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tv   The Presidency Herbert Hoovers 1964 Funeral  CSPAN  May 31, 2022 7:27pm-8:36pm EDT

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photographs, she re-creates mister hoover's final trip to his west branch, iowa, childhood home. >> today's presentation is called hoover's last trip home. our speaker, lynn smith, the audiovisual archivist at the hoover presidential library and museum since november of 2000 whose previous work experience includes serving as department supervisor at the university of
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denver and archivist for the u.s. forest service in montana. she is a certified archivist and holds a ba in history from the university of northern colorado, masters in history from colorado state university and ml i asked from the university of denver. today's presentation is called hoover's last trip home. our speaker is linda smith, the audio visual archivist at the hoover presidential library museum, where she's worked since november, 2000. her previous work experience includes serving as the government documents departments improviser at the university of denver and archivist for the forest service in montana. she is a certified archivist and holds a b. a. in history from the university of northern colorado, masters in archival management from colorado state university and an mlis from the university of denver. she has chaired the archivist committee on ethics and professional conduct and has taught workshops on off ethics and copyright law for the midwest archives conference and the society of rocky mountain archivists. in her career she's been elected president of the society of rocky mountain archivists, the academy of certified archivists and the nominating committee of the midwest archivists conference. she's collected some great photos, videos and audio files to share with us from hubert herbert's funeral
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services back in 1964. hubert died the 20th, 1964 and was buried here in west branch on the 25th. thank you for joining, us looking forward to your presentation. >> thank you for your kind introduction, brad. i also want to make note that this marks the second year of the third thursdays, and i'm happy to be a part of launching what will be the next year. also, just kind of a note, this coming october 27th's world day for audio visual heritage. it's a key initiative of unesco and the coordinating council of audio visual archives associations, to honor archiveable institutions for safeguarding our av heritage for future generations. so, in that kind of spirit, i was able to put together a very video, visual production of what happened on those few days after october 20th, when mr. hoover died. it's a combination of army photos and photos,
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black and white and color photos from press, local residents, all kinds of media donations have come in over the years. the silent film, color film of the army, because hoover's funeral was an army, military production, as a former president, and also, worked in a couple pieces of artwork. so, it's kind of a full thing. the recording, you'll hear about a third of the way in, is the radio broadcast of wmt radio out of cedar rapids, iowa. it features grant price, a well-known radio man that eventually went into television andt some of the other wmt that followed the
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cortege from cedar rapids airport, along i-82 to west branch. there is a full recording of the funeral service that's an edited, the assorted clips that you hear the radio people are just that, a longer segment of a two and a half recording but no one has two enough hours to do this. so we can crunch it. but i did not cut any part of the funeral, even silences of things are as is. so. our story begins with mr. hoover's death, at the age of 90. shortly before noon on, tuesday october 20th, 1964. plans for his funeral were made way back, as far back as in 1958. but so, when he passed the pre-established sequence of events began. let me hit share screen. but we should have media. and large it to full
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screen. and if i can find the play button, there it is. so. october, 20th 21st, the casket was moved to saint bartholomew's charge and placed in the replica of the lincoln catafalque in washington, d. c.. at nine, am it was open to the public. october 22nd, and the church was closed from three to about 5 pm as a funeral service was held with president lyndon johnson and john connally, the texas mayor, new york city mayor robert wagner. here you see robert kennedy and here is rose, mother ethel. corset hoover family and other dignitaries attended the funeral. in the family group for his two sons, hubert junior and their wives margaret and six grandchildren.
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the reverend terrence j finley, the director of the hoover family conducted the funeral service. same breath mommies reopen to the public at 5 pm. there you see the rector. the people lined up around the block at the church, which was located at 51st and park avenue in new york city, waiting to see mr. hoover's flag covered casket. between the 21st and 22nd, some 22,000 people paid their respects at st. bartholomew's church. the church was open from 9 to 3 on the 22nd, and then 3 to 5 and then nine. the next morning, october 22nd, the family and friends arrived at the church.
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the u. s. military academy band and cadets from west point were on hand, and hundreds of people watch from across the street. but joint service on accordant lying to the church steps, at the top of the steps, leading from the church on park avenue, the body bearers waited while playing ruffles and flourishes and hail to the chief. when they began to him, lord has been our dwelling, place the body bearers brought the casket down the steps, through the honor cordon and placed in the waiting hearse. the body bearers and flag team marched away, and you'll see after the driver's door, the hearse as they moved the casket slowly, the hoover as they move the casket very slowly, the hoover family, and this is army film. different angles, it's a series of clips.
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it's never footage of, you know, 30 seconds of here, a minute of that. it's just kind of a hodgepodge of film clips, but i tried to put them together in some semblance of order to show you this today. after the hearse after the hurst left, a motorcade of 18 limousine's followed the hearse to pennsylvania station with the hoover family and other friends and dignitaries to take the train ride to washington, d.c.. and there was an honor guard
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and a flag salute at pennsylvania station for the hoover family. once at the station, the body bearers removed the casket from the hearse and moved it down to the train. the hoover family and friends, including richard and patricia nixon, the vice president, former vice president, and admiral lewis straws, among others with military escort took their positions near the funeral car. the body bearers proceeded with the national color detail and the clergy, followed by the personal flagbearer, which would be the presidential flag. they went through the honor cordon and placed the casket on the funeral caravan. a group of 150 people boarded the train and departed for washington, d.c. at 9:35 am.
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the funeral train reached union station at 1:25. president and mrs. johnson greeted the hoover family. just outside union station, the johnson's and the hoover is lined up to watch the casket loaded on to the case on. general whaley, the escort commander, led the procession in windy washington d.c. down delaware avenue, three blocks to the east front of the capital. the procession included the army band, the national color detail, the case on, and the body bearers, the personal cyber, and the groom with the -- horse blackjack. next was the hoover family and limousine, president johnson followed with secret service escort, with ten cars with other dignitaries.
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as the column moved down delaware avenue to the south, escort troops were in units lined up along the east side of the avenue facing the center of the street. in order to the south were accompanied from each of the service academies, accompanied from the army, marine corps, navy, air force, and coast guard, and a composite company of servicewomen. the army national guard, air force reserve, and postcard reserve. completing the line at the southern and, more representatives from eight different veterans organizations. as the procession moved along delaware avenue, hundreds, including the press, gathered at the east front of the capital, awaiting the movement of mr. hoover's casket into the capital, by way of the senate staircase, as the main stairs at the capitol were closed for the construction of the inaugural platform, which would
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take place in 1964 being an election year, the inaugural would be early in 1965. so, here you see more of the funeral procession moving down delaware avenue, passed the blocks of the escort troops. and a word briefly about blackjack, who followed the case on during president hoover's casket. a comparison horse is a long-standing practice of having a horse of a deceased military officer or leader in a funeral procession. black jack kerry and empty saddle, saber, and boots, rivers in the stirrups. blackjack famously appeared in president jon kennedy's funeral 11 months earlier. blackjack was a very spirited 15 hand black gelding named for blackjack, general blackjack purging. when the horse's leading the caisson entered delaware avenue
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from union station, the third infantry fired a 21 gun salute and, as the caisson cross delaware avenue, a 48 air force fighter jet plane in clusters of three pass overhead. when the cortege entered the east plaza, the troops and his staff, and the army band continued on until they were out of the ceremonial area. the cortege halted in front of the senate wing steps and took their respective positions at the foot of the senate at 2:30. i mentioned it was a windy day. the marine bands -- ruffles of flourishes and hail to the chief, and began america the beautiful. at first note, the body bears removed the casket from the caisson. general whaley led the procession up the steps into the capital rotunda. hundreds watch from a distance. and there is the casket with
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the body bearers. and there's hoover, mr. and mrs. johnson are in the center, with the hoover family close behind. people from across the grounds there around the east front of the capital watching. a little girl with flowers. inside the senate wing entrance, the procession continued to the rotunda. the hoover family and military and civilian leaders watched while the national color detail, clergy, and personal flagbearer accompanied the casket as it was carried to the center of that rotunda and placed on the lincoln catapult. the national colors and personal flag were posted, and the casket going on to the kind
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of old. the coddled was a platform -- built initially for president lincoln's casket, when he was assassinated back in 1865 and it was maintained at the capitol and he was four very special occasions of state funerals. once the flags were posted, the first relief guard of honor took position at the lincoln -- and the body bearers were dismissed. after a salute. the body bearers are the same group that we will see again. a bit later.
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once they departed, the reverend frederick brown harris, chaplain of the senate, delivered a short eulogy addressing mr. heavers humanitarian work and his strong, unbending, unblemished character. then, president johnson place a reef at the base of the lincoln catafalque and bowed his head.
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there's a press photo. and another press photo. chaplain lieutenant kenneth aims of the military district of washington pronounced the benediction concluding the rotunda ceremony a few minutes after three. while the rotunda cleared, the hoover family inspected arrangements for the line instate period, after the departure of the family, the rotunda was open to the public from 3 pm to 9 pm. on october 24th, the rotunda opened again and was open to the public between the hours of 9 am and 9 pm. over the two days, approximately 30,000 people filed past the lincoln catafalque and the hoover casket. throughout the line and state period, the joint service guard
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of honor maintained a constant vigil, changing relief units every 30 minutes. the next day, sunday, october 25th at 9:30, the last ceremonies began when the casket was moved from the capital to washington national airport. the u.s. navy band was on the capitol plaza to the left of the steps, as the national color detail appeared in the doorway, they honor cordon presented arms, the body bearers took the casket to the steps, and while the navy band played abide with me, the body bearers moved down the steps through the honor cordon and down to the hearse. after the casket was placed in the hearse, music ceased, the honor cordon ordered arms and the hoover family and others entered there automobiles, and
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followed the hearse. the motorcade reached the military air transport service terminal at washington national airport at 9:55 am, as the motorcade traveled across the access road to the terminal, the third infantry battery gave a 21 gun salute. at the airport, the honor cordon presented arms and the air force band sounded honors. the band played, now the day is over and the body bearers removed the casket from the hearse to through the national detail, through the honor cordon, and placed the body along aboard the c-130 airplane. three other military aircraft were brought in to take the hoover family and others.
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in all, 64 people to iowa. the four planes were airborne by 10:30 am. the four aircraft from washington d.c. ended in cedar rapids, shortly after 2 pm. in cedar rapids at the airport. >> good afternoon. this is grand pr the four planes were airborne by 10:30 am. the four aircraft from washington d. c. landed in cedar rapids shortly before 2 pm. now i give you, wmt's radio coverage of the events starting in cedar rapids at the airport. >> good afternoon, we are reporting from the burial site in hoover remote world park -- the body of the 31st president of the united states will be laid to rest. we switch now to the cedar rapids municipal airport, and news man martin jenson. >> approaching from the east now, in his final approach is the plane which carries the remains of iowa's only president. now nearing the runway, just touched the ground,
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and is taxiing on down the strip. hundreds of people parade along the fences, from the front of the apron, all the way behind the terminal, several hundred yards to the rest of the terminal. the inside of the terminal, filled with people here to view the arrival of mr. hoover's body. the hoover familyand very closest friends are walking down the steps [inaudible]. they are greeted by governor
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harold hughes. the big cargo plane, very slowly rose up to its destination. about three feet ahead of it where it now stands. family and close friends walking directly towards us, escorted by an army officer. the entire group of close friends and relatives now moving into position directly in front of us. between us and the big airplane, which carries the former presidents body. [inaudible] the aircraft that was carrying mr. hoover's body. the american flag. on one side of the flag a sailor, carrying an m-1 rifle. on the other side, a marine. the flag appears to be carried by an army enlisted
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man. [inaudible] some good men and now hail to the chief. and now fight the good fight.. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ >> the coffin being placed now inside. ♪ ♪ ♪ members of the military standing at attention. throughout the entire ceremony. funeral -- solemnly aligned. ♪ ♪ ♪ the doors shut on the
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hearse. pallbearers and ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ >> the coffin being placed now
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inside -- will taske it to west branch. ♪ ♪ ♪ members of the military standing at attention and suluting throughout the entire ceremony. funeral -- solemnly aligned -- the coffin -- to the hears. ♪ ♪ ♪ the doors shut on the hearse. pallbearers and back. rifles come down from present arms. the officers and the men offer a salute. as the funeral party now approaches the west branch location, the mourners, the
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members of the official funeral party are gone up on one side of the top of the knoll on which the burial site is located. then, ringing all the way around the hoover birthplace park, particularly on the side next to the town, are the people, the friends of herbert hoover great and small, who have come out to pay their final respects to this man who will be buried here within the hour. the beauty of the scene is one which is difficult to describe. the grass is past the peak of its summer green, but established upon the burial site here now, in a complete ring, are the formal tributes which were brought here to the west branch site, and of course as chief among them there is a
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wreath from the president of the united states, a wreath with right white and blue carnations. it is very difficult to establish the size of the crowd which has gathered here, but it is very, very large. as i look across now to the, directly to the west, i see that they are also lined up, people behind the fence, behind the military court which has been established by some 240 members of the iowa national guard, looking directly across the valley from this hilltop to the view upon which the town itself of west branch sits. there is an area -- probably people standing there in some
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20, 20 to 25 deep, perhaps 40 deep. and all the way back to the library itself. then, in the cornfield which has been turned into a parking lot for this day, people are lined up all along that fence also. it has to stretch for distance of about half a mile. the traffic situation became acute. traffic was backed up for the total of a mile or more. >> this is dennis swanson eporting from the long route of the cortege one mile north of interstate 80, north of 218. and the senate general lieutenant general c g dodge. [inaudible] within minutes should be coming up to bob nelson, heading up to the last end of the trip. a large number of cars are trying to catch a glimpse along the way. this is
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dennis swanson, wmt news, returning you to our central studio. >> west on interstate 80. in a few moments, the hearse bearing the body of president hoover, the only iowan to become president and the first chief executive west of the mississippi, will travel to the grave site. >> now on the north side of the funeral knllw, where we just have just in view the hearse, the honor guard drawn up beside it representing all members of the armed services. the color guard standing on the opposite side of the roadway. the door of the hearse has now been opened. the body bearers will
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be moving the casket, the coffin a few inches out of the car for the phase of this ceremony which will include the final honors to mr. hoover, the playing four times of ruffles and flourishes and the national anthem. the members of the family now standing on the gravel road. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
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♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
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♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ the army band has concluded playing the national anthem. and immediately begins the notes of the battle hymn of the republic, mr. hoover's favorite hymn. this is the
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signal for the general party to move from the cortege to the grave site. the colors unfurled on the first note of the ruffles and flourishes.view, thd states fifth army, the escort commander where this funeral service immediately behind him, the national detail, army man
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and marine, with her clergyman will preside at the religious service at the grave and passing before my view, borne by service men obtaining the body of the 30 first person -- president of the united states coming home to rest. herbert junior and their wives and 7 grandchildren of herbert hoover immediately behind and passing in front of our vantage point the governor of iowa
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immediately behind him, the republican candidate for president of the united states and then the very close friends of the family and military as to proceeding slowly to the green with its canopy of trees. looking out over the valley, the hoover library and cottage where this man was born. the funeral procession slowly into place. the change in the darkness with the heritage which president
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hoover new and cherished, we shall begin the service with a period of reverend silence into which we ask you all to join. let us pray, what worked through the lives of men, with the life of herbert hoover, for the passion or deep humility or
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is unchecked integrity for his family life or his abiding faith in jesus christ. make this a time of rejoicing and uncorrupted life and the hope of glory, which was entered and make us rejoice, nothing can separate us or him from the love of christ, amen. it would be suitable at this time, the noblest passages of
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the new testament which are concerned with the resurrection in christ. there is one glory of the son and another glory of the moon and another glory of the stars, it is different from stars in glory. the resurrection of the dead, what is so is -- perishable, was raised using perishable. it is sown in dishonor, raised in glory. it is sown in weakness, raised in power. it is sown in the physical body, raised in spiritual body. i tell you, we shall not all
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sleep but we shall be changed. in the twinkling of an eye, the trumpet will sound and the dead will be raised imperishable, we shall be changed or this perishable must put on imperishable and this mortal must put on immortality. when the perishable puts on the imperishable and the mortal puts on immortality then it shall come to pass, swallowed up in victory, where is your victory? where is your state? thanks be to god's us the victory through our lord jesus christ who then shall separate
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us from the love of christ, or distress, persecution or famine or nakedness or parol or sward, no, in all of these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us for i -- neither death nor life, principalities, all things present nor things to come, powers nor height nor depth nor anything else in all creation that separate us from the love of god in christ jesus our lord.
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we have gathered here to honor one of the great men of the twentieth century. it is the story of what is best for the american heritage, we seldom demonstrate, which is infinitely precious in the it provides a standard by which we may judge our relative failures as well as our really active -- relative successes. as far as what we truly prize, the basic orientation of the republic is likely to be sound. we perform a service when we try to make the nature, and the president of the united states
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of america has represented with unusual fidelity. first there is the beginning which combines reverence, frugality and toil. herbert hoover belongs to the procession of hard-working and about loving quaker pioneers, across the nation, strong communities at each point, west milton, ohio and west branch where important stopping places, hoover's move from the atlantic to the pacific, the quaker cemeteries, with the miami river and the west branch
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iowa, a symbol of something precious in american history and symbols of people close to the soil. to almighty god who made it. it is important to remember the life of toil and reverence, led naturally to the life of learning so they were set up at each stopping place along the way, herbert hoover is a boy should be attracted to stanford university in its opening, was therefore in no way surprising. expectation of hard work carried over into the life of learning, in those glorious years when stanford's new. amazing good fortune, the study of geology and study latin
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under a man as remarkable as professor augustus t murray. the result wasn't unending spiritual influence which reached its climax in the days in the white house. herbert hoover's work as a geologist in mining, engineer, was brilliantly successful. the judgment was right in thinking of this vocational chapter, for larger work. the great days at the end of the first world war. herbert hoover in his mission of compassion was the most influential man in europe constituted not an interlude in herbert hoover, a rare fulfillment. from which he was being faithful, when in which public service - consciously nourished ideals, required every
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question, the life to which god had called him, whether humble or exalted. the conception that could be mentioned without self-consciousness. each person should show diligence in his calling, that he should purchase simplicity and that he should accept responsibility for some unique contribution to the total community. the most important thing to say about herbert hoover is he has demonstrated an ethic which is identical with that which made america great. some suppose we have outgrown it or we ought to outgrow it but a life like that which we honor today is the best reputation of that position.
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it is not unreasonable to see herbert uber's life in 6 major chapters, first, a boy in iowa and oregon. third, engineer in various countries, director of relief. it might be supposed the last of these chapters - and said his influence has gone from strength to strength. became very ideal of the elder states. speaking seldom, counseling untold numbers of men and women and standing as a symbol of
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moral strength. when great man, above the possibility of her option, or recognized, never sought personal gain or even payment for public service. as the years have gone after the end of the white house days through the great depression, through the second world war and through the years which succeeded them, there is no thoughtful person in the united states who did not come to see the unfairness of the judgment of those who blamed mister hoover for what was in reality a worldwide economic summit. in his magnificent patience mister over did not worry about
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the outcome. he had been right, he knew he had been unjustly blamed and by wonderful grace he left long enough to see the time when what had been a problem was a problem no longer. indeed, as we see the events of 35 years ago, the critics were harder than the criticized, this is particularly true, they raise their own public standards by seeking to harm. they stand up for all to see and the public made judgments. the chapters are now over. in one sense the volume is complete but there is another sense in which it is still
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going on. herbert hoover will be remembered as long as the american dream is cherished because he is a great extent the last of the famous pioneers, even represents the westward track. he represents dignified, the way remarkable degree, it is an compassionate service to mankind. he has been very brave, he has endured. how appropriate it would is mortal of him should finally rest after all his struggles
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and his victories, in his native soil midway in the western track near the middle of north america. never favored for the living space which is indigenous in which he lived and served and died. the story is a great one and it is a good one. it is essentially a story that is triumph and reasonable. today our mood should be one of rejoicing. this is not a time for tears. this corruption has put on incorruption, this mortal has put on immortality.
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death is swallowed up in victory, thanks be to god which gave us the victory through our lord jesus christ and now let me ask this company to bow their heads in prayer for the final prayer for this our prayer. most gracious father, bless this great gathering of your children in this place of memory, of beauty peace.
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each one of dedication and new compassion. a company of memory and of hope. as we pay our final respects to thy servant, herbert hoover. therefore we commit his body to the ground. and his soul to buy eternal keeping. amen. >> conduct the burial service. the microphone is to one side.
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operations are being made. president johnson. he will a the presidential reef, now picking placed at the front of the casket by general dodge, fifth army commander. general dodge steps back has the ceremony is about to conclude. [taps] ♪♪
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>> rendering taps, now being folded over the simple cough and. the body bearers - an air force man standing at attention at the presidential flag, the national colorguard made of navy, army, and marine personnel bearing the national colors. the national anthem being folded over the coffin of herbert hoover.
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now being passed by the body bearers, the list of men reaches forward, dodge takes it and places under his left arm, colleges salute. the body bearers now step back, the colorguard begins to move out. the body bearers behind them moving out over the green.
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the military detail moves forward. general dodge steps up to herbert hoover junior and present to him the national flag which was used in this funeral service for the nation's 30 first president. the casket stands now over the grave of the wreath, the flowers resting upon it. at the front of the casket as the presidential reef made up of red, white and blue carnations and all around the green, flowers of every description including one made
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up in the form of a cross of white flowers, another the shield of the united states colors and the tribute which the nation has paid to the 30 first president of the united states is at the end. this is graham price speaking from the herbert hoover burial site returning you to our studios. >> that's that. >> thank you. we have a couple of minutes and a lot of questions to run through and several others
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wondering why do they refer to them as body carriers instead of pallbearers. was that a cultural thing at the time? is there a story behind that terminology? >> probably a cultural -- i think it could be old-school. throughout almost all the radio men referred to the box in which the body was in as a coffin. that is incorrect. it was a casket. a coffin is a diamond-shaped, picture a kite with the top and bottom cut off. you see them in 1920s horror movies and all that. that is a coffin. rectangular, he was buried in a rectangle. i suspect they are just out of date. >> when was the last time mister hoover visited the birthplace in west branch?
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>> in west branch in 1962 for the dedication of the library and prior to that it was his eightieth birthday in 1954. >> henry died 20 years before him and was buried in california. when was she en route to west branch? >> in terms of mister hoover within a week. .. >> at one week. before the this is who in california. [inaudible]. a 24 hour guide rated. >> while it was during the ceremony when that happened yes.
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>> and truman and eisenhower candidate, and washington in the branches. [inaudible]. >> they were not in washington, their health problems were came up and neither mr. eisenhower truman were on hand in dc or in west branch. the messages, of mr. hoover and sent their condolences to the family by medical problems or left him unable to actually attend anyplace. >> and there were some questions on, in new york or at the waldorf and was the cause of
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death. >> he was at the waldorf, it was technically, they say that it was cancer but actually it was internal bleeding and hemorrhaging, they had been dealing with for three or four days, october 16, october 17th they had given him lots of blood transfusions and all kinds of paramedic type of assistance at the waldorf but his body world and gave up the ghost doesn't work and about 1135 in the morning on the 20th. and there's family nearby. >> later, at west branch. >> right, their burial the west
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branch cemetery year as is alan hoover, their son. >> what was the cemetery i have never been up that way. >> it is kind of by the west branch high school to the north west of town. >> and we saw the video of the cargo plane coming in to cedar rapids. and also air force one pretty western air force one of that time. what was an exclusive. >> at that time, that would not have been, i don't think it was standard procedure of the military operations for the
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presidential funeral so that would've been strictly u.s. army, the military air transport service that flew that plane so it would not have been air force one unless they had made some kind of compensation to allow that. but i don't think so. and more recent presidential heroes, i don't think air force one is used, i don't recall being used. but maybe so because they have during the day while i am at work. >> and also, at least the 21 gun salute. were they doing that west bank. >> that was a concern and in the family asked not to have the 21 gun salute.
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>> and through the upbringing. >> the funeral was here on a sunday, sunday afternoon, 21 rifles and in washington from the 21 gun salute. at the train station in where you came in at the airport, it was not just a rifle bang bang. they were not going to bring that to us branch the rifleman had just will think of it is a distraction in the middle of the afternoon to have the 21 gun salute. if it were shot down by the family. >> there is an important role played where he and i - >> yes, i believe he was an mi be in the after action most of
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the information that i had a that from the events in washington, new york, they came from the army after action report that we have on file that if there isn't any other specific questions, and running out of time, all zip off an e-mail to hoover . library at archive . gop and our staff will be able to answer that. we have very limited access so with the covid-19 cases hi, we have very limited access to the library but at least one of our archive staff is in every day .if a question about the pictures. >> your tremendous resource and even the presidential and other historical moments. and all of those documents have
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been scoured. it's really a great wealth of information there pretty and is open to the public and you can go in and do the research, justt right at this time but once we are when the covid-19 stuff wanes a little bit more it will open up again and that is open for anybody to use. this is great information and thank you for this. and we would like to thank you for joining us tonight for an excellent presentation at and also like to thank the hoover including the 1983 bombing that
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killed u.s. marines and beirut, lebanon. this video is courtesy of the ronald reagan presidential library.


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