at your that john and i face, and that is that the battle of gettysburg is not the battle that we lost, it is the battle that the , the battle in which
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they were able to redeem themselves. men died for that, they knew what they were dying for. there were not trying to make this war of saint on the northern side and senate on the southern side, but i'm shocked by the struggle and challenge that we have in getting people to understand that high ideas did matter to men on both sides, that the cause for union, joshua chamberlain was a believer in that and he was such an eloquent spokesperson for that cause. i love gettysburg, i have been to gettysburg, but i did my seasonal work on battlefields of virginia. a little disagreement, joshua , he would probably have argued, i believe, that it was what he did during the last two weeks of the war that were
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the most important things he ever did. he bought a book about it. he did not write a book about little round top. he goes from the lewis farmhouse to the road and once again, chamberlain is at the center of those battles, he was remarkable, he saved the fifth corps at the battle, not to mention his role in the surrender. gettysburg, certainly was something that chamberlain drew pride from and as he pointed out, he was territorial about in terms of, this is my sites, this is my battle, and i want people to understand it my way, but we should not forget what he did during those last few weeks of the war. about chris with the -- there was a book that came out that talks about the myth of little round top, how important ,t was, we have a question here
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he says, your opinions on what rebels would have done if they would have taken it, it seems a small platform, but the union would be able to retake it. was it really an area of significance? we have been led to believe? or something that came later through the eyes of the veterans? strategist. the hill is important. meade says it. the hill is significant. if the confederates are able undulate second -- on july 2 to capture little round top, able to gain a significant lodge on cemetery hill or cemetery ridge and union troops can't try them off -- drive them off, victory
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is untenable. in blowing the story of little round top out of reasonable proportion. it was one part of a larger battle. if the confederates had taken the hail, i have no idea what would have happened. history is full of so many contingencies where one thing is dependent on the other. one event hinged upon this other event. think the artillery platform on little round top -- if confederates take little round , the vote isit ,ff-limits to the union army another road becomes untenable, and that is a significant roadway. so the hail, the union is going to have to respond. whether they would have been
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able to drive the confederates off, i have no idea. whether the confederates after they have fought for 90 minutes on this terrain would have had the ability to hold the terrain, i have no idea. i think a more interesting question is why did certain participants feel the way they did? that they thought about that place in the battle? that is to me, a more interesting question than trying to divine what would have happened had the confederates taken the hail. -- the hill. if confederates are able to take any part of the union at a line a dire situation. i find it an interesting story that you told me at little round top, it involves the rock
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, joshua chamberlain's frustration about the block wall. can you tell us about how the historic landscape, how chamberlain wanted it to be remembered? it goes back to little round top as the defining moment in chamberlain's life. the last few weeks are important, he writes this massive tome about the last but it is little round top that joshua chamberlain petitions to get the medal of honor for. top that he round visits time and time again. it is little round top that he guards jealously. chamberlain understood as well
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as anyone the power of place. he has this line about gettysburg being this place of souls and irreverent men and women from afar, generations purchased here, i that quote, but it is well known. i think that is how we understand little round top. that is where his story is going to be told. that is where his life is going to be remembered. he wants to make sure that that speaks for him. shelf justis rocky southeast from the main summit of little round top and that is where the 20th maine fights. attack, they are
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going to use whatever natural protection they can find on the hillside. ground,lations in the boulders, trees, that is their only protection. they fight for 90 minutes. they drive the confederates back. the work with on end gettysburg becomes a preserved landscape. thenemorial association, by the united states government. the agency that managed the battlefield face enormous challenges in the story of the rockwell is a great example. chamberlain and his men had no protection, no walls. after the fighting is over, they are sent to big round top, then reinforcements move and occupy that stretch of little round top. they have no idea that there is not going to be anymore fighting, they have no idea what it's going to happen next.
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the built defensive works, block walls that we see today. those block walls were a source of incredible consternation to joshua chamberlain because he did not want americans in the 1890's or 1990's, he did not want americans going to that spur in thinking his men had time to build rocks. that they had any protection to hide behind. ideanted to convey the that for the men of the 20th maine, this is a standup fight. parkuld petition the management, he would petition them time and again to have those walls removed, not to have them taken off, to convey this impression that his men did not have anything like that. the head of the park commission
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was john paige nicholson and nicholson was getting letters from joshua chamberlain up until the last year of his life, chamberlain trying to use whatever reverence he had to get the commission to move those walls. nicholson would write to one of his colleagues, having to say no to joshua chamberlain was one of the great trials of his life. what ended up happening was the war department created a tablet avenue andlong the it says basically, these walls were built for defense on july 30, and it is the only mark or tablet that i know of in the tarp -- in the park whose sole function is to correct a misconception. joshua chamberlain hated those walls. , he had torotective
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remove it. >> i was going to have chris comment on a few books before we leave. >> you can have him comment. i will see what we got. >> joshua chamberlain's correspondence is two or three different volumes. this is one. a couple of wonderful books. that one does a great job. boys r one, stand firm ye from maine. >> who published that? >> it you to be thomas publications. i don't believe they still do it but it is still available. >> i think this is available as well.
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book, is not called the myth of gettysburg, i don't remember the title. i hope you will be able to pull it out. he takes a number of case studies. it is a wide range of things. it is exceedingly well done. it is sort of various myths. it is really well done. this is the other book. i don't know if you have feelings about this. is by jeremiah. >> that is a wonderful book. it is chamberlain's writers -- governor, but so much of what he writes goes back to the american civil war. there is a fantastic letter in that book that chamberlain writes i want to say in 1892 or
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1893 to alexander webb and they have this collegial relationship. chamberlain desperately wanted a medal of honor, so he wrote to webb asking, how do i get one of these things? know that chamberlain had petitioned for a medal of honor. i think i'm going to petition for a pulitzer prize. here is the thing with chamberlain about the medal of honor. , he didrately wanted it not necessarily want people to know how desperately he wanted it, and he wanted to convey the impression that he felt he deserved it, but he was not asking for it. onian, almost.
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he needs witnesses to testify his heroics. he says, unfortunately for me, anyone who can speak is a victim of the environment. >> here is the biography i mentioned earlier. she cowrote this book with her husband. both from indianapolis. i remember the conversations they had with chamberlain's granddaughter and the artifact to jane, they passed on boleyn's bowdoin. have you been up to chamberlain's house? me was the gift that he gave his wife and their marriage was strained after the war, in part because he could not stop living the war.
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he is like a high school the glorylayer, days, you can't get beyond that. the bracelets that he had custom-made for his wife, and every bracket on that bracelet was the name of one of the battles that chamberlain fought in. he might as well have given her a bowling ball. the maltese cross. >> another letter about the , he is -- is to his wife writing about strong vincent and how the officers had come together and pooled their money to buy a pendant and it had small diamonds around it and i believe you could open it up, with a picture of sean vincent
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and they gave it to john the letteridow, but is amazing because he writes about taking that pendant and waving it in front of himself and it almost put him in his hypnotized state and he felt melancholy and connection. i am very moved by the last line in which he reminded his wife, saying he and his fellow officers had not succumbed to savagery, that they had been able to retain a sense of being civilized and decent and christian men. those letters, if you can piece them together, because they are published in different accounts, it is quite remarkable. then you get out on the battlefield -- i want to get get intoils -- i won't details about all the things i got wrong out there.
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i always pick up some new things. with his current position, he is chief of interpretation. he is responsible for getting his team prepared and ready to go out into the field. like any good officer, he is often behind the lines. this is a shame because he is a hell of an interpreter. i hope chris, you will make an appearance from time to time and out of the field, where you belong. >> absolutely. i do have one question before we wrap up and it is from john tracy. , do you see any individuals from other regiments on the round top pushing back against chamberlain or are they content with the increased profile of the location? >> even within the 20th maine, there are people that push back.
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oliver wilcox norton is another example of that. there is an interesting correspondence between alice b aboutall or wilcox norton cabling. speare starts to refer to chamberlain's egotism and shares this one story with norton and it was at college commencement is also able to graduate in all the students and faculty are sitting in the auditorium and chamberlain walks in and he goes down the center of the aisle and speare and stevens turn and whispered to each other and they say in a hushed tone, there goes the man
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that took little round top, and chamberlain heard this and he stopped, turns to students and says something to the effect of, i took it and held it too. this and wroted to norton, it seemed as though chamberlain was spewing from the dead. >> that is a great way to end. [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2020] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] >> learn more about the people and events that shaped the civil war every saturday at 6:00 p.m. eastern on american history tv on c-span3. american history tv is on social media. follow us at c-span history. >> >> the first tv presidential
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campaign ads aired between eisenhower and adlai stevenson. ads have been essential to every presidential campaign cents. there is a look. ♪ >> i was born in fitzsimmons army hospital in colorado. my dad was serving in the army air corps. both my parents taught me about public service. i enlisted because i believe in service to country. i thought it was important you had a lot of privileges as i had had, to go to great university like yale, to get back to your country. >> the decisions he made saved our lives. when he pulled me out of the river he risk his life to save mine. >> john has served america. >> if you look at my father's time as a veteran, prosecutor or senator but he has shown an ability to fight for things that matter. >> john is the face of someone hopeful. who is generous in spirit and heart. >> for a country of optimists,
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where they can do people. we just need to believe in ourselves again. >> a lifetime of service and strength. john kerry for president. >> i am john kerry and i approved this message. >> they had personally raped, cut off heirs, cut off heads -- ears, cut off head. >> the accusations john kerry made against veterans who served in vietnam was devastating. >> randomly shot at civilians. >> it hurt me more than any physical wounds. >> cut off limbs, blown up bodies. >> that was part of the torture to sign a statement you had committed war crimes. >> razed villages in a fashion reminiscent of daegis,. khan.ghis >> john kerry gave the enemy free what i and many of us in prison camps took torture to avoid saying. >> crimes. >> how can we be loyal to him
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now? >> ravaged the countryside. >> dishonored the country and people he served with. swift boat veterans for truth is response will for the content of this advertisement. >> you can find archival ads, presidential mates and campaign speeches on our website, -- presidential debates and campaign speeches on next, on "lectures in history", presidential campaign mary ellen pethel and jennifer duck of belmont university teach a class on the history of presidential campaign advertising, from the print and cartoon ads of the 19th century to the television commercials of the mid-20th century to the , internet and social media content of today. elmont university is located in nashville, tennessee. the class took place when we prior to the school hosting a presidential debate. scholars discussed the tenure
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and impact of kenneth gibson elected in 1970 as newark's first black mayor and the first black mayor of any northeastern city at 9:15 p.m. tonight. eastern and 7:00 p.m. pacific on reel america we bring you for u.s. government films produced to ask laney american electoral system to international audiences. >> hello, everyone. you for democracy, meda and the public sphere. first a shout out to begin our class, as we have done before. can i have natalie and ryan here, please? ok. natalie and ryan. we are giving you a special shout out to start class. [laughter] previously worked for npr and are now working with a get out the vote organization you have told us


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