Skip to main content

tv   American Artifacts Cold War Museum  CSPAN  May 7, 2021 10:54pm-11:49pm EDT

10:54 pm
welcome my name is francis garry powers junior, i go by gary. and the folder of cold war museum in virginia, about 45
10:55 pm
miles west of washington, d.c.. i found at the cold war museum in 1996 to honor cold war veterans, preserve cold war history, and educate future generations about this time period. when i realized when giving lectures to high school students in this area, nine times out of ten, to students would not know anything about the cord war. it would think that the u2 incident had something to do with the u2 rock band. as a result, i noticed that they had to be talk about the cold war time period. so 1996, we founded the cold war museum, which opened at farm hell station, it for me army communication base near the washington, d.c. area. used to be used by nsa, cia a s a army security security agency, to monitor communications from around the washington, d.c. area. and take up national signals
10:56 pm
that to pick up from the atmosphere. and to take you on a tour today of the cold war museum. what was the cold war? the cold war was a time period, for 46 years, between 1945 and december 26th, 1991, with the collapse of the soviet union. was a geopolitical standoff between the soviets and the americans. each one a superpower could've destroyed the power the world through a nuclear war. but the cold war presented that. it was mad mutually assured destruction if one side of the other side but put northern taliban. there would be no winner. so this cold war, a state of heightened tension, we fought wars and battles to surrogate countries, vietnam, korea, gulf war, afghan war.
10:57 pm
vintage ill farm station was functional between world war ii in the mid 90s. after the end of the cold war in december, of 91. the american government realized there was no need for this facility because there was no more soviet union. the cold war had ended. that as well as the prison act called brock base realignment and closure act, and in the mid mid 90s lots of bases were shut down for cost savings, financial reasons. plus we didn't need as many facilities for the sauvignon so that didn't exist. it was closed in the mid 90s, and it sat vacant for about ten years. we found out this was available we pitched an idea to the event tell economic authority. this is yes, we'll talk to a relocating here, after some negotiations, we started in 2008, we opened in 2011. here here's a little overview of the station.
10:58 pm
step this way. van till farm station. behind this mannequin is one of the original science from vent ill farm stations talking about the communication base and that it was monitoring not station number one. in this room here we have items similar to the types that would have been used by the military and agency members who are monitoring the traffic of the communications. there are different radio receivers, transmitters, morris code receptors, even some original photos of the barn and i can walk through these photos right here. it's back in world war ii in the cold world war era, women as well as men were serving here as radio operators and receivers. it gives a very good history of the women's role in the military at the time,
10:59 pm
everything from helping defend our nation to what did you today, flying the planes and everything else to help protect america at home. right down here is the barn complex, prior to it becoming a listening post, and the story goes that the farmer who owned this farm was a ham radio operator. he would pick up german communications and japanese communications and italian taxi communications broadcasting at his hammered eo. he invited one of his friends over a general from the pentagon. the general was astounded he could listen to these foreign broadcasts here at this location, so they did some surveys and found out that the top a graphical area, the granite, the composition of the soil was such it is a natural receiver. so signals from around the world would be funneled here
11:00 pm
and listened to if they had the right devices. the panic on ends up buying the farm from the farmer and the farmer retires. then the farmer at farm turn into the vintage farm station, and it was an active radio communications center from the world war ii up to the mid 90s right to the end of the cold war. here's the original picture of the barn what it looks like. we are basically in this building right now. then we have more photos of what the barns looked like. so then, once the listening post was active, it turned into a military base, it was called vent hill burn stations who was a sportsman club, one of the pack as we have in that era. fields with some of the antenna arrays, people looking at different equipment and they are tele-typing what they are doing.
11:01 pm
some of the original radio equipment, some of what we have on display, and then more information over here of the radio antennas, the farm, the military personnel who were stationed here. the chao line, and here's a good photo of them working listening to the radios, intercepting and taking down notes as to what was being broadcast. over here, nice picture of the people working, intercepting radio communications, and then this is a nice picture of what the barn used to look like with all the receivers and the men and women who were stationed there intercepting the radio broadcast. now in, addition, while we are in this room, a different assortment of uniforms we have in our collection. summer from world war ii, some are from the cold war era. this is an original cold rock from the headquarters in
11:02 pm
washington, d.c.. almost everything in here is original to one extent or another that deals with the cold war. recently this book came out called code girls and it talks about what the women in the military and the agencies did here at the site during world war ii and the cold war to monitor and intercept radio communications. right here as we start to exit, you can see what the event tell base looked like in the fifties. it was significant stars for signals intelligent vint hill they were intercepting the signals from the air. is there an antenna arrays that we're picking up a variety of signals from around the world, as well as the embassy communications from washington, d.c.. and in world war ii when they started using this facility as
11:03 pm
a listening post, they were listening to german, japanese and italian frequencies. some would-be cap dispatchers, some would be military communications, some would be normal radio communications to see what they were telling the public at the time. there was a variety of different signals that they were intercepting, primarily to determine what channels were worth listening to that could be a military strength and advantage. they would listen to the broadcast and when they found one that was important, they would transcribe it. they would not transcribed every bit of information they came across, only that that was crucial and critical to the wartime effort. so then we are going to go into the next room here. here on this display it's all about east germany, west germany, the iron curtain, the military liaison mission that was stationed in germany. it was a french mission, a russian mission, a british mission and an american
11:04 pm
mission. what we have here is an american license original license plate from one of the american missions. little espionage activity across the iron curtain. some original pieces of the barbed wire from the hungarian border. and regional sign that said, halt prohibited you cannot go past dislocation. one of the cars a photograph that the used to use. original piece of the berlin wall i was painted by an artist and donated to the cold war museum. if we go up a little bit, checkpoint charlie, one of the original armbands that was used at the guard gate that separated east and west germany and downtown berlin. also some east and west german stance from the era. up on top there are original east burr and west berlin german sign saying this is the border you cannot go past us,
11:05 pm
and to let people know it was a dangerous area or that it was the no man zone in between the border of eastern least jeremy where the wall was. here we have the original border marker that would separate east and west germany. it would give people walking in the area and idea there getting close to the border and to not cross over the border. then down here on the floor, one of our signs from east berlin, west berlin, saying that no photographs are allowed for the united states military liaison mission. missions were allowed to be in the foreign countries, but they always do a catalyst game in trying to chase them out. we're getting into some civil defense. the cold war museum, back in about 2000 if or so, we saved and salvaged the civil defense headquarters from washington, d.c.. this headquarters was located in virginia 20 miles outside of
11:06 pm
the washington, d.c. area. an event in the event of a nuclear war with the soviets, this would've been the communications headquarters for civil defense. this is a schematic we grew up of the inside of the civil defense headquarters and it has little cubicles on the walls with g s a, washington gas, with pat co-energy supply, department of transportation, fired, d.c., fire u.s. park service, and all of them would have to be coordinated together to broadcast out the signals to their receivers, letting people know what's going on. is it safe to come out from your followed shelved shelters in the event of a nuclear war? so this is the schematic for the civil defense headquarters located in virginia. we have behind our actual items
11:07 pm
from this headquarters. we have the guyger counters they would pick up the radiation signals. we have the original crackers and the biscuits that would help sustain life if you are stuck in a fallout shelter for weeks on end. we have the emergency drinking water, nuclear tax survival kits, so the people know they can survive a short period of time after the fall. original medical tags. nuclear brochures. one of the original portable phones that is a as big as a bread box. these fallout shelter signs were very prevalent during the cold war almost cholera buildings and school buildings a library that had basements. then up here very unique, this is a follow-up forecast shark. this one was actually used
11:08 pm
their at the civil defense headquarters so if the bomb dropped here, and the wind was going this way, this is where the radioactive fallout would trail. they would then have to broadcast that out through the radio system, through all their divisions to get them most exposure possible. up here on the right, we have a couple of the civil defense hats and helmets that were warned, a couple of the posters that were utilized at the time. there is even a comic book about civil defense and where you can do to prepare. then over here, we have a little cartoon character, a civil defense guy who would help kids in school learn about cover drills, and what to do in the event of a surprise attack. ♪ ♪ ♪ >> be sure to remember what birthday turtle just id because
11:09 pm
every one of us must remember to do the same thing. that's what this film is all about. duck and cover. this is an official civil defense film produced in cooperation with the civil defensive ministration and in consultation with the safety commission. >> so right over here we have a couple of museum visitors who are looking at our displays. thank you for coming by folks. a little bit more about civil defense. this film is talking about how to build a bomb shelter in your basement with cinder blocks. and this is the manual that was used for that. then inside this is more civil defense items. what do you need in a civil defense fall of shelter? if you're gonna be cooped up for two weeks, you need food, you need water, batteries, matches, toiletries, you need to have a way to listen, a
11:10 pm
radio in case any broadcasts are coming out. you need to have light for lanterns. you need to have a way to get fresh oxygen into the facility. this was a hand cranked pump that would suck air in through the filters. as a result of my father being who was, you to pilot shot down in 60, we do have a small exhibit on the u2 incident my father went through. over here we have a silhouette of the u2. we have a couple of books about the u2 incident. my father's biography francis garry powers in 1970. here's a book called strangers on the bridge, that was produced in 1965. my father was exchange for. we have my book published in
11:11 pm
2017, called letters from a soviet prison. it depicts his personal correspondence and his journal he kept in prison. my dad kept this journal and wrote letters in prison. who was a historic account of what he went to wall incarcerated. we have a variety of different little things here. soviet fa missile, type of missile that shot down my father, and the type of missiles that were being deployed in cuba in 1962 during a cuban missile crisis. we have this shovel -- from the missile base that were my father was shot down. this is an authentic cold war item from the missile base shot down the u2 in 1960. in addition we have this, it's the booster stage of the sa-2. the actual missile is 80 foot
11:12 pm
long this boosters all we can fit in the museum at the time. actual missile is outside near storage facility next door. it gives you an idea of this model, the sa-2, the booster section is at the end, the fans are not on this particular model. gives you an idea of what this component is for. as you can see having even a scale model, this is 80 foot. my father was able to survive being shot down by the soviet sa-2 missile because it was not a direct hit. hadn't been a directive, he would be a little pieces, but because it was near miss, to the law and the right of the fuselage of the airplane, the damage to the tail section, the noes pitches forward, the wings break off. dad falls from 70,000 feet about 35,000 feet before bailing out of the airplane. hey he didn't use his objection seat, if he did he would've suffered as lives on the way
11:13 pm
out. basically open up the canopy undoes his harness, kind of position arrow, struggling to get free, breaks free from the air hose, falls from the airplane, parachute opens, hardships to the ground. he was very lucky to have lived through that. so as my father parachutes to the ground, he's noticing a dark car following his dissent. he lands on the outskirts of the collective farm, the farmers rush up to him, help him with his backpack, power suit and helmet. start asking questions in russian, dad doesn't speak russian so he shrugs his shoulders. makes the farmers a little nervous. who is this guy falls out of the sky doesn't speak our language holds up a pitch for interim. . a few moments that communicates in the dirt, you as a. so they know he's an american. a few moments ago, by the block ourselves up to me and get out, but them in the backseat, they take him to a holding area, and his turn over the kgb.
11:14 pm
>> ♪ ♪ ♪ in moscow nikki the crucial its toll that francis garry powers of the downed american reconnaissance plan is alive -- the plane was brought down a mayday, less than two weeks before the summit talks, and mr. kaye was picked for propaganda advantage. most sensational, america officially admits extensive flights over russia by unarmed planes over the last five years. state department spokesman lincoln white gives the reason for the. flight >> given the state of the world today and the collection activities or practice by all countries. and history certainly reveals that the soviet union has not been lagging behind in this field >> they interrogate my father for three months and they put him in and our
11:15 pm
international show trial to embarrass the united states. his to ten years in prison, he serves a total of 21 months and before being exchanged by the soviets. that's a quick condensed version. if you like to learn more about the u2 incident, google c-span garry powers. as a one hour election from the virginia historical society online you can watch and get full detailed account of what took place. i'm interested in the cold war time period in espionage, particularly because i grew up in a cold war family. and my father not being shot down by the soviet union, imprisoned by the kgb, or alternately exchange for soviet spy, if movies had not been made about him or books written about him, i might have a different interest. but my dad died when i was 12 years old, and at that time it was too late to ask him any questions. so in high school i was very introverted i did not understand the significance of what my father went through or why my people wanted to talk
11:16 pm
about it. in college a came out of my shell. i was curious, and i started to ask questions. sam and i wasn't starting my research to vindicate my father. i knew there was controversy that surrounded him, but i also wanted to find out the truth so i knew how to answer questions. and so that desire to find out that you sent me on a lifelong passion to find out all i could about the u2 incident, but the more i learned about you to incident the more questions i had. i realized i had to learn more about the cold war to understand the u2 incident, to learn more about my father. that's why started on this path, and as i grew and developed and found it more information about the cold war, what i discovered is that there were hundreds, thousands of men and women who fought, sacrificed and died during this time period that did not have any recognition. so we developed the cold war museum to honor our cold war veterans. we also developed to educate
11:17 pm
the kids. they would understand with the cold war time period was about. and had i not grown up in this cold war family, i probably would've taken a different career path. back in 2015, two years ago, stephen spielberg did a movie called bridges buys that depicted the exchange of soviet spy rudolph -- for my father. and we have a little poster with dad on it, holding up the u2. this was during his senate hearing of march 1962, or he uproar appear before the senate is in washington, d.c. to explain what happened at the u2 incident and how his plane was shot down. this poster came from an exhibit at the and are all the national reconnaissance office, that was set up there in the mid 90s, and it's a poster. as we go over, we have the bridge, it's known as the
11:18 pm
bridge of spies, this is where my father was exchanged for soviet colonel rudolph able. this is dads tombstone at arlington cemetery. a photograph of golf able, a photograph of crew chef at the un talking about the incident, and then over here we have an air force partial pressure suit which is similar to the type c two pilots were wearing for the cia at the time. in order to survive it 70,000 feet, due to pilots would have to have a pressure suit that would allow them to sustainability functions and their lives at those altitudes. as we move over, here is a piece of the u2, but not my father's. this piece is from major rudolph anderson's youtube, that was shot down on october 20, seventh 1962 during the
11:19 pm
cuban missile crisis. as a result of that shootdown he did die during that incident. back about ten or 15 years ago i was privileged to snip off a piece of this plane mounted on a plaque and presented to the family members of major anderson at belleville, texas which is the air base where he flew out of on october 27th for his mission. the family was very appreciative of our generosity to give them piece of their loved ones plane. as we go over here, under the airplane of rudolph anderson, we have a u2 camera that was functional, i must say in the later dates of the seventies and eighties nineties as opposed to the sixties. i can't tell you too much about the camera that was on the assembly board here, other than it was in the u2 and when you look down here with the mirror, you can see the lenses right at
11:20 pm
the bottom. as we go over, this is a light table, justly name because it's lit up. what it would do is the u2 would take the photo, it would be developed and the analyst would put them on these tables, and they would look for the military industrial complexes, strengths and weaknesses of the soviet union. what type of military hardware, how many planes, economy bombers had, how many missiles they had, over here is a unique photo, this is an original photo of an ex aide to base. right there, blown up, so that's where looks like and filmed, and then when you blow up you can see the details. this is the actual base in russia that shot down my dad's u2 on may 1st 1960. this is basically what my father was trying to photograph to confirm that it was operational. he found out firsthand it was
11:21 pm
operational. some of the photos of this type of imagery that we've taken from you too. specifically this is a cuban missile crisis and the u2s were taking these photos to show where construction was going on, where equipment was displays were where the other equipment is located, as well as low lying low level flights with missile erector's, missile shield tense, the moving equipment, the tank trailers etc. this was the proof that i want to say adelaide stevenson back in the sixties before the un, showed it to the world to prove that russia was putting in icbm missiles in cuba very close to the united states border. >> this resolution calls as an interim measure on article 40 of the charter for the immediate dismantling and withdrawal from cuba of all missile and other offensive
11:22 pm
weapons. >> this is a photograph of a constellation the lockheed constellation that was used within antenna array on the fuselage top to help pick up the signals. so during the cold war we were trying to monitor as many of our enemies as possible in order to learn their strengths and weaknesses. we were using z one thirties, we were using constellations, we were using u2s, we were using a variety of different aircraft to fly over or around foreign hostile countries to monitor their activities. this was a type of system that was inside one of these reconnaissance aircraft. as a result of this operation, there were, i want to say, 25 to 30 cold war shoot downs between 1950 and 1970. my father was shot down may one of 1960 over the soviet union,
11:23 pm
and his shootdown is one of the best known, because it was so highly publicized. there was an international incident eisenhower and crew schiff and banning up issue. dad ended up with two years in a soviet prison. his was not the only plane shot down. there were some 25 to 30 plane shot down during the cold war. we need to talk about a few those shoe towns now. here we had a conference that we participated in about early cold war overflights. talks about these cold war ferret flights, where the airplanes would zoom into the border of the soviet union and at the very last minute they would diverge right or left, but that would allow the soviets to enact the greater system, the missile systems, scramble are jets. it would allow us to figure out how quick they were able to scramble, how quick they were able to turn on the radars to fire their missiles. it gave us an upper hand knowing that we had five
11:24 pm
minutes to get in and drop bombs if a resulting in that during the cold war. we were testing their strengths and weaknesses as well as gathering information from within their borders for by reconnaissance. here is another poster on the first cold war shootdown, called the baltics sea incident of 1950. this airplane was shot down april 8th of 1950. this is a poster of the 50th anniversary of that shootdown. this person, mrs. reynolds donated her jacket. her husband was one of the crew members that was lost on this mission, she donated not only the jackets but some personal artifacts to display. here we've got a piece of a plane that was shot down on january 28th, 1964. here is a another piece of a plane, a c-130 that was shot down on september 2nd, 1958. this was shot down over soviet
11:25 pm
armenia, and this is one of the pieces of plane donated to the cold war museum. here we have an artwork poster called a hot day during the cold war. it's signed by the crew members of this mission as well as the artist and depicts the cold war shootdown of july 1st, 1960. i'm not sure if that's the exact date or not. this here is called a blood shed. it was used by the crew members by overhead reconnaissance flights. if they were shot down and forced down over enemy territory, in 14 different languages it would say, i am an american and i do not speak your language. i need food, shelter and assistance. i will not harm you, i bear no malice toward your people. if you will help me my government will reward you. this was in 14 different languages to be used in the event of a shootdown or a
11:26 pm
forced landing in a hostile country. we're getting into a you to display, are 71 display. the u2 and the s are 71 were the best known reconnaissance aircraft at the time, primarily because my father was shot down in a u2, and the s are 71 was so sleek and so fast, and ahead of its time, that it's a very well known plain. this is a display on the u2 and the answer 70 once. this is an actual, and original diagram of the u2, the schematics that were used to build and design the plane. this was presented to the cold war museum by one of the members of who worked on the project in the 19 fifties. kelly johnson's photo here, the design of these planes, a brilliant aeronautical engineer. he was the designer of the u2 in the u.s. are 71.
11:27 pm
on >> on december, ninth 1954, the go ahead was given. lockheed's chief engineer kelly johnson call togethers tiny 26 man special project engineering group. these are the problems they faced. to design, build an airplane and fly it in eight months. an airplane that would prove her crews well above 70,000 feet. one would travel almost as far as a b-52 and remain in the air for ten hours. a plane that would be completely reliable with force landing out of the question. a plane would be the world's most stable aircraft are high altitude photography. >> in the display case, we have again you information models, some photographs, u2 shirts one of the models that was produced in the fifties. the black cap insignia on these two plaques helps to designate the u2 program and the u2
11:28 pm
flying over china during the cold war. what a lot of people don't realize is that the americans did not only fly the u2 over the soviet union, they flew it over other foreign hostile countries. iraq, iran, middle eastern countries, eastern european countries, the middle east, soviet union, and other countries as needed. the planes that were flown over china were flown by taiwanese pilots are retrained by the cia for these missions over communist china. four or five u2s were shot down over china. not a lot of people realize that, but that is declassified, i'm not relaying any secrets. it is something you can look up and find a very famous photo of the four or five u2s in tiananmen square on display. as we go over here, a little bit more very unique item we
11:29 pm
have over here. it's a plaster of paris item, it's mallows here. now's was chinese leader, had several body doubles. and in order for the cia to determine whether it was really mao or is buddy double, they made a plaster paris model of his ear. ears, like fingerprints are unique to every individual. this model was made by the cia, geno regime one, one of our recent supporters and board he passed away few years ago, was given this after he left the cia. and then after he passed away, his son gave this here to the museum. it's a very unique piece of cold war history created by the cia, to make sure a foreign leader was identified correctly when he was out in public. we have different exhibits here, little information on different
11:30 pm
spies that were caught, and what espionage is about, and how you're able to communicate secretly, covertly. a little parody on spy versus spy for mad magazine, which was a cold war era cartoon in mad magazine the talks about the blocks by the whites by, of a try to get the best of each other. we have a little more information on espionage and human intelligence, and how people would go into foreign countries illegally, set up a foreign cover, and then extract information to bring back their countries homeland, such as rudolph abel was a soviet spy who snuck into america in the fifties and work with the rosenberg's to get information back to the soviet union to find out the strengths and weaknesses of america. here we have an exhibit on area 51 and the atomic bomb. it was taking place for nuclear
11:31 pm
development and nuclear technology. this is a map the talks about we're all the different blast were done in the nevada desert during the testing of the atomic bomb. here is an original photo of one of the mushroom clouds from one of these locations. a nuclear device being tested and getting ready for a test explosion and other photos here of mushroom clouds in the desert. as we go up the stairs, civil defense atomic bomb information, a photograph of area 51. area 51 is a top secret u.s. government base in the nevada desert, technically no one but he is allowed to go over there doesn't exist. the american government recently four years ago finally knowledge that it existed. here are some signs from the military installation there were basically saying, restricted, you cannot go here, authorized personnel only, as
11:32 pm
well as deadly force would be used. this mountaintop that these people were taking this photo was open to the public. eventually the government realize the people were taking photographs of their secret military base. so they ended up buying acres of land around the test site preventing these types of photos from coming out. here we are in the second floor of the cold war museum. start off with a little exhibit the rods will crash ufo in 47 what was taken place it area 51. in addition to the development of the u2 spy plane which is why the area 51 was created, it also did testing of other platforms. for example, there used to be a secret navy squadron that would do the top gun trying to training at the time to train our fighter pilots on capabilities of the soviet or foreign airplanes or fighter
11:33 pm
planes. we would acquire these russian megs, we would pick them apart, reassemble them, and then test them against our planes to determine their vulnerabilities so that we would have a better advancement in the event of an actual conflict. as we walk through here on the right side, these uniforms along with the other east german items were collected by one individual, gerald wilkerson. gerald work insulin is one of the museum supporters, he lives in texas now. he donated these items to us. i want to say 15 years ago, and it was an incredible collection of plots, signs, wood metal from east german military units and headquarters. one of the largest collection of east germany military items in america, i think i can say accurately, is here at the cold war museum in virginia.
11:34 pm
so we have as you look down this top floor, the flags from the former soviet union and other eastern european countries. the warsaw pact countries. we had east german phones, radio's, transmitters, photographs, night vision goggles for tanks and helmets. photographs of people jumping over the berlin wall trying to escape. a collection here of soviet propaganda posters that were donated to the cold war museum, have a righty of them. these were all used during the cold war as propaganda to show how evil the americans were and how great the soviets were. and so when school groups come in here, we let them go through
11:35 pm
and talk, and we talk to them about the cold war, these propaganda posters, and what we were doing to safeguard americans at home throughout the cold war. different eastern european cigarettes, models of the mix and other types of weapons systems, from soviet union and he's berlin and former eastern european countries. we have one of the original jackets from a crew member who was stationed in for mass at a missile base, between 1958 and 59. for most turned into taiwan. we have a variety of different posters newspaper articles about the cold war area, the soviet space race, the american space race, the cosmonauts, those were the astronauts during that time period. movie posters about cold war films, and against some of this
11:36 pm
was propaganda films that were being produced to show how evil the soviets were if we were here, or how evil the americans were if you were in russia. gas masks. a variety of east german and russian gas masks that would've been used in the event of a chemical and biological attack during the cold war. the insignia that would go on your shoulders or your sleeves of east german uniforms. this here is an authentic soviet winter coat for a general presented to the cold war museum by the individual who wore it. so as we go along again, soviet military uniforms, colonel, major, quartermaster. we have types of uniforms that would be used in the field for camouflage. the winter field uniforms that
11:37 pm
were used. as we make our way around and you can look down this next section, more of the flags from the various eastern bloc countries that were a part of the soviet union. poster on the type of warsaw pact planes and helicopters that were being used during the cold war era. there's information on missiles. these are american and soviet missiles a little plaque that shows you the difference. we have a plot for an american missile that sat on a generals desk during the cold war. yeah just blues for a sailor. here we have a soviet union naval uniform, and east german sailors uniform. as we get over here, we have a small display on the uss liberty incident. the uss liberty incident took place to eight of 1967.
11:38 pm
it was an incident that involved israel and the united states. israel attacked the uss liberty. several crew members died. this is the type of battle wounds that were down on the ship, this is one of the original uniforms worn by one of the crew members of the uss liberty on june 8th, 1967. these are photographs of the crew members of the uss liberty gave to us so that we could promote and showcase this cold war event. and that one of the jackets that they made up for the reunions, to remember the uss liberty. that event is still controversial. the crew members of the liberty would like congress to reopen the investigation did it to determine the cause of the attack and whether it was intentional or not. i don't know for sure the behind the scenes dealings of what took place, but i know the crew members are adamant as to
11:39 pm
their version and getting it reopened. over on this side, a very unique exhibit on the uss pueblo. the uss pueblo was captured in 1968, january 23rd. in north korea. the ship was boarded, the sailors were taken prisoner, they served almost one year, maybe it'll a little more on north korean prison. this is a prisoners uniform, and original one that was used by a crew member of the uss pueblo wall incarcerated in north korea back in 1968. the commander of the uss pueblo was pete booker.
11:40 pm
he bucher wrote a little book about the berlin can? it -- >> is a little bit about the berlin candy. bomber berlin airlift. took place in 1948 to 1949. every 90 seconds during this time period, these type planes would be landing temple hawk air base in west berlin. they would unload fuel, coal, food, water and supplies to keep the west berliners free during this incident that was known as the berlin blockade, the berlin airlift. the soviets were trying to keep the americans out, they were trying to take over was pollen which was surrounded by east germany, but because of the berlin are left, their efforts were thwarted. as a result berlin remained free. this was all about the berlin airlift, the candy bomber, daryl have a son, he's about 97 years old now, a friend of mine we've been on different panels
11:41 pm
together. he's a patriarch for lack of a better term in germany. he endured himself to the children of berlin after the berlin airlift, because he would make these type of parachutes, he put candy bars, they would flow down to the kids blow. he was known as uncle wiggly wings, because he would come in and wiggle his wings as he was approaching and the kids would know that that's the plane that had the candy. and in 1948, there was no chocolate in germany. it was war torn and ravaged was right after world war ii, supplies were hard to get. so he would drop wriggles spearmint gum, and hershey's chocolate, and other candies out of the plane to the kids that were watching the plains land. over here we have information on cuba, the cuban missile
11:42 pm
crisis, the bay of pigs and will take place there. julio to castro, one of our museum supporters with being trained along with other cubans to invade cuba. he donated his uniform to the museum. what we have we believe raul castro's military hat. we are 90% it was, but we're still trying to verify and documented. it says here, the military had purportedly own borough castro, fidel castro's brother. papers the insignia of the cuban armed revolutionary forces. halloween masks of the era, 1962, castro and crew chef. autographed print of the type of planes that were flying low level missions over cuba during the cuban missile crisis. it was the are f-one or one they were see here there was flying low level missions. this is a very unique piece. notes made by president kennedy
11:43 pm
october of 1962. he's in a briefing he's making his notes, at the end of it he rips up the paper and throws it away. want to say his secretary salvage the paper she kept it and then through some sources we were able to acquiring, and it's now on display at the cold war museum. doodles. here is a piece of paper that john f. kennedy was dueling on during the cuban missile crisis briefing mission there at the white house. we can see a very unique good, good, good, bad, bad,. that [laughs] this is one of my favorite posters. it was produced by a man of the name of morris bergh. and the privilege of talking to him on the phone prior to his passing a few years ago, and he told me the following story. he was in berkeley, california. he was a student there. this was the early 19 sixties
11:44 pm
and he would make these parity posters against the soviet union. he would sell them in the book stores and record stores in berkeley. then the counterculture took over berkeley, the peace movement came in the hippies came in, and berkeley transformed into a very liberal enclave, which depreciate this guy making fun of the soviet union. when i thought when i first found these posters was that this guy was some sort of berkeley person who was anti america, who is doing these things. after talking to him it turned out he was a member of the military, he was in the navy, he was a staunch conservative, and he was making fun of soviet union and other eastern bloc countries. so perception is not always correct. i thought because it came from berkeley he had a liberal attitude. turns out he was very, very conservative, and had a story
11:45 pm
about how he was run out of town once they turned from conservative to liberal in berkeley. more informational london and stalin. whole bit more about the ussr, original banners and flags. something you don't see much anymore, a map of the soviet union. soviet union want to say went to 11 or 12 time zones. here is one of the last exhibits about the fall of the berlin wall and the collapse of the soviet union. what took place in 1989 and 1991 when the cold war was ending. we've got a picture of gorbachev, mikael gorbachev along with ronald reagan. to folks who were there who were instrumental in ending the cold war. president reagan gets all the credit ending the cold war, but the cold war actually ended when president bush was in office. it's important for children and students to learn and know
11:46 pm
about the cold war. in order to understand the world today, in order to understand this war on terror that we are living in, you have to understand how we got here. we got here through the cold war. i'm gonna give you one example of how this connects. in 1979, the soviets invade afghanistan, it's the afghan war. it was the soviets vietnam war. it was an unpopular war in the soviet union, and many of their soldiers were being killed by the rebels who were fighting the invaders. one of the rebel's who was fighting against the soviets was a sought been lawton. the cia trained or, supplied him with weapons to fight the soviets. jump forward to 9/11. a sauna bin laden is some of what he is learned to attack america. here we have this tie in from the cold war to the war on
11:47 pm
terror. that's why it is so important for students to understand the significance of the cold war, to understand how it got us here today.
11:48 pm
welcome to the south dakota air and space museum when people think about south dakota they don't always think about a great aviation state but we have a huge aviation heritage in this state over the y


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on