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tv   Religion the Massachusetts Bay Colony  CSPAN  April 16, 2021 2:51pm-3:38pm EDT

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histrionic lass dujmovic. and sunday four films op u.s.-cuba relations, an edited version of the 1961 nbc report, kwgs, bay of pigs, president john f. kennedy's 1961 speech after the failed invasion, a compilation of universal news reels from 1959 to 1961 on the cuban revolution through the bay of pigs invasion. and a 1960 broadcast, cuba, the battle of america. exploring the american story. watch american history tv this weekend on c-span 3. >> founded in the early 17th century the massachusetts bay colony had a predominantly puritan hospitalization. up next on american history tv we hear a presentation from the nantucket historical association about the history of this new england settlement and the tumultuous period when quaker missionaries arrived. >> what we wanted to do today,
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there's going to be a mind of melange of styles going on here because i need to turn you into puritans if you are going to understand where we are going to go with the quakers. i taught freshman english at the university of connecticut for six years and one of my courses was on censored books in the 1950s and what i realized was my students were so very young and came from a different moral climate that peyton place wasn't shocking to them at all. so i needed to give them the milieu of the moment to understand just how radical the novel was. so we are going to take a little time to give you the puritan mentality so that when the quakers enter your world, you can understand just how frightening it is. we're going to be looking at a time when the world was turned upside down between the years 1649 and 1660 or 1661.
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though we are all sweltering in the quaker meeting house what i need you to do is imagine the coldest day in london that you can possibly imagine, bitterly cold. the end of january 1649. and there is a very smallman, smaller than i am, about 5 feet getting dressed in the morning for his execution. and the king is very frightened that those who have come to witness his beheading will think him frightened so he has commissioned an personally thick undershirt that still survives in the british museum that he put on underneath his clothing so that he wouldn't shiver as he stood there before the block. king charles was going to his death. if you can imagine where we are right now is the banqueting hall at whitehall, imagine these windows completely covering both walls so you were in a room of pure light which is so strange to the liz bee thans and up above are the rubens, murals,
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that king charles has had painted in honor of his father king james. so his killers have purposely chosen this room and a scaffold has been put outside of the banqueting hall in this very small king, he's only about 5 feet tall, was never a strong man. it was rumored whether he would even survive childhood until he was four or five he was carried around by a servant. he is there in a silk suit, his hair has been bound and a silk night cap been put over it so that the ax men can get a clean break and his hair will not make the execution more difficult. the crowds are there to witness the king's death but they are kept so far back from him that he cannot say anything that will be heard and might possibly move those there to witness it. the two execution nurse are wearing masks so that they can
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never be known and the king says to them may i pray for a moment and i'm going to put my head on the block and when i stretch my arms that is when i am ready to go. so imagine this very smallman on a bitterly cold day and it's the end of an entire dynasty believed at that point. when his head is cut off and the executioner lifts the king's head to scream behold the head of a traitor, the grown goes up from the crowd and one iowans says it is a groan as i have never heard before and one i never wish to hear again. in that moment all order is unleashed. these are people that for thousands of years have believed in the divine right of kings and they have just killed their king and now disorder has come. the church of england is destroyed and fragmented and it
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affects everything that goes on here in the colonies as well because those royal governments that gave permission to be here in new england are no longer extent, they are now a very weak and malformed puritan government that is struggling among itself. it has impact here in new england and it causes unrest. to understand what the communities the quakers enter, there are three basic structures to community in new england, the civil body politic, church body and what is known as the little commonwealth, the family, the basic household. the civil body politic is held together by a social contract, men coming together and agreeing that they will submit to such just and equal laws as they create. and the difference between ourselves in the modern world and the past is that we receive a majority at the age of 18 and as americans can hold the right to vote whether male, whether
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female, whether rich or poor. in the 17th century it's your neighbors that decide whether you shall have the right to vote. it is not simply that you are a man and that you come of an age and you are given the right to vote. may i ask how old you are? >> 32. >> okay. perfect age. this man is coming into the age when the neighbors are going to be looking at him as having more maturity, more ability for responsibility and it is often at the age of 32 or 33 that legally, though, at 21 you can be majority, it's more in the early 30s that you are being given the right to vote. and essentially all the other men in your community are watching you and you may apply for that right, but they assess you and then they will give it to you. so that you understand what every man and even women -- women had their own type of oath, but it was not an oath that gave them political access.
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if they were new to the colony they themselves had to give an oath of residency and that they would submit to the government. so what i'm going to ask that you do right now is just repeat after me and become good puritans. and listen to what we are doing. listen to what we are saying and how it encourages conformity and the connection that are there between the church body and the state. can you tell i do a lot of weddings in my real life? so just repeat after me. i shall be truly loyal. >> i shall be truly loyal. >> to the state and government of england as it now stands. >> to the state and government of england as it now stands. >> i shall not speak or do. >> i shall not speak or do. >> device or advise. >> devise or advise. >> anything or things, acts or
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acts. >> anything or things, acts or acts. >> that's a hard one. directly or indirectly by land or water. >> directly or indirectly by land or water. >> that shall or may tend to the destruction or overthrow. >> that shall or may tend to the destruction or overthrow. >> of the plantation of new plymouth. >> of the plantation of new plymouth. >> neither shall i suffer the same to be spoken or done. >> neither shall i suffer the same to be spoken or done. >> but shall hinder, oppose and discover. >> but shall hinder, oppose and discover. >> to the governor and assistant governors. >> to the governor and assistant governors. >> i shall faithfully submit. >> i shall faithfully submit. >> unto such good and wholesome laws. >> unto such good and wholesome
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laws. >> as are or shall be made for the ordering and government of the same. >> as are or shall be made for the ordering and government of the same. >> oh, excellent. and shall endeavor -- shall endeavor to advance the growth and good of the plantation. >> shall endeavor to advance the growth and good of the plantation. >> all which i promise and swear by the name of god of heaven. >> all which i promise and swear by the name of god of heaven. >> simply, truly and faithfully to perform. >> simply, truly and faithfully to perform. >> as i hope for help from god. >> as i hope for help from god. >> who is the god of truth and the punisher of false hood. >> who is the god of truth and the punisher of falsehood. >> excellent. you are now all well-reformed members of the community.
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the civil body is there to keep order, to advance business, to defend the town. the church body may not be everyone in the room because in the 17th century you are not a member of the church covenant unless you personally confess and express your faith in christ. and it may be that though you are attending church because by law you must, you may not be a member of the church. and this is very important to talk about when we are thinking about thomas macy and how he ends up here on the island. you are compelled to worship, you are not compelled to membership, but that compulsory worship is hope that the minister will open up your heart, that one sermon will finally strike you to confess your faith and take hold of the covenant. so you have the civil covenant holding people together as a political body, you have the church covenant holding people together who are promised to walk in a common way in the face
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of the lord, and you have the third, the littlest commonwealth and that is a household that's broken into three basic relationships, husband and wife, who are, of course, joined by a contract, master and servant, who is joined by a contract, and then parent and child. and a parent according to the english judeo-christian perception until the child reaches majority a parent has a right to bind or loose for the child in all things. so all of you worshipping in a traditional 17th century church, you would have the power as parents to take your child to a minister and have infant baptism performed because you could make promises on behalf of that child. that's a very important thing to remember when we start talking about thomas macy in particular and what brings him to the island. the people that we have just
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been talking about all think the age of miracles is over and that you come to know the lord completely through the word of god. that god in the 17th century no longer speaks to people directly as they did to abraham or directly as he did on the side of mount sinai to moses. in fact, in the 17th century they feel that anyone who thinks that they have heard the word of god directly is a danger and a blass femur and needs to be ejected from the community. this is exactly what is going to start happening to them as more and more people appear in new england believing they have direct access to the holy spirit. for reformed christians in new england what is the nature of god? it is a god the father, god the son and god the holy spirit and god the holy spirit controls everything. these are pre-scientific period people and for them the rising of the sun, the coming of the moon, the changing of the tides
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is all the holy spirit ordering it at every moment. there is no natural law. so when othello look at desdamona and says to her, without you all chaos comes again, for an liz bee than that is the most horrifying thing unimaginable because it means going back to before creation, before the ordering of the world by god and that is potential for all of these people at any moment. the holy spirit can withdraw itself from company and everything return to chaos. the holy spirit is other. the holy spirit is not inside the individual for the cal vannists in new england and they are going to be very quickly confronted by people who believe the holy spirit is in dwelling. during the period of the english civil wars, which really happened not just in england but also in scotland, also in ireland, with the church of
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england's power being diminished you find rising sex, you have various people having revelations. in 1642 george fox who is considered the greatest of the quaker teachers, he believes that the voice of god is within himself and it is revealed to him that if you listen to the still, small, inner voice within, that is the holy spirit within you directing your life. that is a nat a ma to the people in new england who see god and all elements of god as the other. one of the things to think about is how much is going on. there are multiple quaker teachers, but we all put most of our focus on george fox. and why is that? he lived. that so many of those who were having similar revelations to george fox's would die in english prisons and they had moment tear influence, but he was savvy enough to know how to
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keep himself alive for decades and consequently his influence is huge and we see him as the founder of the quaker faith. how many sex are there? in the 1650s there are a man who starts cataloging different religious sects in nation and he counts 150 different sects in a region that perceived itself to have one national church, the church of england. that's how fragmented the society has become. the people that come here in new england are wanting to create communities where there is peace, where there is stability, where they are of one mind and one vision of god and that is going to be tested when the quakers arrive. what i want to talk about are three stories, three instances when families or communities stepped forward in defense of the quakers and what it cost
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them personally. it truly affected the founding of this island. the presence of quakers in the life of thomas macy, one of the island's founders. so you have the in dwelling spirit which is frightening to those here in new england. the other thing is a lack of hierarchy because in that little commonwealth the man is all powerful. the man is the head of the household and he knows that his wife has her own willfulness but he expects her to subsume and swallow it and submit to whatever he decides in the final way. there is submission expected on all those that are not of the head of the household. one of the things in the 17th century whereby you show honors is removing your hat. hat honors are incredibly important within the period when you meet people you take off your hat, you offer a courtesy, you offer a bow. if you come into the courtroom the hat is instantly off in the
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presence of a judge. quakers refused to do it. their hats are knocked off for them by officers. what i want to do is my friend james has agreed to demonstrate hat honors with me. up on your feet, sir. now, we meet. god, you've already got -- okay. so you tick it off with your right hand. make a swep. very good. make a sweep. excellent. all right. now, if we are of the same age and the same class, james, watch -- watch this. okay? do exactly what i -- exactly what i do at the same time. excellent. this is actually happening in the 17th century that people of the same social status honor
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each other by taking off the hat but they are very mindful that that hat goes back on at the same instance. now, i'm going to walk toward you, you just touch your hat and i will take off my hat and bow to you and you give me indication of when i can put the hat back on. so your hat goes on. >> okay. >> mine is on. clearly i am your social inferior. >> am i touching my hat. >> that's all you get, kid. >> very good. how do i put your hat back on. >> you can just give me a look. and i would wait until that. so think of an act of culture where if you have these six women and they are suddenly together in the marketplace, tashima because of her youth
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she's going to to be trying to figure out how do i please all these older women? children and servants had the best understanding of social hierarchy because it's where their rewards and punishments came from if they didn't read the social signals right. thank you, sir. excellent job as quaker hat. so no honor, no deference, no hierarchy, that is completely anathema to the community. also in the 17th century if you were wore shipg together this male/fae male thing is not working. in 17th century congregations men were on one side of the church, women on the other side after the practice of the ancient christian churches. fakers they enact what luther says is we are the priesthood of all believers and they believe young, old, male, female, rich, poor, all can teach and all can hear the inner light of god within themselves. so now think how frightening that is to a community that has
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always privileged the hoy bible and privileged the delivery of an understanding of the holy bible by someone who must be at least a bachelor's degree from one of the english or european universities. and now -- how are you, tashima? 13-year-old. she could be filled with insight. she could be teaching at the age of 13. that is how shocking and new all of this is. and finally simplicity in dress and simplicity in speech. so for those of you have had foreign languages, whether you're french, whether spanish, you all know the informal to form in french and the formal vu form for respect from one individual to another or one individual addressing the group. in getting ready for today i was listening to a lot of podcasts watching a lot of lectures and there is one -- now, my mother is a virginian so i'm not
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speaking out of church, but there was one done by a southern scholar that cracked me up because he's doing it for his 12th grade class and they are supposed to watch this on youtube and then come back to school and he says, now, i'm trying to explain the difference between the and thou. okay. all right. there's y'all for when you're talking to someone and when you are talking to a group there's all y'all. so the and thou are kind of like y'all and you is kind of like all y'all and that's how he explains to the students the informal thee and thou, thy and thine. she would never speak to an older person than herself and say thee or thou, it would always be you, it would always be deferring and showing respect, but a quaker,
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everything is thee and thou in between not bowing and curt's seeing, not taking off the hat, not using the formal you form to honor. this is throwing everything in a dis away. so this is the world we are about to enter with three stories. the first quaker missionaries arrive in boston in the summer of 1656, two women, mary fisher and ann austin. they are immediately seized, they are taken by women, they are stripped naked, their bodies are searched for signs of extra teets or strange appendages or witches marks. all of their goods that they bring with them are burned. one of the things the authorities are most careful about burning is they are traveling with a chest of quaker pamphlets and those are set on fire. they are put in a prison cell, the windows are boarded up and
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drummers are paid to work 24/7 so that no one can hear them speak. within days other quakers appear in boston, they are beaten, they are imprisoned, their windows are boarded up and drummers placed beneath their windows that no one can hear their preaching and they are gotten out of boston as quickly as possible, but they always return because the desire to preach, the desire to some degree to the martyred is what's driving them. we will look a year into the crisis in the summer of 1657 and that's what touches very closely on the history of this island. thomas macy is in new salisbury in the summer of 1657. there is a storm, he's caught in the storm, his clothing is soaked and there are four men standing in front of his house. so instead of telling you about it i'm going to let thomas macy
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tell you about it. what i'm going to do for the moment is go into 17th century dialect so you can get a sense of what macy might have sounded like. in summer of 1657 he let's these four men into his house, the troubles are still besetting him in late october 1659 right before he leaves for this island with his life and five children. this is a letter that he writes october 27th, 1659, two years after the event to the general court e flange why he has not been able to appear. the dialect you're going to hear is the universal, it has all the basic sounds of the period. what you might find is the vowels are a bit different. say the word wife. >> wife. >> in the 17th century that's an oi sound. >> es are i,is are e,so the word
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wit is wet. excellent. so this is the letter written to the general court of massachusetts bay just days possibly before thomas macy left salisbury to come here to nantucket. matt fillbrick in his book says we know macy had impeccable handwriting and that he had probably just stepped down from being the clerk of the town because the next week after this letter is written the clerk's handwriting is different and it's awful. so let me put on a hat. it always helps to have a hat on to be somebody else. >> it is not from my slighting of the court nor fear to answer the case but have been for some weeks past very ill and i am so
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at present and notwithstanding my illness yet i desirous to appear, have done my utmost to endeavor to hire a horse, but cannot procure one at present. i, being at the present destitute, have endeavored to purchase one, but at present cannot attain it. but i shall relay the truth of the case as my answer would be to the honored court and more cannot be proven nor so much. on a rainy day there come to my house edward wharton and three men more. the said wharton spoke to me saying that they were traveling eastward and desired me to direct them to hampton and never saw any of these men a fore except what are ton. neither did i inquire their names nor what they are but by their carriage i thought they might be quakers.
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and i said so. and, therefore, desired them to pass on, saying to them i might possibly give offense in entertaining them and soon as the violence of the rain ceased, for this rained hard, they went away and i never saw them since. the time that they stayed in my house about three quarters of an hour. they spoke not many words in the time, neither was i at leisure to talk to them for i come home wet to the skin, immediately a fore they came to the house and i found my wife second bid. if this satisfy not the honored court i shall submit unto their sentence. i have not willy offended i am ready to serve and obey you and the lord 28th of the eighth month, 1659. what's really happening here to think that an incident of two years ago is still haunting this
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man. family tradition identifies two of the three other men with edward wharton as marmaduke stevenson and william robinson, the two quakers that will be hung in boston in october of 1659. in august of 1659 those two men are captured, they are imprisoned in boston and they write a volatile letter to the court that somehow becomes public. so what i want you to think about is thomas macy in the time that he is taking to prepare to bring his family to this island, he is seeing events speeding, speeding, speeding and the suppression of quakers and he knows these men face-to-face that, as he is about to leave town, have just been executed on boston common. one of the reasons that he may have wanted to get out is that
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he himself was living in secret. not as a quaker, but as a baptist. baptists were living with liberty of conscience and there is a distinction. freedom religion means you can practice anything that you would desire, but liberty of conscious is such that you outwardly conform to the church practices of the day, but when at home as long as you practice what you desire in secret you will never be endangered, but by taking in these men and making himself public in such a way, he now draws the neighbors in for greater surveillance of his life. and life becomes intolerable. when i was very young i had a conversation with patrick collins who was the great historian of the english reformation. he said, richard, you know the difference between the separatists in plymouth and the puritans in boston? separatists only wanted to separate from the church not the world. they just wanted to get away
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from a worship that they thought was deformed. they didn't dislike their neighbors, they still wanted to be with them socially and to do business with them. puritans, they were willing to worship with their neighbors the entire time they despised them. that they wanted to withdraw from the world but not the church. and so what thomas macy and his family may have been experienced after this moment of entertaining these four quakers who were caught in a horrific summer storm, that they were now in the public eye much more than before. we talked about the rights of parents in the reformed christian churches to bind and loose for children and have children baptized as infants, a baptist would have said that is not true baptism, you must be able to express your faith before you are immersed and not merely a baby that is getting sprinkled. we know at least based on the
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extent record that if a baptist thomas macy drove no attention to himself. many baptists if compelled to attend worship if an instant was to be baptized they would rise up and turn around so they did not have to witness the sacrament and that drew them into problems but we have no evidence that thomas macy did that. he was the clerk, the supervisor of schools within town. this was a respected man but this pivotal moment of kindness to these four men would change the trajectory of his life hereafter and would bring him here and then would then shape the religious culture of this particular community. nat fill bert talks about how wonderful it was to get 25 miles away from the closest one of them and be here and to have a bit more freedom. the other thing that's going on exactly in the summer of 1675 and this may seem to you as if
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i'm firing buckshot at you and in some ways it helps to understand the flood of quaker missionaries. imagine d-day, imagine what it was like to be those young men hitting the beaches one after another after another and knowing that awaiting you on the shore were those that intended to kill you. that's exactly what's happening here with the quakers. they are arriving, arriving, arriving into communities that do not welcome them. so in the summer of 1557 you have the four men trying to get eastward to maine for some degree of safety before coming back refreshed to preach again. in the summer of 1657 manhattan and long island had been experiencing the same thing and peter stuyvesant the director general of the new netherlands company in the summer says, you can no longer entertain, shelter or provide for quakers.
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and there is an english community on long island, flushing, that 30 men come together and sign a petition in december asking if they could indeed ignore this prohibition by peter stuyvesant and entertain these people because they are baptists from the north shore. so shortly before thomas macy leaves salisbury to come here there are baptists from swamp scott and lynn who go to long island for safety sake and to get away from the prohibition. the 30 men sign it, two days later the town sheriff appears before the director general of the new netherlands and he is immediately arrested. the other officers of the community, the magistrates who signed it, the clerk who made a copy of it, they are all brought into custody.
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none of the other signers are molested. peter stuyvesant's eyes the desire to protect the quakers is considered civil treason on the part of those particular officers. so the other men, the other 26 that signed, are unmolested but the four officers their lives are shattered financially and some will later leave long island and go to connecticut because they cannot rebuild their lives in flushing. peter stuyvesant will step in and say no longer can there be strictly english officers in these english communities and they must be bilingual, they must also be dutch speaking and have dutch leanings because we cannot have these foreign elements trying to control how we express religion here in the new netherlands. the third and final story is james cudworth from plymouth colony. the son of a well-respected
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puritan minister in england, his mother is one of the most respected platonic scholars at cambridge in mid century and he comes over to the town of situate in 1634 with a lib cal church that had been founded in london in 1617. he rises to straight status in 1636, he is one of the six men appointed by the courts to write plymouth colony's new law code. in the town of plymouth, in the town of situate, excuse me, he is a selectman, he is the captain of the militia, he is a respected member of the church and with the quakers that will all come to a horrific end. what you find is that plymouth was willing to listen to quakers because they were trying to debate with them, but they only wanted authorized officials there. almost in a way of keeping what they considered to be evil away from everybody. i will send you in because you look really good at arguing so you can go in and listen and use
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your rhetorical skill to battle with them, but not everyone can go. james cudworth on his own chose to bring quakers into his house so that he could listen to them and not simply revial them and that he could argue with them if he couldn't agree with them. and by the act of doing that he utterly destroyed himself within the life of his community. one of the things -- i'm going to read you within of the most moving things that he ever wrote. he wrote a letter to a friend in england because he was deeply disturbed by the persecutions that he saw. unknown to him his friend published the letter and so what he thinks are private concerns about the plymouth colony government and the plymouth colony churches are put in print and come back to boston and he
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is now caught by his own words. but this is what he says of himself. as for the state and conditions of things amongst us it is sad and like so to continue. the anti-christian persecuting spirit is very active and that in the powers of this world he that will not whip, lash, persecute and punish men that differs in matters of religion must not sit on the bench nor sustain any office in the commonwealth. i was called before the court and so i signified to the court i was no quaker, but must bear my testimony against sunday dri things that they held as i had occasion, an opportunity, but with all i told them, as i was no quaker, so i would be no persecutor. and for speaking these words he lost all social standing
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whatsoever. not only had he called people in to talk to them that he could learn of them, on one night in the middle of a blizzard two elderly quakers who had been banished from boston and were trying to get to sandwich to be among the sandwich because the natives were very protective of them, they appeared at his home in the middle of a blizzard and he took them in. an elderly man by the name of william brend and john copeland and they were with him for two or three nights. so he entertained them, he fed them and here is a man who said i cannot close with these quakers, but that's right can i be their persecutor. in the two or three days that they are snow bound these two men convert his wife and some of his children to become quakers. so now the very man who has lost
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his social status has also lost control over his family. the people that he protected. but he was a man of such spirit that he made sure that they had safe conveyance. a warrant was delivered for -- to his hour for their arrest. he went to another more sympathetic magistrate and had a warrant written that was given to the two that was supposed to get them to safety in sandwich without being molested, they were stopped in the town of limb aught and what i want you to imagine are three fingers, long rods, bound together the width of the human finger. william brend an elderly man was willed ten times with those three rods bound together. the younger man, john copeland, was bound -- was beaten with six rods bound together 22 times in the chest, 22 times in the back
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and they were set out into the storm bleeding after the beating. this is the kind of horror that was witnessed. we know of the fact that james cudworth lost his children to the quakers because his teenage daughter married in secret without telling him to another quaker teenager. they were arrested because they had stood before a quaker and exchanged vows and there was no civil authority in that. civil marriage started in plymouth colony in 1620. there was no ministerial marriage in plymouth at any mount, it was all two people with legal witnesses before a magistrate. and so james cudworth has to go to a jail cell with where his teenage daughter has been placed after her illegal marriage and must convince her to go and get married before a magistrate. for years he will suffer.
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he is loved within the town of situate. he begins to rebuild his reputation and the town actually petitions the general court. we would like him to be our captain again and the general court says that is unadvised and there is going to be riot within the community but he suppresses it for the sake of social order. ultimately by the time of king phillip's war his reputation will be made again because he was a man of such military skill that they could no longer condemn him. they needed him for fighting on the front and he regains his status again, but this is a man who walked through the darkness and truly stood at what he believed and paid the price for it both socially and financially. the horror comes to an end in 1660 with the restoration, with the failure of the puritan government in england and the restoration of king charles.
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the tolerance of quakers in new england is not ordered, what the king orders that all quakers be returned to england to stand trial. and so the bulk of persecution of the quakers is taken away from england and removed -- taken away from new england and removed back to england itself because king charles despised the quakers. he saw them as one of the forces that rose up in fighting his father, in the execution of his father and that's where quaker pacifism comes from. that the only way to save the faith was for george fox to make a statement of pacifism that wakers would never take up arms again. it was the only way for them to maintain. four quakers die in new england, all of them die at the hands of mass bay colony, but what will happen within the year 1661 to 1662, hundreds and hundreds of them will die in english prisons
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because they would not do what i asked you to do at the start of the morning, they would not take an oath because quakers believed that every word that came out of your mouth should be a word of truth and, therefore, an oath was not required to prove that your speech was extra truthful or extra binding. so he could not suppress the faith because one of the ways he got the crown back was a guarantee of religious diversity in england, but he could destroy them by creating a law that said you must take an oath of loyalty. and in refusing to do it, off they go to the prisons. so when we look back at the past, there is diversity of faith, there are those that are living openly like the quakers, there are those like thomas macy that may be living a closeted life and practicing their faith out of the eyes of their neighbors and longing for a day
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of religious freedom and tolerance that they were able to discover and create here on the island. so there are a complexity of stories, but as we see today those that will make their own personal sacrifices for civil liberties there were those that did it in the past. thank you so much. thank you. [ applause ] >> tonight milton jones recalls his experiences as a u.s. marine during the vietnam war. he talks about his initial reluctance to serve in vietnam and his journey to meet his unit in the caisson. part of vietnam war oral histories conducted by the atlanta history center's canon research center for the veterans history project. watch tonight beginning at 8:00 p.m. eastern and enjoy american history tv every weekend on
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c-span 3. ♪♪ american history tv on c-span 3, exploring the people and events that tell the american story every weekend. 60 years ago this weekend more than 1,400 cia-trained cuban ex aisles launched a failed invasion to overthrow fidel castro's communist government in cuba at the bay of pigs. live saturday at 9:00 a.m. eastern on american history tv and washington journal, we will look back at the invasion and its consequences with former cia histrionic mass dujmovic. sunday at 4:00 p.m. eastern on reel america four films on u.s./cuban relations, an edited of the 1961 nbc report cuba, bay of pigs, president kennedy's 1961 speech after the failed invasion. a compilation of universal news reels from 1959 to 1961 on the
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cuban revolution through the bay of pigs invasion and a 1960 broadcast, cuba, the battle of america. exploring the american story. watch american history tv this weekend on c-span 3. ♪♪ american history tv on c-span 3. every weekend documenting america's story, funding for american history tv comes from these companies who support c-span 3 as a public service. up next on american history tv, a class from washington university in st. louis about why the pilgrims are such a prominent part of american history. hear about why historians and educators emphasize the pim grims plymouth colony over earlier settlements such as jamestown in virginia. >> the goal


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