tv Lynn Hudson West of Jim Crow CSPAN October 10, 2021 12:45pm-2:02pm EDT
that have shaped the american story, find a set c-span history. >> lynn hudson is from the university of illinois in chicago, the study of race and gender is the author of the black entrepreneurship in 19 centuries san francisco. from women historians, in 2019, the fight against california's discrimination and white supremacy in california. i will handed over to you and see you again.
archivist, one of my chapters will not exist and allison more that i worked with for years is one of the people who gave me the idea of this book, and they launched the book, and let's get to it. and in the expense, with anti-black practices. the complex networks of resistance that have existed that involves networks of
african-americans and allies from statehood and the civil rights movement. one book does not document every instance of segregation. they spent time in public libraries from riverside to montana, lack of time and focus on six stories that show the contours of jim crow, many other scholars have documented the nuanced ways jim crow operated in the state, scholars like scott, kelly hernandez, to name a few. they help us understand the
ways racism and segregation are paraded across the state. chartering the beginnings of the system. with anti-black practices, how is it refined and established before the 1950s and the first roads we recognize as part of the civil rights movement like montgomery bus boycotts and before that area. in chapter 5 of my book, the way allies pushed back against racially restrictive housing
and that all of white supremacist and the ku klux klan in that story. it involved some figures that are well-known to scholars in california history. the longest publishing black newspaper published out of central avenue in los angeles. a very important figure, some of you might know about her, the first black woman to run for vice president in 1962 on the progressive party ticket but my interest in this story, she's one of the first to talk about the arrival of the ku klux klan and the most formidable. when you think about the ku klux klan, probably talk about
the origins of the clan in american history after the civil war, forming the effort to stop african-americans in their quest for freedom. you see the published in harper's weekly in 1974 showing the clan there. on the left is another white supremacist organization and you can see the words worse than slavery. we associate them with a moment of freedom with foundations in the south and the terror that promulgated across the south. my concern is the second clan
of the 1920s that became particularly strong in the midwest. you might remember the clan was popular in ohio and indiana but was also strong in california and 1921, that year the clan arrived in downtown los angeles and the california eagle ran front page headlines showing shall we entertain the clan and what should we do about the arrival, talking about the dangers of the clan held in downtown los angeles in 1924. and while the strength of this
plan, it did spread up and down, oakland and anaheim. the fledgling naacp founded the alarm and road to the national office, what do we know about this, what can we do about this? as soon as the clan arrived, african-americans across the state organized against it, the reputation of being a more congressional -- professional clan meaning members of the professional class.
a lot of california clan members in the 1920s ran for office on city council, were middle-class outstanding homeowners was up secured by the violence, one of the points i make about the clan in california is we can't be full by this portrayal of the second clan or the third clan i will talk about in a minute. the concern with african-americans unlike the first clan targeting newly freed black americans is the second was more concerned about catholics in america and
immigrants in america, there were concerns about african americans and their presence was a threat to clan members. i want to say that. the clan of california received tremendous publicity in 1922 when it rated the home of a mexican family and inglewood. this is a picture of clans at a funeral, and being bootleggers, a constable was shot, the clan was been - and there was a trial. everyone might not have known
about this but this episode became national news. after that trial, to investigate the membership of the clan, to the states. this led to a raid on clan headquarters. what the da's office covered surprised the observer. the la headquarters of the ku klux klan revealed 3000 clan members in la county alone, 1000 s. including the da staff, and two names on the list spoke volumes, the la chief of police
and la county sheriff were both members. the messenger put it in their report on the raid the same courageous thinker would contend that negroes can rely on police and the authorities when the evidence reveals the police and authorities are members of the ku klux klan. one would think this episode would put a end to the california clan but after the trial was botched, you can read about that in chapter 5 in which all these clan members debated their attack the local naacp, they continued to operate ever since the trial. what does this have to do with
housing and segregation? contrary to popular assumptions, this clan at a focus on african-americans and catholics and others and another assumption i want us to get rid of and some believe that the clan disappeared during the 30s and especially world war ii, the tamping down of the second clan. many believed that was the end of it for the clan to be spouting their own white
supremacist ideology and they didn't go underground, in the war years 5, 46 for the resurgence of the clan, we call this the third clan and target is black and brown families moving into white and brown areas of the state. is the clan i want to talk about. photograph from north ridge. one of the things the plan hopes to stop is black and brown homeowners through previously white neighborhoods
part of the law and he would be instrumental against restrictive housing. he'd be a lead attorney up and down the state for thousands and thousands were black folks moved into previously white neighborhoods. he also defended some of the most high-profile patients including the case mcdaniel, the one who won the oscar so he it does part of the story also. oh day short was a refrigeration engineer who lived and worked in los angeles 25 years by 1945. like many black angelenos, here's frustrating by the
housing shortage. his father of young children i do see his daughter and his wife, helen and they were of the desired neighborhoods by restrictive housing. the estimated about 80% of socal was tied up in restrictive housing. so that your had a lucky break and he got a job the plant from 1949. many of you have heard of kaiser permanente clinic. in montana, the black workers in his shipbuilding yard in northern california.
but this plant was in montana east of l.a. and fontana promoted itself as a place of jim crow restriction so his job as an engineer at this., he felt like he won the lottery. it was a good job and the plan was the first facility for the products on one site. it's an international benchmark. the job was a boom for african-americans and they labored in lower pain, lower status jobs. 1945 in december, oh day short
and his family moved to a plot of land and fontana. the property was south of baseline street there was an area where no family could ever live. as soon as they moved into their house, they were visited by two white sheriff's and told him he is out of bounds. he moved to the black neighborhood on the other side of the road. december 3, the real estate agent who sold short the lot full-time, the vigilante committee had a meeting on your case last night, they are a rough bunch to deal with. if i were you, i get my family off this property. oh day short was well aware the vigilante for clan members and he prepared for trouble did
three things. first, he called his attorney, who was a law partner. second, he contacted the fbi entered he contacted members of the flock press. california eagle and another black neighborhood. they have recounted the threats he received from the sheriff about the vigilante. ten days later, it burst into flames. the fire that engulfed the property begin with the explosion and neighbors electrically. the family managed to escape the house but not before they were all severely burned. next-door neighbors statement later to the press the neighbor said they didn't know was a black family because they assumed they were right. the little girl 15 minutes after she was admitted in the boy died the next morning as to their
mother, having. here is some coverage of the press. as soon as the fire subsided, reports circulated, white neighbors agreed the responsibility of the fire light with short. mr. short was lighting a lamp and it exploded. black press wasn't having it. the california eagle suspected foul play and sent reporters to the scene of the crime, naacp and the l.a. chapter also investigated the crime. as they began to investigate the crime, it became apparent that it was almost impossible for a
lantern to cross that kind of explosion. here's a picture of the eagle office because the walls of the house were knocked to the ground so the lamp or lantern theory, they should doubt on this theory. now it's a long investigation process, many months of investigation and i don't have time to do to help all of it but in the aftermath of the murder, there is an elaborate cover-up of evidence that would have led to criminal conviction. the corner in his investigation refused to admit evidence that was set by vigilantes. the lantern itself so intact i supposedly blew up was not entered into the investigation
and the district attorney, it became clear in the midst of this cover-up but there was also an organized resistance to the cover-up and the efforts to seek justice for the family were also ongoing. 1946, a leader of the los angeles socialist workers party wrote and published this pamphlet. she distributed the pamphlet happened on the state across the country and she spoke about the short murder across the country. there was a forward by the sister of helen, his
sister-in-law. in addition to the workers party, the labor movement also pressured the governor, district attorney san bernardino to investigate the murders. since it is a refrigeration engineer, he'd also been a member of the labor movement and cio in particular put pressure on state officials to investigate the murder. state attorney general robert the murder in the client, he promised an investigation but nothing came of it much to the disappointment of the organized resistance. an editorial and deliberative summed it up. when any person propel with entire certainty, the shorts
were a victim of jim crow. they're finding a home in los angeles jim crow was a violator of community tradition and built his house on the lot he purchased, the deputy sheriffs and set them selves toward a plan to deprive american citizens of his constitutional right. all the shorts are dead, only jim crow is alive. the story doesn't quite and fair because jimmy in 1946 stepped up efforts to investigate the client. you have penny here on the far right with two members, one is in a clan costume. 1946, the client step up efforts to terrorize black homeowners in this cost to continue the investigation.
that year in 1946, the client and the homes of many black homeowners across socal, and also burned a jewish fraternity at usc because the fraternity put in and in spring of 1946, they began calling clan members into his office but again the results were disheartening for those seeking justice for the shorts. he found no evidence of so-called vigilante activity and directed efforts to the american community and fontana were against mr. short personally. many people wondered about the response linked to running government that year, he ran against earl warren but what it did do with the help of an l.a. security court judge was revoked
charges of the ku klux klan making it unlawful for the organization to hold meetings in the state. she had her own confrontation with the client new this was largely symbolic because 1950s, clan activities revealed, here you have a picture from 1962, this photo in the examiner was new racial intimidation and you can read the caption there and examining the letters kkk in front of presumably a black family in the home of a negro teacher in the vicinity was recently bombed. they live in south-central l.a. and the attacks continued into the 50s. we also know the board of
education in 1954 what inspire white supremacists to push back against integration with new liberation. the client may have morphed into another institution. i'm just going to close here. what they saw in men like okay short with many layers, they were educated men, pick up purchased property, he could inhabit spacious. the los angeles sentinel against housing discrimination and the klan must ferment portable but they never acted alone. joined by the naacp, socialist worker party, communist party
and activism, california's movement against restrictive housing, individual across the state with everything to cross the color line and move into neighborhoods known to be watched by the kkk. o'short and his family and others found against the klan. of the 1940s, a new expression and fontana after the board decision. backlash against segregation and revival of the klan became so successful pipe 1955, president lyndon johnson ordered an investigation on the activity. two years earlier in 1963, an african-american captive bought a house in san bernardino only to watch it destroyed by arsonists before he and his family could move in. little had changed in the 17 years since the murder of the shorts print the golden state
punished african-americans to challenge segregation. some paid with their lives. thank you so much for listening. >> thank you so much. put your questions in the queue and a box maybe while people are doing that -- i read a quote by you in an interview talking about this and you said learning about chicago but you don't hear stories about the west. do you think that is changing works. >> that's a great question. my recollection, schoolteachers in the western california are doing so much to teach children
about the civil rights movement in the west -- i'll get to that in a moment but i want to say teachers in the west are teaching about the west. i personally didn't learn about the civil rights movement in the western california or even my hometown, i grew up in pasadena and a lot of what i learned about i learned from acquaintances and teachers but not the approved curriculum. i learned from teachers like my eighth grade teacher who taught about black history in curricular. i heard stories from matt robinson who worked at my high school told stories about the robinson family so there's a lot of things that have changed in public school but things that
are left out, not the fault of teachers necessarily, it's the fault of textbooks. a chapter on civil rights, it's always been in martin luther king, alabama, maybe chicago, maybe so that also has changed. with the work of these scholars i mentioned at the beginning of my book, i think it is changing but we also have juicy civil rights movements and white supremacy as a national phenomenon the resistance against white supremacy is something that national. >> i have so many questions but want to do this first one. we look at the chat box as well but if you can put it in the queue and day, we will get to
them in order. have the board of education restrict housing for people of color? >> okay so quickly at the end reading from my book, the backlash against brown was phenomenal across the country. by unanimous decision the segregation was not equal, so we know it didn't necessarily get implemented in the ways folks might have liked. we know backlash against brown was phenomenal in something we are still living today. those of you interested might want to look at nancy mcqueen's book, democracy and changed where she charts the way tanks and scholars and politicians who were part of the backlash against brown against the board
and fighting integration, the way they sow the seeds of the modern movement. the link between brown and restrictive housing, so i was suggesting that it's not always called the klan, the backlash against the clan is part of brought conservative backlash against burned people and the violence, that experience in 1963 where he bought up house in san bernardino to see it go up in flames, that's backlash against the civil rights movement and their success so the connection is just that, black and brown homeowners were targets of violence and
intimidation and co- policies, if not laws after brown. >> there's a couple about your book, to the rise of the second klan in the california be tied to migration? >> oh yes, i can't believe i didn't say the term great migration, thank you so much. absolutely. i was talking about, it is the third klan, 1940s klan i talked about the murder happened in that's directly linked to the influx of black migration, absolutely for those of you who read, you know about that in the history of the migration great migration transformed
california, right? it was astounding how many african-americans came from the south especially from louisiana and texas into no easy route is part of that great migration so. some have been there for generations but many of them are migrants. not o'short, he lived in los angeles 25 is already so he wasn't a recent migrant but absolutely. so thank you. they wanted to know about o'short, he passed away?
>> talk about leaving off an important sentence, sorry. yes, i left that out. two days after his family died, he was told the hospital and his friends and supporters were trying to not tell him. he was in the hospital with severe burns and try not to tell him his family had died. but the va staff went in to question him which certainly would have been illegal under his condition and said i'm not in any shape to answer your questions and they informed him that his wife died and the children passed away. in my excitement to get to the end and finish on time, i left off important information, it was really tragic. >> we could probably talk about this for two hours and still not cover everything.
one question came in, horse the relationship between private property racism, domestic terrorism. how does informed your personal positions. reporter: ? relationship first between the distraction and private which is what the klan was, what is the practical? >> one of the things i do, there are many angles for that, thank you for that quite question. one thing that so important about the property we talked about tonight is that it was particularly threatening to white supremacists of african-american men were owning property. if you think about that, one of the things the first klan targeted were newly freed black men and women were owning and free and trying to carve out a
piece of land for themselves so if you know anything about that first klan, they often targeted them so if you know anything about ida be well, the brothers who owned a successful store and a klan started them, that's one thing that inspired her to continue with journalism come to chicago so in some ways, this is not new. the fact that the klan targeted california black property owners, it's a continuity between first and second and third klan. we just don't associate that with california so that is one thing i wanted to say, it had a particular residence cap black men were because it's associated with black -- masculinity.
black men are now by a home and buying property, building a home, that was to claim masculinity for yourself and that's also threatening. one thing they were concerned about was gender roles so both second and third klan were active in policing gender roles. any think they've heard about women and cars, feminists, they were all on the claims list of people who work violators. the other thing, -- >> personal resistance going forward in this work. >> thank you, that's a great question. citing this book, in this
chapter chapter in particular with violence and also violence perpetrated by police departments as the membership showed as early as the 20s. lapd with klan members and the constantly told readers if the police knock on the door in the middle of the night, do not answer the door so they want and because could be the same so one of the ways they informed that concern, police violence with what's been happening in our country in the last 18 months with the death of george floyd, breonna taylor -- as historians, we are trying to understand this kind of violence and also understand the history of it,
the resistance to it. neither one of these things are not new. we need to be sharper in our understanding of it how it informs, i try to pay attention to how it's changed and how it has not changed. things aren't the same in 20 want as they were in 1921 or 45 or 46 but there's a lot of continuity. >> is a couple of questions about your book, if you're our literature was included in schools, are you on a reading list? >> i don't know yet because it hasn't been out for a year yet but i do know it's going to be
on the reading list of college courses. that was one of my hopes when i wrote the book, i hoped it would be something i taught for many years, i taught a lot of teachers, folks going into the classroom and i hope this book might be taught in class. >> in northern california, you were just talking about one particular chapter in your book people purchase the book, does the book encompass civil rights in the 1960s especially in the bay area? >> it does not, that's the next book. many other folks have been working on back book.
the work of planning and many others, a host of scholars have written about the civil rights movement lacked freedom. that's not what i set out to do. i wanted to know, a lot of my students know about civil rights but they don't know jim crow has a long history in the west and in california before the protests so that's what i set out to do. what did it look like in 1960? rid of these systems of jim crow black practices come from? it to come out of nowhere so i don't cover those important protests in san francisco and all of those protests in the
black panther party involved the ways california and the black freedom struggle, that's not in this. >> if somebody put it out there regarding educating students, any textbooks texas not focused on california. >> the question about the state as a whole, i do have a whole chapter about san francisco and the bay area, my first two chapters are about the bay area and also a chapter the middle of the state so i certainly couldn't cover all of jim crow up and down the state but the book is not about socal. >> thank you for asking these questions. many now realize widespread
continue aggregation, what hope do you have presuming changes that might mitigate segregation? >> i don't know about that. i wish i knew more about that. with that anymore, i live in chicago. but i will say, thank you for that question because one thing that i guess it ties into the question about how the research shakes my current thinking and i encourage my students, we need to get better about seeing how segregation, and i thought premises changes so we don't have these covenants anymore, they are not legal thanks to the work of warren miller and naacp, he got struck down but segregation, they have a because
of tax codes, property taxes, segregation works in several different ways now. public transportation, neighborhoods at there's no dogs so i guess that's something -- and i encourage my students, we are all students of this. how does it work now? if we want to pilot, what kind of things we need to fight for and against? it honestly doesn't look the same but we can see it all around us. >> people make connections between like the anti- chinese sentiment in california which is very strong from the 50s and on so one person asked, did the klan have the same roots as the
ugly asian roots in california? >> that would be a great question on an exam. >> the anti- chinese movement in the right talk about reconstruction and the way in which anti- negro, anti- chinese sentiment and there was a lot of overlap there. the fear of african-americans through 13th a moment linked to the fear of chinese immigrants you can see the historical society process do you want this voting on your ticket? outrageous cartoons and memorabilia in california. the roots of the klan, i don't see a direct line there but
there are so many ideological connections. the sort of link between anti-immigrant sentiment and anti- flock sentiment is all over. reconstruction california and the klan so absolutely. we don't see him becoming president or klan members, who don't have records that show that but it's a different generation absolutely the links it's important between anti- immigrant sentiments anti- black sentiments all over and obviously national history and the second klan is obvious the third klan is obvious. >> did you find similar cases with mexican american families experiencing this brutality?
>> absolutely, mexican american families were victims of the klan and the inglewood klan attack and try to kidnap, i didn't have time to explain all this but they tried to kidnap her family and take them to a local jail but they are not admitted. there are reports in some papers they had a woman of a couple so absolutely, that was a mexican family terrorized by the klan and mexican homeowners and the last chapter of my book when i talk about segregation in pasadena, mexican american families were linked with black and asian families in the policy that allowed them to only swim one day a week, that day was called negro day and then changed to international day so absolutely, that is a part of my
research. i didn't talk very much about it tonight i guess. >> the questions are coming in so strong. examining what is that motivates whites to behave different, it's difficult to stomach and the book, you read it and its devastating but so informative and so important to have those stories, everything has been hidden for so long, the public domain and these are people's names who we should absolutely know about. how do you think this legacy of the klan in california informs white supremacy in the state today? >> that's a great question. as i said, one of the things
that i think happens there, we see the klan comes in-and-out of focus and one thing about focusing on both klan, i want to repeat this, there is one group of white supremacists particularly visible because of her costume but there are many other groups, white supremacist groups that have names like the white citizen's counsel in response to the civil rights movement so one thing i mentioned during brown and civil rights movement, some folks members of the klan or even after the rate and their membership was revealed, many thousands of clients men and women to get the names off the list because some of them will.to get fired.
there are lots of folks became, committed segregationist who might not have been card-carrying klan members, that is important to recognize and that has happened more as the 50s progressed into the 60s. the folks pushing back against the successes of the black freedom struggle were not always klan members so i think the connection is white supremacy morphed into something that became more respectable. it wasn't respectable to be a member if you had certain jobs in the 1960s but you could be a member of others or just members of your home owners association still trying to prevent black people from moving and in other ways around the law so i guess that's one of the connections, the changes shape and we need to look for these
other ways white supremacy operates, not always someone in a white hood. >> was widespread in california. >> quite question. i looked, i tried to find an example i could organize a chapter around that's another thing, sometimes it's word-of-mouth. they are not always documented but there were certainly places where black people and brown people knew, all people of color knew it could be dangerous. i know that from growing up in l.a., i knew where teens shouldn't be at dark. as a white teenager, if i was in a car with a student of color, a
new white neighborhood if you don't want to be in but i didn't actually write about it, i didn't really find any. however, the success meant that there were times that became infamous. when i was growing up, glendale have that reputation. don't go to glendale. but the board of education and enforcement in the 1960s, that meant there were white into certain areas of socal that were known white families were moving, whatever high school so that's kind of the california version. >> does your book talk about california -- the housing act of
64? >> again, i don't get to the 60s. i love that story and want everyone to learn about that, i've read some of his papers and that law, such an important part of the story of california segregation but again, i was trying to -- >> work examines the white settler colonial nation of white supremacy, how do you see that analysis? >> thank you for mentioning seven colonialism, i read about that in the first chapter, native americans were enslaved into those of you interested in that story, you should definitely check out the book about freedom frontier and i
absolutely think we need to make that link between the ways native americans were enslaved, and present, the ways the land was taken and how the land and the ways in which mexican landowners were invested of their property. i hope some of you have read city of inmates, my all-time favorite book and the linkages there are so clear between settler colonialism and the mission and how we get l.a. in the 2000's. i think it's one of the best books that shows you cannot think about segregation and white supremacy in the state if you do not start with that. i didn't talk about chapter one because i was on chapter five
but absolutely an important part of the story. the way the system could set up for taking land in the system that's set up for imprisoning and enslaving just the practice of setting up segregation was originated before obviously but especially in the native american era so thank you for asking that. >> the neighbor they live in, a white neighborhood and now you're in a mixed neighborhood but i don't know how they work here. maybe tell mark of the amount written specifically. >> you can find examples online that have that covenant in it.
it just means it's part of it so you buy the property and you get a d. he says i can never sell this property or we can this property and lauren miller was famous about california and he published a pamphlet and he said californians left to vote and i'm going to go about restrictive covenant because no one is better than california. you can find restrictive covenants in the state of california that say i cannot sell or lease the property or rent the property and it said hindu, mexican, there were some that said shoe, they almost
always said negro. remember, california isn't the only place this is being practiced. in chicago and famous playwrights and the father against restrictive covenants so california doesn't get to have it by itself. lauren miller believes it is the most successful in california so if you can find this from your neighborhood, if you can find property deeds, you can find them online now and i'm pretty sure there are some librarians out there. >> somebody put in to the queue and i, 1948 --
>> that's right, that was part of the legal team that took that to supreme court so one of the reasons there is such an amazing record is because as i said in my book, the main part, experts in the country was a californian, he moved to the states in the 20s and he became the expert part of this. the precursor to the legal defense and the naacp that fought those in the 40s and 50s in the 60s so they were aware of the library. >> going into the chapter further, chapter suggests eugenics in your research.
important conceptual framing especially in the light of the role of california into two shares. i'm curious to know this text, i haven't had the chance to read this book get. >> thank you so much for that question and yes, it is a true line and one of the ones i felt strongest about. i didn't know how i would encounter it, i didn't know where it ended up being a through line. i can't tell you all the ways it comes in because of time but i will say not only was it popularized on back, and i write about it in chapter two but you may know the person who asked the question, the foundation for
us found in pasadena, my hometown where the rose parade goes. the strength of eugenics in the state absolutely tizen to the strength of the white supremacists with integration so in my chapter in california, i write about how it's no accident pasadena had a strong organized resistance to their integrated pool because they had a very strong community so absolutely anyone who wants to learn more should read eugenics nation.
>> i know people were asking for recommendations. talking about how the klan activity was in socal -- >> i read the papers of the western division of the naacp and i also read a lot of them in the library in washington d.c. and their correspondence on the klan from northern california so in this chapter i did have stories about klan violence against all of california because it was absolutely important. it didn't end up making it in the book because for the
purposes of storytelling and the narrative, i stuck to this one area but black homeowners were victim of klan pilots especially during world war ii. >> this is interesting, do you think labor and socialist groups and black resistance in california? between socal and northern california, in your book you talk about anti-communist -- >> this correlation between labor and socialist worker party and naacp, a lot of times they fall by the wayside and we don't pay attention to most and i think it's important that the communist party was part of that coalition pushing for justice. one of the reasons -- i
absolutely think the labor movement was essential for not only the story of shorts but pushing for justice for people of color and against white supremacy. one reason we don't see the connections all the time or talk about coalitions partly because we focus on one group or, really watched. not only communist activity but also naacp communist infiltrated
and fat was a lot of anti- rhetoric so they found themselves a rock and a hard place there and some chapters, it was different chapter to chapter. the l.a. chapter and you can read about this in an amazing book, found for freedom. they avoided communist parties and the national naacp and they were worried about taking uppercase since the communist party had been a strong advocate for those who were arrested in alabama so that is a long story. >> i'm not sure we can get into every question. i wanted to ask about my e-mail and the chat box, you can send
me questions and lynn will answer that but you could speak about jim crow in your book, that's an important part of it. with current law enforcement on these policies. >> i just think there is no better piece of evidence that this has a long history than the membership this where thousands and thousands of members lift up and down the state and almost every single police department had members on the list so i didn't even talk about how -- this wasn't just a membership of l.a. the l.a. office was a regional
office so klan members and police department across the state work revealed and some papers published their names so one reason i picked that chapter, i wanted to tell that story because i think we are way past being surprised about this. we know this is a history in the u.s. of police practice and violence against african-americans and i think we need to move to this as members of black lives matter have showed as we need to move to new strategies so i look forward to joining all of you and those strategies. >> i am hoping you will come back again because you cover so
much, you have a time range but within that time range, there is so much so i do hope everyone will join us. last question, would you consider homeowners association? >> absolutely. i didn't say homeowners association for any of you familiar how this works, they were in the forefront enforcing segregated housing, absolutely. that story is a big story that involves state loans and homeowners associations the klan, i focus on a tiny part of the story tonight so absolutely homeowners association, very successful in california. >> thank you so much. i apologize to those questions we didn't get to but we will try to answer them after this program and this will be reported as a reminder and on
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