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tv   The Presidency Herbert Hoover Presidential Library  CSPAN  December 7, 2020 12:00am-1:01am EST

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>> this videotape is based on the book "plagues and politics: the story of the united states public health service." ♪ [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2020] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] >> you're watching american history tv all weekend every weekend on c-span3. presidency,"he hobart hoover presidential library director thomas schwartz talks about the life of the 31st chief executive. he explains the facility takes a broad look at hoover's career before, during, and after his time in the white house. the national archives foundation hosted this event and provided the video.
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patrick: let's get to it. today i am going to talk with thomas schwartz, the director of the herbert hoover presidential library. he has been with the hoover library since 2011 and before that he served as the illinois , state historian and went on to lincoln collection at the abraham lincoln presidential library as an author and editor, his work recognized with a number of professional awards. he will take a step back in time, not all the way back to lincoln, but to the time of herbert hoover. tom, are you there? i want to make sure we can hear you. are you with us? how are you doing today? obviously the library is closed. how is everyone doing?
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thomas: the staff is doing well. they are eager to return on a regular basis and we are eager to be able to safely reopen to the public when the opportunity avails itself, but i appreciate the opportunity. patrick: great. i know you have a great set of images and stories and tales. i have a feeling we have lots of questions. i will sign off. i will let you get into your program and i will pop back in when we are ready for q&a. have at it. enjoy. thomas: thank you, patrick. so, you see the exterior of the hoover presidential library museum. we are the smallest facility. we were founded as a quaker
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community. hoover was our first quaker president. how did hoover get in? he predates roosevelt. two things occurred. what you are seeing is the hoover tower at stanford university. herbert hoover was with president wilson in versailles in europe, heading the american relief administration. he provided humanitarian assistance to countries in the
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aftermath of world war i. he learned that many of the records for the countries that were removed from the map of europe and broken up into new countries, that those records were threatened with destruction. so at his own expense, hoover had them sent over to stanford university. he made arrangements to rent space in the library and hired out of pocket two assistants to catalog materials. and over the years, those collections continue to grow. hoover included his own private and public papers. what you are seeing, he intended to be his presidential library. next slide. what happened was in the 1950's, stanford university began to
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question why they had his private institution in the middle of the campus and why stanford had no control over the future of the hoover institution. at the same time, what you see is a painting of herbert hoover's birthplace home. hoover always hated this painting. not because of the artist. grant wood is obviously a very famous american artist, but at his home it is that little, almost summer kitchen. hoover tried to buy this home in 1928, when he was running for president, to have it reflect the actual cottage that he and
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members of his family grew up in. next slide. the woman who owned the house was making pretty good revenue giving tours to the public at a dime per throw. she will not sell it to him in 1928. when she died in the 1930's, her family did not want it anymore and they would sell it to hoover. mrs. hoover removed the front portions and took the original cottage, relocated it properly on the grounds and restored it to the appearance you see today. it is operated by the national parks service, there are 186 acres that surrounded the hoover presidential library that the park service operates, including
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not only hoover's birthplace home, a reconstruction of his father's blacksmith shop. he and mrs. hoover are buried on the knoll behind the library museum. when they were able to purchase and restore the house, they created a foundation to raise funds to make sure it would be available to the public free of charge. in the 1950's, at the same time, there were troubles at stanford over the future of the hoover institution. the locals decided want to build a small museum to emphasize they were the home of a president. they were asking hoover, could you give us one or two original items to put in the museum? after thinking about the future of his legacy at stanford, hoover thought, the presidential libraries act that was written
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so harry truman could have a library and future presidents could have libraries, applies to any living president. so he decided to take over the operation of the museum project of the locals and give them something to never thought they would get, and that is a presidential library and museum. next slide. here you see herbert hoover and harry truman on the opening of the library museum. hoover's 88th birthday, august 10, 1962. after they toured the library, they sat down in a reconstruction of the oval office that was part of the original museum and is no longer part of the new museum, and truman turns to hoover and says, "well, mr. president, you have a damn find library, except for one problem."
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hoover said, "what is that, mr. president?" truman said, "it is too damn small." hoover reportedly smiled and said "that's ok, the federal government will overstaff it. it."next slide. the federal government has not overstaffed it. the staff is shrinking. the footprint did expand. we are under 48,000 square feet of a footprint, which makes us the smallest. most presidential museums, the presidency is the major accomplishment in the lives of that individual. with hoover, it is not quite the case. his major accomplishments occurred before and after the
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presidency. i want to spend a little bit of time highlighting that so you get a better understanding of the man. this shows a distribution center in belgium, 1914, hoover is living in london with his wife and two young sons. he is a millionaire many times over as a mining engineer. he has his own consulting business. he is ready to return home once the war begins. an engineering friend visited him and said i need your help. i married a belgian woman and when the germans tried to do a quick defeat of france, they violated belgian neutrality. 90% of belgium is occupied by the germans, as well as large parts of france. the british and france have posted a blockade, they will not let food enter the country. roughly 7 million to 8 million people were beginning to have food problems. hunger started occurring in
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major cities. hoover is able to break the logjam by creating what we call today a nongovernmental organization commission for relief in belgium. it did not represent any particular country. it was created by hoover as an individual, by the american ambassador to belgium, as an individual. the ambassador to spain, as an individual. by creating this neutral entity, the british, french and germans allowed it to take food to feed noncombatants. from 1914 to 1918, hoover raised over $1 billion in 1910 dollars to feed belgium and northern france. next slide. when the u.s. gets involved in
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the war, hoover turns the administration for the commission for the relief of belgium over to neutral parties. woodrow wilson puts him into his cabinet as the head of the u.s. food administration. hoover's task was to provide sufficient food for the war effort. there are two ways you can increase the amount of food available -- the first is to increase production, but that takes time. the second is to get americans to reduce their consumption of food. hoover was able to get american housewives to sign pledge cards, the pledge card, they would -- every day of the week, they would have to give up one or more of the four major food
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components that were necessary for the war effort -- wheat, sugar, meat, fat. you had meatless mondays, wheat-less wednesdays. hoover was able to get americans to voluntarily reduce consumption by 15% of these four major components. next slide. after the war, hoover headed the american relief administration, this shows all of his food relief efforts. from 1921 to 1923, he also fed noncombatants in russia during the russian famine. at this time, the russian revolution was going on. he was feeding civilian populations controlled by the bolshevik government and the
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white russian government. it was opposed by the british and the american governments, but hoover felt that hungry people have no politics. next slide. from 1920 -- when warren g. harding gets elected president, he offers hoover to either be secretary of interior or secretary of commerce. interior is much more prestigious. hoover takes secretary of commerce, a sleepy backwater government agency. he builds it into one of the most important government agencies under the harding and coolidge administrations. perhaps most significantly, and what lives with us today, is hoover getting industries to create industrial standards. this lowered the cost of goods to consumers, and it also
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allowed consumers, no matter what company they bought a product from within that industry, it would work with parts from other companies in that industry. for example, there were 42 different sized milk containers when hoover came in as secretary of commerce. he got the dairy industry to get it down to pint, quart, half-gallon and gallon. the size bricks in your home was established when hoover was secretary of commerce. plumbing standards to this day were those set by hoover. sized lumber, goes on and on. next slide. so, 1928, hoover gets elected by
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a landslide. most people connect hoover with the collapse of the market in october and the depression. actually, not the depression, but the great depression, which makes it even worse. we have to remind people that hoover had accomplishments in his administration that tend to be overshadowed. probably the one that most of the public knows that he used the power of the federal government to put al capone in jail by getting him on tax evasion. next slide. this is what most people know hoover by -- these shantytowns known as hoovervilles. the mischaracterization of hoover was he was a do-nothing president who was cold and heartless and did not care. as you know from that brief overview of his humanitarian
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efforts, he is clearly not a coldhearted person. there were systemic issues that transcended the hoover administration. we call it the great depression because, typically, it is dated by the collapse of the markets in 1929 and goes all the way to the end of world war ii. the markets do not regain their pre-depression values until the early 1950's. there are a lot of complicated issues, both domestic and international, that hoover was dealing with, that he was not able to solve. his successors also had trouble solving. next slide. so, this little video clip shows hoover tossing the medicine ball around. he has it right now. he just threw it. there are members of the cabinet and supreme court justices that make up this group. it is a nine pound medicine ball. this develops into a sport called hooverball.
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he is the only president to have a sport named after him. people throw a nine pound medicine ball over a net and people have to toss it back. the white house physician did this so hoover could lose weight. he was 210 when he took office. he did hooverball every day between 7:00 and 8:00. he dropped down to 175 pounds when he left office. next slide. when hoover left the presidency, it was not on the best of terms with franklin roosevelt. roosevelt and the new dealers constantly reminded the american public it was hoover's depression, and that hoover did not know how to solve the problems, and that is what the new deal was doing. it was very difficult when members of the brain trust would tell president roosevelt, you know, the smartest person on
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this issue is herbert hoover, we should bring him in for advice. you can't bring in someone for advice when you have already labeled them as being the person that has caused all the problems to begin with. when franklin roosevelt dies, harry truman takes over. he realizes that there are going to be immense problems with feeding, clothing and providing medical assistance in a postwar world. the only person with experience feeding tens of millions of people during the war and after the war is herbert hoover. he calls hoover to the white house, asked if he would help him with a postwar assessment and the 71-year-old man said, sure. in 58 days he goes to something
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like 38 countries on a fact-finding mission. that is the first of many tasks truman will use hoover to assist him. what hoover does, he lives to be 90, he has this very long post presidency. hoover essentially sets the model of how an ex-president should behave as a counselor to the president. next slide. this is our research room. these are students from culver stockton. we have about 10 million manuscripts, about 268 cubic feet of photographic material and 15,600 artifacts. the research room is used quite a bit. largely as a way to teach college students, high school students and junior high students how to use primary sources. next slide.
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this is a picture of rose wilder lane. those of you who listen to alan price about the kennedy library learned they have the papers of ernest hemingway. we have the papers of rose wilder lane. she did a biography of hoover. she is credited of being one of the founders of the libertarian movement. more importantly, she is the ghost editor of her mother's books, laura ingalls wilder, the "little house on the prairie" series. among rose's papers, we have the big chief tablets that contain her mother's drafts of her writings. next slide. so, we end on this note. this is kind of the entrance to our reconstruction of the waldorf astoria apartment that hoover lived in in the last decades of his life.
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the file cabinets contained his research notes and drafts of the many books he wrote as an ex-president. what is most important is behind in that framed picture. that is 1865 print by alexander hay richie of a painting in the u.s. capitol. it shows lincoln reading the preliminary emancipation proclamation to his cabinet. today, september 22, marks the 157th anniversary of that event. hoover's grandfather bought it. the quakers were abolitionists. west branch was a station on the underground railroad. john brown visited before his failed assault on harpers ferry.
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hoover used lincoln as his model for what the president should be. what the presidency should be. also, how an individual should live their life. he thought lincoln's life exemplified the notion of the open field of fair chance, the right to rise, and expanding the boundaries of liberty in the aspirations of the declaration that all men are created equal. the other part, though, that hoover shared with lincoln -- both were self-made men, both ended up in a much more prosperous position than where they began in life -- but self-made in lincoln's and hoover's notion of the term, the most important aspect was the making of the self, improving your character and moral core. it is important to end on this note, not only because it is the anniversary of this very
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important moment in history, where the boundaries of freedom were expanded, but also what made america unique. what lincoln thought made america unique and what hoover thought made america unique, and that is the right to rise -- where you begin in life is not necessarily where you end, and the opportunity to improve your moral core to help the larger good. thank you. that does it. patrick: fantastic, tom. thank you for that overview. i know you have looked at a couple of the previous presidential library videos that i have had the opportunity -- however, i have not made it to west branch.
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it is on the list when we are allowed to travel again. it is great to see that preview and i look forward to seeing the park service, the land. i am sure it is impressive. i want to invite our viewers to ask questions. as a reminder on your youtube chat, put the questions in there. while we are waiting for those, we have a couple here. i want to welcome folks from all over the country. ,e have we hagen, new jersey chevy chase, maryland, st. george, utah, durham, north carolina, san diego, california, several folks in the washington metropolitan area. cary, north carolina, bloomfield hills, michigan, bellevue, washington. norman, oklahoma. we have a lot of hoover followers from all over the country, which is terrific.
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you talk a little bit about the research room. before we jump into the questions, are there researchers -- i know obviously there are students now, but are there researchers coming in still writing about and researching the administration, or has that been exhausted? i am curious about that side of things. thomas: the interesting thing about hoover is a lot of the researchers coming in, as commerce secretary, he gathered so much data on so many different topics, we get people coming in, essentially, to look at that data, not necessarily hoover. which is fine, that is the purpose of the archives, for people to come in and use the materials in new and different ways. there has been, obviously, the biographies within the last 20
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years. the initial biographies of hoover were either very critical, or almost idealized him. now, there is a balance. i think most historians that have studied hoover understand that there is a lot that he did that was right, especially some of the economic steps he took during the depression. and, there is a lot more continuity between programs that hoover began as president and what carries on in the new deal. neither hoover nor roosevelt, if they were alive, would ever agree to that.
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i think historians are seeing trends and understandings that begin with one and continue with the other. there is a great new biography by kenneth white, "herbert hoover: an extraordinary man in extraordinary times." he is a canadian publisher-writer, who -- it is not an uncritical biography, but largely, the assessment is he finds hoover to be this perpetual motion machine and is involved in so many things, which is difficult of why people have a hard time writing about him, because they have to master so many different subject areas. and he lived 90 years. an incredibly long life. again, people are getting an understanding of the great depression, the limits of
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economic knowledge. there was no macroeconomics at that time. keynes' general theory did not come out until 1936, although he was practicing it in great britain. hoover was doing public works programs and he was doing deficit spending. the problem is neither hoover nor roosevelt were willing to spend -- do deficit spending at the levels required, which is why it really took the war effort to force spending at levels no rational politician would embrace.
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patrick: we have a couple of questions about, you mentioned stanford. are the papers at stanford and the library? i think people are trying to understand where one goes to explore hoover if they really wanted to dive in. -- thomas: it is kind of a global search. 1914, as i said, he was living in london. he and his wife estimated they had traveled the globe five times in that period of their marriage to 1914, and their 10-year-old son twice. the hoover's story is a global one and it is scattered all around. most of his papers -- the way he
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decided what stayed at the hoover institution and what came to west branch was he considered his mining career, his work with the commission for relief in belgium the u.s. food , administration and the american relief administration remained at the hoover institution in palo alto. his work in his presidency and post-presidency came to west branch. he was still alive when the library opened. and so he had materials in those file cabinets, and those were only a few of many that were in the waldorf-astoria. on october he died 20 in 1964, all that material had to be shipped and sorted. anytime you try to do division, you are going to have pockets of
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stuff that gets sent to the wrong place. the wonders -- the marvels of digitization allow us to put it on our website and we can knit collections together with digital images. patrick: what about presidential objects, gifts? from heads of state, the public. does that include, if folks come to the museum, will they see gifts? thomas: yes, but understand that during the depression, they were only two state dinners. one was for the king of siam and there was one other. we do have -- a lot of the gifts hoover received from foreign dignitaries often came before he was president and after. he continued to get gifts from
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foreign dignitaries long after he left the white house, and those are on display. patrick: a question about hoover's role providing aid. he was key to providing aid in europe in world war i and world war ii, but not to americans. is that how you would frame that? obviously he had different roles at different times. aboutis a question clarifying that. thomas: most -- his work with the commission for relief of belgium, the american relief administration, and then he set up aid societies for poland and finland in 1939, when the germans and russians had invaded those countries.
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he tried to set up something similar to the crb in world war ii, and was unsuccessful. but then, with the postwar world, many of the people he had trained with the commission for relief in belgium started heading many of the humanitarian agencies that the new united nations created. for example, maurice pate who started off with hoover in belgium in 1914, he heads unicef and essentially bases the structure of unicef on what he learned from hoover in belgium and gets a nobel peace prize in 1965, which he declines.
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actually he dies before it is awarded. he asks that it be given to the agency. there is a whole generation of people dealing with nongovernmental organizations and humanitarian organizations after world war ii that essentially hoover mentored. and again these are topics that people are starting to look at. creation of ngos. obviously, what hoover begins to explore in world war i, and the full expression in world war ii is, how do you take a limited amount of food and stretch it to deal with the needs of all of these people? part of it was, hoover had scientists determine how many calories a day it took to keep a person alive. and then asked them to -- you
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know, how do those calories get divided? they did not talk about vitamins, but they talked about nutrients. essentially fats, carbs, sugars. by using that, hoover was able to determine how to take the limited amount of food he knew he was getting and feed the largest number of people. giving them the necessary calories to keep them alive. of course, that gets greater refinement with world war ii, in the aftermath of world war ii. mr. madden: i know we were talking about this before we came on. we got a couple of questions about the president's fishing habits. you have exhibits at the museum about his passion for fishing, then i have a specific question here.
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hoover's fishing camp on skyline drive in virginia is fascinating. is there an exhibit about his time at the camp? i don't know if you know about that one or not. but fishing is the topic. mr. schwartz: so, herbert and lou hoover looked at several locations to create a presidential getaway. they ended up buying about 180 acres in the shenandoah mountains. it was about two hours outside of washington, d.c. and lou designed 13 cabins. and they bought the materials, the marine corps that guarded them built them.
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theory wasends the hoover would go and be able to fish. it was up high enough to get away from the mosquitoes. when they left office, hoover then turned it over to the commonwealth of virginia with instructions to turn it over to the federal government. franklin roosevelt used it once. it was too rough-hewn for his needs, so he went to a camp in maryland called camp shangri-la, which of course is renamed after president eisenhower's grandson, camp david. the park service still operates four of the structures at camp raffadan. there is actually a book called "herbert hoover, the fishing president," that explores all of hoover's fishing habits.
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the places he went, the types of fish he saw. he was big on catch and release and flyfishing. he did his own flies. he then switched to bonefishing at the end of his life, down in florida. again, for the sport of it. one thing that people comment on as you exit our permanent galleries, there is a figure of herbert hoover in his waders, with a jacket, a tie, fishing. people ask, did he really wear a jacket and tie when he fished? and the answer is yes. the reason being, a photographer once caught him with his shirt sleeves rolled up and without a tie. and he thought that was unpresidential. that the dignity of the office
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required him to be photographed with a coat and tie. so, some of the film clips that we have on our youtube channel show him on these boats with a coat and tie. [laughter] again, that is something he thought that the presidency and being an ex-president, it required him to maintain that dignity. mr. madden: times have changed a little bit on that front. [laughter] in the post presidency. i know we have a little bit more time, so i have a couple of questions that hopefully can be relatively succinct. nos.s or knows -- are any of the hoover family involved with the library? mr. schwartz: yes, the only living grandson who knew his grandfather is still involved,
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andrew hoover, and then a ton of great-grandchildren. probably the one that your audience might know best is margaret hoover, who has reprised firing line on pbs. mr. madden: right. did -- is the great relief effort, the papers when he was head of commerce, the great relief effort of the mississippi river flood of 1927, are those papers at the library? mr. schwartz: yeah, we have a lot of stuff that comments on the mississippi flood of 1927. mr. madden: most of the presidential libraries have an oval office exhibit. do you have one? i believe we saw a photo where there was originally one. mr. schwartz: we did, but that was replaced in 1992. the permanent galleries that people will see date from 1992.
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the oval office was replaced with the waldorf gallery. mr. madden: ok, and this is a very specific question. is the grant wood painting of the hoover childhood home on view in west branch, iowa? mr. schwartz: no, we don't have it. mr. madden: do you have information -- no, sorry, we have already covered that one. one question here about, did he have a relationship -- you and i have talked about, he developed before carter the post-presidency. the one defining it. did he have a relationship with eisenhower and kennedy and those administrations or was it more of the formal post-president respect and so forth? mr. schwartz: with eisenhower it
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was more pro forma, because he backed robert taft. but with kennedy, again, hoover knew john kennedy's father, joseph kennedy. and joseph kennedy made sure that all of his sons got to know herbert hoover. so we actually have this neat correspondence of fan letters -- and that is not an overstatement -- that jackie kennedy writes, thanking hoover for the lunch that he provided for she and her husband and that they are big fans of theirs. bobby kennedy serves in the staff of the second hoover commission under eisenhower. the other interesting thing between herbert hoover and john f. kennedy, herbert hoover is
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the first president that served without any compensation. hoover never took a dime for his humanitarian efforts, for relief organizations, as secretary of commerce, as president, or on presidential commissions. john kennedy follows that same tradition. he never takes compensation when he was in elected office. and the only other president to follow in that tradition is the current president, who has waived his payment as president. mr. madden: you mentioned the commission, and before i get to other ones, does the hoover commission lead to significant reforms? mr. schwartz: yes. 80% -- this was under harry
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truman. truman knew that all of the deficit spending for the war, rebuilding ofhe europe, that the government had to dial down its spending levels. so the hoover commission was to find ways to consolidate overlapping services and provide efficiencies and kind of reduce the overall cost of government. 80% of the recommendations were approved by congress. what blew up instituting those reforms was the korean war. which, of course, required the government again to do more spending. the second hoover commission under eisenhower was more pro forma. and again, by that time we are in the cold war and the space race, and all of those other things. so like most commissions that
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looked to reform government, they have great results on paper, and it is much harder to implement it because life intrudes. mr. madden: ok, a couple of other ones here. did hoover have a pet, and is that pet showcased at the library? mr. schwartz: the most popular picture that was requested by hoover shows his belgian police dog, king tut, and it is next to him. the hoovers actually had many dogs. when king tut died, hoover was still in the white house and they did not announce it to the public, because they knew they would be inundated with all of these puppies. [laughter] so, the other kind of
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misconception is that their youngest son alan, he was secretary of commerce and they were living in a house on s street, alan had two alligators. that he wanted to raise. and it got to be colder, mrs. hoover, who is very tolerant, said no, i don't want those in my bathroom tubs. so, they were given to the smithsonian, the national zoo, and many times you will find in the internet that the hoovers had these alligators in the white house. that is not true. they had long been given to proper caregivers at the national zoo. mr. madden: i see. before we had giant pandas, who
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had the alligators. got it. a couple of true or false. before i get to that, what do you know about the fire set in the white house on christmas day of 1929? do you have background on that? mr. schwartz: it was christmas eve of 1929. it destroyed the oval office. fortunately, there were not of -- a lot of important state papers in the oval office at that time. it was a four alarm fire. it was huge. the hoovers were having a party for staff. and they had to -- mrs. hoover kept the party going. the president and his sons went to go see if they could save things out of that area. the following year, when they
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had the christmas party, mrs. hoover gave the boys of staff members toy fire trucks as a little personal joke. but because the oval office was destroyed, one of the incredible things about mrs. hoover, she unpublished history about the white house furnishings. she realized that on the second floor what were rooms were actually the original lincoln cabinet room. people remember that print we ended with, that is the lincoln cabinet room. lou restored that to its original appearance, and hoover used that as, essentially, his office. he much preferred that to what was a restored oval office. in fact, franklin roosevelt, when he became president, moved it. because it was in the middle of
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the east wing, and had to move it to the end so he could have easier access with his wheelchair. mr. madden: you mention mrs. hoover, are there papers and documents in the museum there as well? mr. schwartz: the documents they will see in the exhibit galleries are very high quality facsimiles, simply because displaying documents for a long time is not appropriate. that they are available in the research room, in the collections. any member of the public can request a researcher card.
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there is a little bit of training they have to do. but we have people from the general public in to do research work, and also genealogical work. one of the nice things about all of the reading rooms in the national archives is they have access to ancestry. people come in to do their family histories as well. mr. madden: great, i think i got a couple. we have heard about hooverizing, we have heard about hooverville and hooverball. yes or no any relation to hoover , vacuum? mr. schwartz: no. mr. madden: hoover dam? mr. schwartz: yes. herbert hoover as secretary of commerce took over the colorado river commission, which had been going nowhere, and got all of these contentious states that share the water resources of the
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colorado river to agree to a truce. also the creation of the hoover dam was part and parcel of how to control the floodwaters, but also how to generate hydroelectric power to provide to those areas. and there is a great controversy over the naming, because if you look at the congressional reports, sometimes it is called the boulder dam project, sometimes it is called the black river project, sometimes it is called the hoover dam. hoover, when he was president, put lots of funds to speed up , butonstruction of the dam also to provide hundreds of jobs for unemployed individuals. it was part of that public works stimulus. it was not completed and dedicated until 1936.
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by that time, franklin roosevelt's cabinet member, harold hickeys, refused to use the name hoover in connection with the dam. and insisted it had to be boulder. there are articles written about this that point out, you know, why hoover dam would have been appropriate. anyway, harry truman settled the matter. he had congress officially name it the hoover dam while he was president, and that settled it. mr. madden: good. if i heard correctly -- and i have learned a lot about hoover in the last hour -- he was in the cabinet for woodrow wilson, is that correct? mr. schwartz: right. i think we have a
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, clip. you talked about hooverball, and i think we have this clip. i don't know if you're going to find hoover in this clip, but i am fascinated to know. so, this is a clip of woodrow wilson's exercise regime with his cabinet on the white house inn all dressed apparently khakis and white shirts, demonstrating to the american public that it is important to be in shape. i don't know if we have hoover in there. that is the end of that clip, the video goes on. i wanted to say, i think. he was inspired by his time in the cabinet. when he became president there was this clip we will send you . that clip. we have a sports exhibition in
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year in of next washington, and that will be featured as one of the ways the government tries to engage the public. so, hoover ball, i will have to talk to the curator to see if hooverball makes the cut. mr. schwartz: i will send you ones with instructions on how to play. mr. madden: there is also a world championship in west branch. still alive and well. mr. schwartz: we didn't do it this year because of covid. because he had lived abroad so long, no one knew what his political affiliation was. then people thought he was a democrat. so in 1920, you had franklin roosevelt writing to the head of the democratic national committee saying, hoover would be a wonderful candidate to head our presidential ticket. and hoover then had to come out and indicate no, i am a theodore roosevelt progressive
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republican. and there were even attempts in 1928 to try to disqualify him because critics claimed he had lived abroad so long that he forfeited his american citizenship and right to vote. hoover had to get legal opinions to show that in fact he could run. mr. madden: it is not a new idea that politicians accused other politicians of not being able to run for president? mr. schwartz: correct. mr. madden: not a new idea. got it. tom, this is a terrific time. we have had a great crowd learning about herbert hoover before, during, and after his administration. and his very long post-presidency. i appreciate the insight and i look forward to making my way to west branch when the opportunity allows, and i want to thank you for your time this afternoon. mr. schwartz: thank you, patrick. announcer: from george
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washington to george bush, every sunday at 8:00 p.m. and midnight, we feature the presidency, a weekly series exploring president's, policies, and legacies. you are watching american history tv all weekend on c-span three. ♪ history tvk american real america brings you archival films that provide content for today's public affairs issues. ♪ >> by the way things look as well as the way they perform, our homes require new grace, new glamour, new accommodations. expecting not only did american love of beauty but also the basic freedom of the american
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marketplace, tempting, hinting, and revealing. ♪ >> the constitutional convention began in 1787 in philadelphia. james madison and george mason found themselves on opposing sides regarding key components of a document. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] [video clip] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2020]


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