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tv   History of the Korean War  CSPAN  November 4, 2022 12:07am-2:19am EDT

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12:08 am tina thank you for joining us, i'm at the smithsonian institute and. [inaudible]. the korean war, the forgotten poor braided predict and many of you know, lives and on relies ee membership support. [inaudible]. and my associates, will, and am
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going to explore the wide range of programs that we offer and remember to support our work in bringing in hundreds of experiences every year freed you find out about those events and more our website. and on facebook instagram and twitter. and also the chat rooms which brings me to the next order of business. our speaker this evening and wanted quickly point out the virtual experiences and bring your attention to the chat box in the toolbar this is where the information it throughout the program. also the q&a box where we would draw questions from hauling the presentation. we encourage you to submit your questions throughout the presentation it and says run about two hours. and i've also noticed this has
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closed captioning which you can choose to hide it by clicking close captioning on the toolbar infusing a tablet or smart phone and you want to switch the captions off on that setting it and following the program, we take a survey and we value and appreciate your feedback and secondly, this evening, currently at georgetown university, balbina hwang in the first school of public service in texas animate in recent book ihs markets and purdue and served as advisor to an ambassador and secretary for east asian of the u.s. department and policy analyst northeast asia and asia and foundations and national in washington dc read and taught at george washington university and american university in maryland it.
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and for national security in korea. and a native of south korea has written numerous articles and received many awards, balbina hwang is an expert testimony in congressional hearings and lectures for service and military economies. and she is a frequent commentator for international and national media outlets including cnn and an npr and abc and cbsn she is also a frequent. [inaudible]. wall street journal of the washington post and historian and publications. and now, for tonight's talk, you find that link in the chat and actually before she takes off, she would like to hear a quick poll so i'm going to put this up on the screen for you.
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please take a minute to help her with something that you will find out in just a second. so were so excited to have with us this evening, please join me in welcoming balbina hwang. >> good evening, we have the advantages of apparently that we are. will thank you so much heather and also the staff at the smithsonian and for all of the work that you've done to bring this program together and thank you to our audience members for joining us this evening. so i would like to begin and i think we will probably wait to hear the results.
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>> we will look at the ball in just a few seconds, it is going down. so i might as well just start there we go. >> so these are very interesting and very glad that i asked this question predict so thank you so much for your response. the reason that i asked, and i hope that nobody found out that well but i. [inaudible]. and i usually talk to the audience about this and he gives me an idea of how much you may or may not know that the korean war an interesting play, and i think everybody was able to see the results on your screen and seems the majority of my listeners this evening are actually probably alive around the time of the korean war or
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they were children. and now you're probably wondering why it is that i have a picture of the winter memorial adhere pretty one aside from the fact that it happens to be of monument, but it's the meaning in terms of korea and i can't think of korea and everything this memorial symbolizes. okay, now this is my favorite, the memorial park that i am looking at. and this is another one. and on the steps over by the trees, you will see that this is the memorial that is built for, not just korean war in the u.s.
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involvement in it braided but all that had been sick printed sacrifice, well over 30000 and encourage all of you to visit this memorial. i guess i should bring this backup here. so the reason that i bring that obvious that obviously, president lincoln after the country was torn apart by civil war and infected is very much part of the story of korea. interestingly enough, as we went on her way, all of these we have with the memorial, great leaders who put together our country and 158, and still many deep issues that were left over as a result and continues to be issues as a
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country rated and korea is a country in which civil war started, unless you was the 50th anniversary and as many as well over 2 million people, essentially the population of washington. also the surrounding metropolitan areas. in many different country so what i would like to talk to you about this evening is not just really about the war, but about what that means. and what he meant and how does the change obviously as a country which typically is in the state of war. but also for the americans because actually the international system, what the
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korean war did was a fundamental change in how everything was run and how all of the conservative systems interacted with each other and was essentially entire time after world war two pet ended. by the way the korean war is essentially what triggered the cold war and still with this review of korea pretty and the country has been known for centuries as the war and frankle could not be at another name when you think about it printed. [inaudible]. and they caught the morning calm and yet, how did we get here.
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>> how do we get here and as we know for the last several years and that's what i want to talk to you about this evening. and because essentially, the war itself was much much longer than in 1950, when the north koreans crossover and called the zone that i believe you are familiar with. ..
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it is it was not that long ago, when i was a youth that -- it was actually quite difficult for people to even find korea automat. so i will put up this map and i won't take another test but take a look and see if you can spot exactly where korea is. okay? now i do not mean in this in any way to be an insult in tort incredibly edified smithsonian audience. but as i said not that long ago people had a really difficult time even finding korea automat. seem to be notoriously bad in geography. but it is crucial. here's the world map and here's the korean peninsula here. i'm hoping all of you are able to at least sort of see it. now i would like to take a
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moment and look very carefully at this geography. let me zoom back out for a moment. this, frankly will help you understand the entire well what i like to call a paradox. korea is an extremely complicated country. extremely complicated path and his people tell me a very complicated society and culture. but what's bucks, if you want to understand this only one word and that word is a paradox. i think i messed up my sliding you may have seen that earlier. everything about korea itself can be explained by the one wonderful word paradox. in the current contradiction. i think that wonderfully sums up exactly what korea is. it also explains, much to
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everyone's a befuddlement exactly why it is the korean peninsula seem so odd to us today you've got one country in the southern half that is the tenth largest economic country in the world. it is a global economic powerhouse. south korea is united states six overall trading partner. i'm sure most of you own something made by samsung, or lg products, and then the other half just north probably ranks tenth in terms of the smallest and least of functioning economies to public ranks of the bottom of that list. north korea winning every single one of these rankings that they have.
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most decided wonders 97 country north korea probably wins. one of the most hostile countries north korea is probably on there. so here is how is it we ended up with essentially two different halves of the global system, global economy, south korea is probably the most democratic, most vibrant, open civil society in all of asia east asia most west northeast asia. so how exactly did we get here? the clue is in this geography. because if you look very carefully it is all about geography. geography is destiny when it came to korea. he will see here i tried to put a little bit of a dagger to the best icon i could find. what you see as that for
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centuries actually for a millennia for well over 2000 years the korean peninsula the geographical jutting point that is the last point on the map on the asian continent that is the furtherance east. it is essentially a peninsula dangling on one of these wonderful historians describe korea like a foot dangling off the first child asian continent. that is exactly what korea has been. but you are looking at here is essentially the peninsula has served as the gateway for the pathway to essentially japan as we see here. and interestingly enough you will see korea husband described as a dagger pointed at the heart of japan.
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meaning japan has always felt it was a threat this through the korean valencia numerous empires have tried to gain access to the japanese islands. this is of course before navigation became advanced enough that large ships could go a long distances. not just small little fishing vessels. but big empires in china. many different tribes grew in strength one seems to be that mongolia coarsely ongoing empire under genghis kong who took over korea, dominated the korean peninsula for well over 100 years or so, and tried to use koreans advancements and civilization to try to make invasion of japan failed ultimately. so, for most of the millennial
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korea it was seen as one of the most valuable pieces of real estate. meanwhile, for japan is yes a threat to japan it's also a path wake up off the peninsula into the asian continent and into the hole in mainland of china. that is essentially exactly what happened if you fast-forward to the 20th century. with world war ii when japan essentially decides is going to build its own empire in the east and korea was the first in morton most important piece of territory that had to be controlled. as we will shortly see in fact it is what essentially sets off really the story of the entire 20th century. one of the most bloodiest centuries in human history where we have not only world
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war i and world war ii, but what most americans don't really, i'm not even sure if they learn this in their history, but they've certainly forgotten it, is to critical wars started at the very end of the previous century and essentially the cause and contributed greatly to both world war i and world war ii. so let's move forward and this is to show you exactly how over the millennia korea has been essentially there has been a civilization of koreans. it was not unified. you will shortly see that little graphic and a minute. korea has been unified as one nation for close to 1800 years. but for a millennial before that, numerous numerous incursions were always coming through korea. now, let me also point out
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that was not always just threatening invasion. in fact the greatest of civilizations which was china in the east was essentially passed on through korea and fact korea advances very much from being in their orbit. he was also the gateway through which of course japan received much of its knowledge , effects and influences from the late chinese empire. so these graphics simply show you the influences. and it also shows you why this constant innovations. and as i mention for the mongolian empire was one of the earliest, the chinese at one point had tried to take over when korea had been split into a period called the three kingdoms and there were three separate kingdoms.
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now also, later on in this is fast forwarding to the 20th century for the very end of the 19th century, 1800s, you see here this is pointing to russia. when the russian empire it was two rival one of the great empires and russia already considered itself a european empire. but at the end of the 19th century it realizes it is also a pacific power. it is the world-class navy. in fact what really needs is and i'm going to fast-forward here, you will see that becomes an absolutely crucial piece of real estate. and the other that you see here is of course where japan interest joints. and you see here that moscow
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finally figures out the far east a region is an absolutely crucial part of expanding its global empire to rival the already grown empire in the west the british empire and all of the other european empires also the growing power of the united states. so you will see that the united states has always had some interest primarily in the philippines. but then the korean peninsula starts bringing in north interest. i drew this here to indicate korea has been the fulcrum, it has been the bull's-eye. essentially all of the dynamics is swirled around the peninsula. and for most of korea's history, korea managed to do very well by keeping most of the foreign powers outside and
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at bay. you might have heard the word hermit kingdom. if you watch the news and i'm sure again this audience does, you heard the hermit kingdom be applied. that previous leaders before him, his father and grandfather. so north korea in its modern history and certainly now is called the hermit kingdom. we like to call it that. but actually the united korea was known as the hermit kingdom. it was for centuries before that. it's really important to keep that in mind. so now what this shows is essentially all of this collides together at the end of the 19th century. as we are ushering in what will be essentially the modern era for asia. it is essentially a disaster.
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of course china had been being opened up for the previous 200 years but of course as you know, the 19th century the 1800s was considered the century of humiliation for china. essentially that was the end of the chinese empire. this glorious empire that had been in existence for 5000 years was one of the most advanced in china is an utter chaos. and it starts to go through civil wars and so on as we know in the history. but what was the cause of that? it was essentially in part of course, because the western powers had begun entering china. it was essentially the japanese war that really leads to the final death blow for the chinese empire. in 1895 when it was concluded was the launch of arrival on
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the international stage. very, very serious imperial power suddenly the west had to pay attention too. it was all over this piece of territory, control of the korean peninsula. if you understand this because a very, very long way to understand the roots of the division of the korean and insula it was something done to them. again the scene that you will see from now on is this idea held by -- it's essentially a very korean idea it's part of the national identity. for the next 100 some of you
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think this is familiar and looks similar to the great wall of china there is a relationship and more on the bordering arrow with china this eventually builds closer down and i will show you in a minute right near seoul which is in the middle of the peninsula. why? for the last korean dynasty, the chosen dynasty, the kings kings are under constant pressure from outside the adversarial powers. this city lease fortress city
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and while i've been slowly built up by the koreans for well over 600 years. it goes very, very far visual understanding of this idea that is ingrained deep in the korean soul it is essentially a victim and it has always been a victim of the surrounding powers, the surrounding neighbors, and as a very, very small power surrounded by great powers that is essential you may have heard this phrase, ate shrimp among whales. the very old korean adage goes, when whales fight shrimp and die. that's not very eloquent english transition translation i am afraid. it really is a very powerful and poetic way to put exactly how koreans view themselves.
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when whales get into big fights the little shrimp are going to get absolutely swallowed up. and torn up. that is essentially korea's history of the last 150 years. so it looking this wall, this is the wall and you see it's actually built sorry the map does not show this, not far out but actually not too far from soul which is been its traditional royal capitol since its unification to one kingdom for 1200 years. so, when this was being built, it's not right well known book korean was an advanced civilization and essentially wanted to not only protect it but it's mentality was that while we are so advanced, why, when the europeans and others
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started showing up, essentially knocking on its doors and saying let us in and we want to trade with you we want relations with you. we have so much to teach you. look at all these advances that we have. the koreans looked at them and said it's eloquently described by a famous historian, when they come at me in the western powers came knocking on their doors, the korean doors, the koreans quite politely shut them and said thank you very much, but no thank you. please go away we have everything that we need. we do not need anything more from you and we are not interested. that is essential but it did with this incredible military fortresses. but it did it over and over again. you will see it also built up
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this very, very deep ingrained notion. once again deep in the korean identity it was the first of all a very special kind of kingdom. it was a special kind of people that were all ethically one people. i would remind you that in asia that is actually not a common understanding. the chinese empire which is always been very strong was the strongest in all of asia for a millennia. it was essentially cobbled together of many, many different essentially tribal groups or ethnic groups. there's always been a challenge of every single member throughout china's glorious long history for several millennia. in japan and now i'm not just talking east asia but northeast asia and japan to even though japan has over the
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centuries cultivated this image kind a very short race the japanese civilization are something very special and unique. that is certainly this kind of extreme ideology that was adopted by the militaristic and japan after the restoration in 1865. the kind of fascist belief that of course would become embedded, carried out and throughout time which is what leads to japan's desire to build a great empire they can actually challenge the western empire and give us the confidence to launch an attack
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on the united states itself called pearl harbor. but in any case to point out to our countries it is essentially comprised of one ethnic identity, one people. now what may point out clearly that of course this is a myth. if you meet any koreans almost all koreans will tell you we are one of the most homogeneous races left on the planet. very, very countries can save this nation is made up of one race. in fact i don't believe there's a single country in europe where that is the case. certainly not. europe's identity in the idea of countries such as italy or germany, very, very late to the european history. only in the late 1800s.
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but let me point out this is a myth. there is no such thing as a pure race or a pure ethnic group or pure identity. it is true korea close itself off for quite many centuries, decades, centuries throughout its history so that it has been relatively protected. but the idea that other races have not committed intermingled with korea is just simply scientifically not true. nevertheless, what may be more important than actual dna that's far more important is this kind of a myth was strongly ingrained in the korean identity that it becomes essentially true. and, this is crucial to understanding as well, not only happens but with the division of the gran peninsula
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and theory in 19481945 at the end of world war ii, but what lingers today and if you want to understand the very, very odd, and strange, some people called me crazy north korea. i do not like to characterize north koreans as crazy. not necessarily because of the derogatory or negative connotation, frankly most probably deserve it. not the people the regime the leaders. villa might be very clear i personally do not think the leadership is crazy. and i think the problem with characterizing north korean regime as crazy or strange because it refuses to join the global community, it refuses
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any kind of interaction with any other country that is part of the image that north korea likes to cultivate. it has worked for the regime. strangely enough is going to allow korea to continue to survive despite the predictions and the sort of inconclusive certainty that almost everybody views north korea any day now it's going to collapse because it is a failing state. while women saying north korea is going to collapse for the last 70 years and is not yet collapsed. but, the important thing is to understand this mentality is very, very deeply ingrained and historical. what you are looking at here is an example. one of the things korea was trying to do was protect what it thought was the most
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advanced civilizations. now that is up for argument. certainly up for debate. but less important than the fact that koreans themselves uncertainly during this period in history, this is absolutely what koreans believe. in fact one of the tragedies i would argue for korea's modern era essentially this tragedy of the 7-year-old war in this division, millions of lives lost and continued insecurity, instability and certainly uncertainty about korea's future. a lot of the tragedy is slight precisely because koreans maintained stubbornly, very stubbornly this kind of myth that their civilization was so wonderful they simply did not
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need to interact with everybody else outside. which was considered barbarian. so this is actually very famous in buddhist temple is a treasure. there are too many things to go into and explain. if everybody here thanks gutenberg invented right? possibly korea in fact actually civilization that invented was called the movable press using blocks. koreans in fact were looking up at the stars and astronomy through essentially the gadgets that later on in europe, galileo, and others were developed. koreans were already and already had that kind of technology. hundreds of years before.
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so this is just one example i put this up here so you can see that. now, do not be alarmed if you do not bother trying to look at the details. you just look at it from far away essentially look at the pretty colors. the reason that i put this up here is for you to see graphically and i have highlighted it in a red box. actually look at it from far away. what this is, essentially a timeline. by the way i have been astonished at some of the things i am finding online related to korea. if any of my former students happened to be attending, they will know before on zoom i'm still kind of but i used to really shy away from doing anything on the computer. and i only realized as i was
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putting together this presentation, how much about korea there actually is now posted on the internet. what i find alarming is that i do not know how accurate most of it is. there's a lot of people have enough free time to put together things like this which is essentially what you have on the left is a graphic that shows basically every single one of the chinese dynasties. what this essentially shows you graphically is china has had a lot of turmoil and its dynasty. even though the chinese empire and the chinese civilization we think of as many incredibly stable and obviously very, very large it dominates all of asia. all of the separate emperors is quite unstable.
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on the right side is actually, i believe that is, on the right side whoever this is, apparently she is a fame of korean historical dramas which led to this particular person's interest in putting together this incredibly complex timeline. i said there are some very interesting people on the while with lots of time on their hands. in any case we see on the right is a breakdown of essentially a different empire or monarchies in the west. and all you need to do is look at colors. what you see as well the most advanced region of the world, so in the west and in the east empires were constantly changing hands. look at the way korea maintained its dynasties. this middle part of the most
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chaotic three kingdoms essentially they become unified. but you'll see here this is just another graphic which is a much cleaner way of looking at the approximate dates. again look here all the dates of the chinese and dynasties here are the ones of the different japanese dynasties and what do you notice. throughout the entire. now this is remarkable. what this is what everyone else in the world through constant political not just political turmoil because kings would die of course, leaders. every once in while they cling where they would become usurped could be some sort of attempt at a revolution and then someone else would take over there would also be
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another invasion from a neighboring empire and so on and so forth. korea somehow managed to keep itself incredibly politically stable. this is also one of the reasons why during this time korea is also able to absolutely flourish in its advances in the arts, and all sorts of developments, in the sciences, because what do you need order to be able to develop in this manner? well, what you need first and foremost is political stability. that might be my bias as a scholar who has chosen essentially politics as her field. i am sure others are sociologists, you might disagree. that is perfectly fine. i think you might be able to have some good arguments and i
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might end up agreeing with you in many ways. but the reality is you need political stability. we knew this from the european or western history that's all you need to do. and europe essentially it really does not become an advanced civilization. and then there was this odd period in which we, looking back like to call the dark ages, the middle ages where we had this image europe was in decline and did nothing. that is also partially true. the reality is it begins to flourish in the 14th, 15th century is just one example. but from there on, in the next 400 years europe would make advances at stake in the asian
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civilization centuries to achieve. not only catch up by the 19th century the europeans were on. ancient civilizations were in very, very big trouble. again one of the reasons is precisely because many of them. china was the case japan was certainly
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>> and the court and all of the institution of government, and you can picture this very much s
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a medieval sport, if that helps you picture it. and it was successful until 1871, and they slam its doors shut on every european to try to come in and approach korea. some were from dutch and efforts were in the 17 hundreds, very few of the entry, i have put on the resource list, that i put on one book in there which was a history book, a historical account. it's a fascinating read from the 16 hundreds and again, the period of history so it comes in 71 with something of the battle
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in this is essentially, the first real encounter with americans of the united states and if you know any of your asian history, you know of course in the right remember that the famous part in tokyo bay, this was by the 1850s and you know that china by then had already essentially been occupied. and actually at the naval ports but as you know already, there were numerous that had uses term", that one meeting essentially they wanted through conversion. survived this by 1871, china was
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already well into this time and instability in the opium wars and essentially china being caught up by all of the french and german and the british europeans and the dutch, ending the portuguese read which they had control and they were using china obviously and in the united states, it was no exception. all of those others were everywhere in the united states again, they might've been a colony but there was a lot to be done and a lot of money to be made in the trades in asia and of course by now, dear americans had settled as going west and on the west coast the pacific coast, was essentially settled in becoming occupied and become
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a vibrant center read an american city number of centers of the trace and so, as a americans start going west, from the west coast. and they come to korea and of course they've already been in japan. anything that well isn't korea right for opening up. that's not exactly the reception the americans got and what you see here are pictures and some incredible photos and am amazed that there even available during this time but so the americas could've been the current exposition. so the americans mostly because they didn't understand it about korean culture and society but again why would they and did not
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really a very large effort that was certainly true they'll can anybody been when korea had chosen this and essentially they hadn't tried pretty and no matter, to introduce themselves to the koreans essentially pretty and korea would turn them away. essentially, was very clear that they do not bother us and go away predicts of course they did not understand koreans. they do not understand the culture. and about korea, is essentially through the lens of the interactions with japan and china. and of course by 1871, their very much in fashion, some of the japanese and the chinese were but korean. the kind of audit kingdom
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predict other people and close themselves off. and how do they know so the americans do not know what the koreans were doing their feeling in and unhappy and very very very limited ships there are about to apart and essentially attacked the americans military ships. now that was not a very smart decision of the part of the koreans braided by the way, was kind of an odd myopic myth the koreans build up their mind predict and they have a supreme label of technology advances and why, i should've brought up in imagery so that you can see it
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because the koreans back in by 1560 or so, essentially they had invented the wood becomes as the first ironclad ship and all of civilization read more than ever, they figured out how to build a ship made of metal because they thought obviously, how can something, ship made of such heavy materials, how could it actually sale these distances and yet, it's one of korea's biggest heroes and myths, this admiral. and essentially takes his boat ingeniously shaped along with all of these kind of armor and essentially with a have is one of the most violent and largest attempts to take over the continental west predict and by
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the very very fierce and frightening japanese leader at the time. today actually so this is one of the greatest attacks pretty and korea of course incident off and it's in the glory of its naval supremacy is 1600, 12 very little of what they realize 1971, americans have much better and stronger ships so without going into this will i actually give an entire lecture just on this, the koreans attack the ship and they end up have over 30 or 40 of the american soldiers in the americans at ano back, they are not very happy. they decided they are going to wash this mission and going back
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to korea. which date do and they eventually convince korea to sign with a call the 1882, commerce and if you look very carefully, the korean name for it is something different. you will notice over and over again in my slides that the name it becomes very important because not only are they saying will obviously there is an issue with translation but it's not just an issue of translation, what it reveals is very very much completely different psychology and identities through which koreans and other asians are viewing events around them and encounters with other foreign powers. he gives you a very very
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important signal clear as to how much there is an we can look back on history well i wish we had known, it will not and well. in any case, fast-forward, was very interesting note of course is the story in this idea that in fact, u.s. korea relations go back all of the way in fact, with his incredible treaty and country rated and those of you who might remember what is called the course fda, that was the korea trade agreement that was negotiated and i think side already about 15 years ago and of course, once again it was a big controversy. this was during the trump administration money essentially wanted to figure this along with
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nafta in any case is very interesting that during this time as americans were negotiating the steel, by the way, not very popular in this country and there were many many many in fact, congress took them a very long time to convince congress that this was a good economic deal. they not only go back some years back to the war but americans sacrifice the lives and lost them and ever since then, they been essentially best friends pretty go back to 1882, does not have the koreans remember this treaty of friendship. given this was the beginning of what would become essentially u.s. trails. this will sound a little odd to
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you and jarring because in a minute i am about to go faster history to talk about the korean war after all, that's why we are here in the division of korea read and you might be shocked that setting up the past years,t is an incredible relationship that there's really not been another one like it, certainly not the last century but i would argue at any time. korean has had the most interesting relationship with the united states and seven years predict but that's not what they were thinking back in 1992, this was just a copy of the actual agreement. and i think you might have the other thing, is that true. there we go okay, and now most,
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was the nobel peace prize and directly related to the korean peninsula and that is an important clue pretty and i will let all of you answer that and let me just go back here, it was about or was it would world will send for jimmy carter. and i will give everybody and of the moment. and i think this will show us the results whenever they are ready and i'll give everybody another minute or so. this is an excellent trivia pursuit question. no former students have ever missed this on trivia pursuit so
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i will just use this, there we go. i underestimated my audience i know i should not have. i'm quite shocked that most of you got it right, theater roosevelt, so theodore roosevelt won the nobel peace prize. some of you might have been tricked. so this was in 1906, and when you see here, by the nobel committee, outstanding first collaborator including anything that is the war between japan and russia. it's very interesting because that is certainly not how the koreans did it. and of course his ability war,
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is the japanese war, before 1905 and it was essentially asking teddy roosevelt pretty he brought them together for quite a long time but not so simple as there's nothing simple about history when it comes to korea for east asia. in fact and now we're going to fast-forward and i wish i could spend a lot of time telling you about the japanese war of the me just for the nobel peace prize, but before this, if you really want to know, japanese war is the turning point in history, but actually for the western world, it's essentially what raised the or all of the next major wars in the 20th
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century. some historians might disagree with me and some of you actually might not agree with me either but really it is all about control of the country and bit raised this to the ground for world war i, world war ii, and of course, the korean war is all about this unfinished legacy pretty and what happens with the ending of this war in 1905 which was all about russia and japan control and access to peninsula. and i don't want to try to go back to my slides i'll probably end up mincing of life presentation but if you can remember what should you earlier about the map of the peninsula
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and again will it comes down to the geography to very simply and if you really, extremely crucial part of russia. as part of the european history which i'm sure most of you will note that by now the russia is a major empire and a navy that was really to the greatest navy in the world, the british and french and the swedish and all of these countries. but russia had one very big problem. not one port in the entire best territory so essentially other than the black sea which is by the way also was this was so crucial and i would begin to see
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this and why becomes really the kind of fulcrum for all of the european powers in competition and essentially laying the groundwork for world war i and world war ii pretty they needed a water port and the only water port was actually not in the eue environment on the other side which is on authority. and russia also saw it as a strategic way of not limiting it the other europeans entry into china but also japan. by now japan is, suddenly become out of nowhere. after being essentially about
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1800, japan and actually closed itself, he completely isolated his self from 1500 - 1800 and japan essentially did not advance. and of course of 15 - 20 years in the japan is really the first east major east asian power that willingly, not from the beginning but when the westerns are coming in and force it to open, the realized okay, we have all of this incredible western advances. in japan quickly makes advances and now we have to leapfrog ahead and suddenly we have a navy that is increasingly problematic. the british, french, and all of the europeans by the germans as
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well but certainly the russians because so it is over who is going to control the continent and essentially, what the tree does is essential, basically part of korea so that the japanese, the could've won that war. but they love russia to have some control in that area and essentially hanover the rest of korea to japan predict in exchange for the grout great powers. they had more involvement so they will see this emerge so that was considered the first
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betrayal by the united states and if i could, how many of you have heard this agreement. i can't remember if i put the slide san so for time purposes, it is just an agreement, a secret meeting it was held by teddy roosevelt secretary of state in the japanese of the counterparts. which basically was a gentlemen's bargain about handing over korea to japan in exchange for japan essentially allowing by can use that word, allowing the united states access to the philippines and for those of you in the audience shaking your heads and not liking where this is heading,
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yes, you should not. this is not good for the asians so in any case, the when the market by the weight visit very bluntly war. tens of thousands of russians and japanese die this war. never mind that the war was being conducted under territory they had to say this. what happened is that the japan is winning the declaration to the world and first of all, that japan has arrived not just some but asian power that maybe shouldn't be, and yes, until this time i don't think it occurred to the western powers and any asian power could be a challenger to the west, they
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just simply it would not have occurred to them and in fact when russia gives up and said okay, japan, you have essentially one and this is a shock. it fundamentally changes how what europe has and the united states. an agent itself, but also how they view japan and you have to understand it with devastating blow is to russia. the first time that any non- western power is ever managed to repeated military, in a military battle, a dominant western empire to defeat them, not just the western power russia, russia was one of the greatest, one of the most powerful empires.
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and they were totally defeated which by the way should also give you single about what is happening in russia itself .but also because of the decline that russia was undergoing. after japan takes a victory, but then slowly through attrition, slowly start taking over control and strongly annexes them in 1910, this is possibly the most crucial historical moment in the bank understand if you want to understand why korea became divided and why that decision of the 38th parallel, becomes a source of several years african
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intentions and conflict so that it ends up erupting onto 25th fifth 1950, the korean war in these two gentlemen, just after this is crucial to understand that korea lost its independence in 1910 and what that means is that korea no longer comes on existing country entity is wiped off the map. now it has become part of japan and that is the of the formal part of japanese colonial ways and now again, most of the internet sites that i went to, they say japanese took over korea 1910, but that's actually not really true, it already been
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annexed and this was one them to understand. on how japan has slowly, very very slowly had already been building up the informal control. one was in 1910, and that was the first time was a formal annexation that was forced upon the korean king. ..
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it's actually the younger people. these are people are three generations removed. but, it is because first of oh that really was quite brutal. it was not just a matter of taking over the territory work korea essentially the sovereign power of korea disappears. and has no independent authority. it is not even just that because there were numerous in fact by this point most as we all know, again probably using the wrong tensor had been being carved up by the other
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imperial european powers. south america, africa most all the rest of asia had already been carved up. they would never fall victim to them first of all is just part of korea. but, now remember this. japan is not a western or european ally. it's actually a neighboring fellow asian power to add insult to injury, japan for most of the last 2000 years of history before then before the formal annexation of 1910, most of that. in fact japan was considered less advanced than korea. now again, this is a partial interpretation this is not how the japanese certainly view
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their history. this is absolutely the way koreans view their history. what is the truth of the reality? probably somewhere in between. it's absolutely true most of the japanese civilization came through, all were based essentially on china. because china was the middle kingdom was the most important civilized power. how it spread its culture. and there's other individual surrounding countries not countries but kingdom that were sovereign and independent but also part of china essentially understood this. so imagine you are a korean
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and not a particularly friendly one. and part did not go out because of korean displeasure and their resistance and certainly if you are being conquered you have the right expectation that you would resist. but, the reality is no and resisted as fiercely on the back gate of the japanese so much trouble that their response was actually to become increasingly brutal. and to maintain it. and again this is the crucial
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point. all of these major powers are battling over korea. not because of any intrinsic value. what it means is they are ignoring anything of value the koreans themselves, the korean people society civilization might have to offer printed did not matter. they're interested in controlling and having access to the korean peninsula itself. and therefore could not have really cared very much about anything to do with the korean people themselves. which goes a long way to explaining, not excusing but simply explaining why and how
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japanese colonial. becomes increasingly very, very brutal and frankly quite cold. there were many, many, many other people and nations and other societies that were conquered all over the world. they did not necessarily insist that who actually forbid use of the native tongue. now there obviously were instances where a friend of mine happens to be irish reminded me that was ireland's bitter history for the next 1000 years.
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on that is partially part of the issue that is irish still to this day as part of their identity against the british rule. and certainly in india this is i believe here's my horrendous lack of knowledge that i should probably know more than i do. certainly because there's a rule of india for so long that many still do speak english. and the english is essentially a well spoken language in india. now, it was never enforced to the point were basically if you spoke it, they were rounded up and hang in the public square per this is what happens in korea. all citizenship wiped out.
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but most important for korea it means it has no independent authority in the international system to speak for itself, to take control over its future, and especially to say we do not agree to this. so, fast-forward to rising japanese imperial powers. it continues to grow because it has control the current peninsula table two and staged the invasion of the chinese mainland. as you know prior to when the united states joined the world war ii in earnest after pearl harbor. but essentially japan gains access to the mainland. japanese invasion of china is also well, frankly most of you might know more about that in the treatment of korea because well, the chinese certainly do
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not want you to forget about it. you've heard about japanese control over shanghai it's well into the 1930s and it increases chinese appetite while it's absolutely made to control korea in order to gain access and build what japan calls again names the crow company cross parity sphere in asia. for something which, in practice, meant that essentially japan would take over chinese role that it has held for several thousand years as being the single most dominant power in all of asia, right? were all of the separate individual sovereign kingdom would in essence paid tribute to the emperors of beijing in
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exchange. japan is looking a little different. we will now had the coprosperity sphere. we don't really have a choice about it. has tribbett will take by force and most importantly, we will be the only single power left in asia because we do know what the europeans and westerners here. now again this was working itself in. you can see if you frame this kind of movement in this way, that for the native people of the different former kingdoms all over asia who resent very much having been carved out by the european western powers we can begin to see.
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in any case -- so world war ii, august 15 covid 1945. it is one of the largest holidays in south korea. he simply called well, we called the date that japan surrendered and world war ii ended. and finally, at last there was peace. finally the war that would end the european war had already been won in may but by august after we have to drop these horrendous new weapons called atomic bombs on japan. it was peace at last. now everyone can go about the business of rebuilding their countries. for korea admit liberation. for them it was july 4, it was yes but also liberation. and to this day is called liberation day.
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that is what it's known for. now, what happens though just before august 15, 1945? well, and the several weeks prior and the first week or so about august, it was already very clear whether or not, without foresight about the use of the atomic bomb, it was pretty clear japan would. that the allies would be able to defeat. how and when and how much more brutal the losses would be before japan would surrender. and already by the beginning of august because the war on the western front had been essentially won, they began in earnest to march in from the north and down into the peninsula through venturi essentially to battle the
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japanese. the russians are fighting essentially fall on the ground. americans are going to drop a big giant atomic bomb on japan. but the russians are there and they start marching south. they are already entering the korean peninsula in the north. the u.s. receives intelligence and they're very worried about this. i should correct myself and said the soviets. by this time the americans began to understand the soviets, even though they had been crucial allies for the majority of the war, there was an inkling there was a problem with the soviets. and more importantly the issue was what would happen when japan surrendered? because eventually japan would. that if the soviets are already present on the korean peninsula just as we realize had happened in germany and in parts of eastern europe in
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areas of poland, czechoslovakia, and all the countries in that region. americans knew there'd be a problem. so on the evening of august the tenth, at the white house these two gentlemen who you may know he becomes actually a secretary of state to both the presidents kennedy and to johnson. and then turn on charles -- on both of them actually and august the tenth 1945 or lieutenant colonel's. they were both staff at the white house. was it by the pentagon and also lieutenant colonel fought in world war ii was working in the white house. these two gentlemen are set off to a side room at the old
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executive building to go and figure out how were going to do it the soviets. so they say you figure out something so we can encourage the soviets and work out a deal because this is going to get bad if we do not stop the soviets from gaining more access. so these two gentlemen go off. it's a very famous story all they have available to them and i hope i have this, supposedly it's probably not the exact copy but very similar this is how it would have been portrayed this is access to a national geographic atlas which had to rummage around and find somewhere they're rummaging around for an atlas because they find korea on the map. this is why started off the very beginning of the evening if you could identify korea. the reality is american sitting in washington at the
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white house no clue. why would they? it was part of japanese colonial territory. koreans had essentially not for its own identity for well over 40 years it was part of japan. but all of the allies knew that when japan would actually surrender it would have to give up its previous colonial territory. the real question was who is going to fill that back in? so looking at this map they were told how it is going to go to the russians we don't want to battle them. so let's make a deal. you propose something. so they sat around all night and decided and as you look on this map, where would you slice it up? well it is pretty obvious there is so right there. if you are sitting there at the white house in washington thinking it's probably not a good idea to give up its capitol, why don't we just settle here on the 30th
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parallel? pretty nice line it's right there, it's just about half of the peninsula soviets can be up there, we will be down here, no fighting about crucial point being we will have access to soul, terrific. well, the soviets on even by the way the japanese surrendered in august of 1945 they continue. but what the soviets to after receiving a memo. it's called general operation memo when that's a famous name for it. a proposal to the president to say of course the soviets with this proposal. which the president immediately did. what was a soviet response? perfect, that is great. we like that idea.
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we will go and we will secure the territory and ensure the japanese do not cause trouble all the way up to the line. now, why do you suppose the soviets were being so cooperative? and that cap there were they stopped her at the 30th parallel and said okay, we are done making sure that all the japanese under control. we stopped all the fighting and are in temporary control. here's the agreed-upon border and they stop there. now the americans would not arrive until later. it would take them several months actually to get any other military personnel over there. now remember the united states already had a very big job on its hands securing japanese territory. so the united states had to occupy this defeated japan. it is not in their minds what to do with this tiny little piece of territory as a former colony who cares about that.
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our biggest problem is to make sure stabilize japan. the reason the soviets are so immutable to stopping at the 30h parallel is they could not have known and they did not know because of their naïveté frankly about their korean history. in the negotiation leading up to and through and after that japanese war remember the one i mentioned on teddy roosevelt when the peace prize for, the war, and the treaty that essentially japan korea served up on a silver platter. going back 50 years the soviets, the russians at that time, had been using the 38th parallel is their negotiation line. in fact offered it to the japanese when they went back and forth for that is one the
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reasons because a japanese refused to accept part to accept the 30th parallel they wanted more. had these two kernels known that, they surely would not have propose the 30th parallel. they're going to write an autobiography he specifically states it in there, looking back i certainly would not have done as part of the worst mistakes we ever made, why? because when the soviets heard the united states was proposing, what did the russians here? well this must be in agreement they recognize we ought to have influence up to and through the 30th parallel. in other words, the americans helped us to broker the deal in the war with japan they understand the significance of this. this is just another way of america essentially giving us tacit approval. for that is certainly not the impression the americans wanted to give.
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what ends up happening is the slide shows you what happens this is the kind of festive atmosphere. this is 1948, this is important because now it has been three years since korea has been liberated from japanese colonial rule. but they had been fighting for quite personally and fiercely by the way. this is also crucial the founder of north korea the rocker man was his mom called, recommends a grandfather in fact earned his, of the young kids call it sort of his status by being supposedly a guerrilla fighter up in the mountains during japanese occupation and then during
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world war ii. now it's probably more of a myth but in any case, that is important to know because everything was really tied to this nationalist idea. again this explains why the family which is really a monarchy continues to have hold over 25 million people. and white north korea has not collapsed. in any case you see here the celebration. but the problem is korea has already been at the 38th parallel. now, you will see this is a ceremony again by americans invitation this new president of korea is supposedly elected, there is evidence is clearly a rigged election. again another big mistake by the americans.
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how many americans could speak korean? they knew very little about the country. all they knew was essentially through the japanese. so in fact things are being translated for some cream to japanese and then japanese to english. and it was this gentleman who spent his years in exile studying in the united states. actually at princeton as a matter fact in addition to here in washington. his very well-known in washington. he was a scholar, one of the few koreans it was clearly westernized printing see his form of dress, and so americans were comfortable with him. he had been trying to run essentially eight free korean movement from overseas. one group had split to europe and america and the other group was essentially government in exile and
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shanghai. this also goes a long way to explain precisely why there is a further shift between north and south as you begin to see once those in korea that are the leaders of this independence movement operating out of china essentially by then china is having its own civil war with the communists. and so they come under that kind of ideological influence. the other side is actually clearly influenced by the left and america. agency of the quote the country that was lost 40 year old is found again the people who died live again. what he was pledging i'm going to reunite our country, right? but increasingly that was not becoming possible.
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this is put up by the woodrow wilson site and they have a wonderful one of the best resources of cold war history. they apparently had this video that you can watch but i don't have it here. now, so, what ends up happening is two sides under u.s. is not quite with occupation is that many sides will call and they will tell you that. it's u.s. oversight over the southern half. cap these two very charismatic leaders that are essentially being certainly supported a
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tool of their patron powers, right? that is what many south koreans would end up believing also about their own later. but in any case in august 15, 1948 which is of course the anniversary crucially important to koreans he says there could only be one government for korea. korea is one country it always has been for thousands of years appeared were going to make it now that we are free of our colonial oppressors. we are going to make it and we cannot be divided. so i am declaring the republic of korea that is south korea. he declared and set i am the president come going to the president all of korea. and he meant all of this territory the entire peninsula. well on the north is not having any of that.
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he had the same ambition. so we then follow suit a number of days later and declares his own republic. the democratic people's republic of korea. now of course the north koreans, being korea and they have to be do one better. now notice they have to do one better than not foreigners or outsiders but one better than essentially their brethren. this is that word i mentioned earlier, paradox, begins to make sense to you. this is one of the dominating paradox. on the one hand you see in the moment they become bitter enemies and they end up killing each other by the end of this brutal korean war more than 10 million people. if you add everybody up.
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essentially 5 million people some say more essentially had been killed as were the most brutal civil wars. civil war in our country is bad enough, it was essentially that but even worse because it is so much more modern and devastating. a more ironic name they could not be the democrats people's republic of korea. now they are both competing and by the way, to just completely destroy another myth that many of you have and by the way it's almost almost every single internet website so please, please, please, i beg you do not look things up on the internet if you want to know real current history. basically will give you -- on that hot humid summer day on
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june 25 covid 1950 all was quiet and peaceful in south korea especially in seoul when suddenly masses of these communists come pouring over and just take over. now it is absolutely true that the north koreans stage a massive military invasion but crosses what has been the 38th parallel and has been an agreement since the soviets and the united states. again it was temporary. temporary occupying forces that will essentially keep civilian control until and this is key that the korean people could establish for themselves their own independent political process and elect their own later. at which time the two powers would withdrawal that was in
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the agreement. well, neither were going to accept that. they each said and pledge their people, i am the only legitimate ruler of the united korea. and so the fighting actually began earlier. essentially began in 1948 were you do have the small military you have incursions across the h parallel which is being essentially maintained. it is supposed to be a neutral territory and that is the dividing line. there was a battle that occurred in by the way the south koreans were threatening on a daily basis to attack the north. and there is some evidence that have not taken the initiative that most likely would have eventually.
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now certainly not in 1950. he did not --'s military forces were not up to par and certainly the united states would not have allowed it they were giving him a lot of pressure. he had his way he is declaring on a daily basis threatening to invade the north. meanwhile up in the north was a begging for essentially permission to mass for slaves putting the two off of each other. which by the way another reason that explains north korea's survival, very, very good at playing the powers against each other. hatem begged on a daily basis i'm about to invade and take over and they will fall easily if you promise me support you just provide me additional equipment and support i can take care of this it will take a matter of days.
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and then he would write to stalin. both of them in no uncertain terms that absolutely not we will not tolerate this you cannot do this. none of us can afford to go back to war again. remember this is only just two or three years after world war ii had ended. neither country and the chinese essentially for probably in worse shape than even any of the european powers at this point. it was falling apart. it had already undergone its own civil war. so china was an utter mess. it was absently not interested in getting involved in this pesky little mess anoint koreans are always causing proms for the chinese. and oh, by the way to not engage.
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certainly do not want western powers so no, under no uncertain terms. well again very long history there's some evidence he got different signals. in any case he makes a decision comes swarming over crosses very easily into soul. soul, by the way you can see it from the map for those who live in the d.c. area, it's basically about the distance during downtown d.c. and the airport. it really is not very far. we have beltway traffic. [laughter] it is a really close distance. and so what happens is it's not just bragging he was right he was basically able to work his way through soul and essentially demolish it. i mean all out war begins. you can see here essentially all of the meager military
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forces south korea had it was just crumbling the forces immediately very quickly advanced, pushed everybody down. down to the perimeter which you may have heard of. and you have to understand what all this fighting is going on there about 15 -- 20 million civilians in the way which is quite inconvenient. this is just another picture, satellite image that shows it in a more graphic way. so i think i better start speeding this up. so without going into too many details about the actual battles what ends up happening very quickly is, as soon as possible news reaches disarm going to fast-forward up to this. news reaches truman and fecht truman i believe is at his home down in missouri i forget
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the nickname of his home there. it was summer after he was woken up in the middle of the night and is told mr. president we have a major problem. the communist have invaded south korea. i can't remember exactly again part of the story is truman said they've invaded what now? they're not even able to identify where is korea? who are the koreans? why do we care? we can just let the soviets habit, no mr. president there is a major problem. so immediately, within 24 hours, truman goes to the united nations. i remember was set at the very beginning the korean war ends up a being about so much more in the future and the state of what was the population of the current peninsula back in
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1950, about 30 million koreans may be less about 20 million koreans but the koreans of course it is everything, their whole life. their own country and their own future but for the rest of the world could imagine this the united nations has only just been established. in fact, i believe is it not this week this a very weak right now in new york all of the world leaders are gathering at the united nations general assembly for this grand anniversary. to celebrate their establishment of one of the most extraordinary cooperative international ever conceived of and ever actually institutionalized certainly in the history of global civilization. but think about it, those who
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were selected woodrow wilson, in fact he is very well known for having earned the nobel peace prize for negotiating the settlement after world war i. but also for establishing something called league of nations. the idea was there, and we know nothing happened but that league of nations not only did nothing have been with it but his vision of the war to end all wars would be the very last war. this would be settled not with the gun but the sword shall be what is that phrase? that is actually motto you see of things that general assembly and the un if you ever go up there. the united nation was an extraordinary idea and extraordinary institution
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which by the way fit in with the united states plans for stabilizing the global economy along with other institutions like the international monetary fund, the world bank would come out of it and the final component to this which is the wto started then. the idea being trade disputes, war at the heart was one of the major reasons why world war ii erupted. so now the idea is collective security institutions, international ones, will actually be the arbiters of peace and cooperation. and this is how we settle disagreements. well, no one thought the united nations will be challenged so soon. within 24 hours the united states because has a seat on the security council convenes
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the other security members that this cannot be tolerated this is a violation of the most fundamental principle of the united nations and everybody's membership at it. everybody was allowed to become a member precisely because the first thing all countries agreed to was recognizing and respecting the sovereignty of either country. you can simply not go in and invade another country's emergency meeting called for so long story about why exactly is the resolution passes or something funny happening with china and it was actually republic of china meaning taiwan that was a member of the united nations. it was not the prc and the communist government is now in control in beijing per that
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has something to do with it. it is approved unanimously they just decided not to show up. and what happened? the united states immediately form something called the united nation command. so let me dispel one of the single most important factually incorrect ideas that multiple have about the korean war. the united states ever actually officially participate to me said this everyone thanks there is a us-led war on the korean peninsula. it was not. technically it was united nations command. in fact the united states took military leadership and very quickly did so one of the most
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famous generals john macarthur is sent over there after his big victory to go and lead the famous landing, which he does. but it was done under technically the un flag. so it always has been the combatants is the united nations command countries, and then essentially it is essentially north korea will see, if we have the time in a minute, to show how china becomes involved very, very quickly look at this map i'm trying all the countries end up supporting and sending troops. some are quite significant. it's poignant in some ways because tiny little countries. who would've thought of
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countries like ethiopia or turkey, or greece or thailand would immediately come to the call and start sending troops over too korea to fight? nobody had that kind but remember it's only a few years out since world war ii had ended. so it's actually a remarkable story. now these are the nations i would end up providing not direct military support because there's all sorts of fun issues about status, some of them were not quite independent because of world war ii. and of course germany is not western germany technically would've had military. so these countries and immediately commit themselves ascending and they do end up sending a very significant and very crucially important medical support. that is really nothing to
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overlook or dismiss as trivial. they end up having significant impact. not just in the number of lives they've saved and the help they gave to not just the combatants but also the koreans. but their involvement and being involved in these medical units in the medical mission actually did quite a lot to help south korea establish and advance their very own medical facility hospitals were set up. this effort continues on after the pharmacist is assigned in 1953. quickly there some other countries. many countries end up this is what you see here. you actually see the numbers.
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that is not even really the point it is an incredible sacrifice and in fact some of the stories they'd send a combined along with belgium a very small number. but actually the stories that come out of some of the battles are several soldiers who they end up getting some of the highest military awards from the united states government and recognition of their incredible valor and quite a number were killed. take a look over here what happens or the other side the
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north koreans will soon quick ocs china and sub joining. it is essential because carter lands quickly pushes north koreans back almost back to the border with china as soon as macarthur start pushing this ally sources up near the chinese border is when china gets nervous. this is basically a pretense to come into china. we know there's a problem with communism. what does china do? china enters and does what it refuses to do earlier if they were not having any of this. the desire and effort is much
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as china viewed it as a growing s essential threat. the actually remarkable up to as many as 3 million. in fact this also goes a very, very long way. for those who read about in the news and hear about china's support from north korea. what does continue to survive out why? part of it is china obvious in china's interest to do so. a lot of it has to do with the fact there's a lot of sympathy in china.
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they could call the war the chinese do not call the korean war obvious to the korean war. they help the younger brothers and north koreans. technically sought the pla the people's army the chinese military in fact quite differently sets up the people's volunteer army. the voluntary militia in the next one i hope is the next will show you what ends up happening to americans end up entering the war and it pushing it out. excuse my graphics there it's a little messy.
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it's a very famous landing in september 1950 after the north korean invasion and the un revolution. in fact the united states was completely unprepared for this type of war. it had been decommissioning most of its military and its navy. had no assets anywhere near korea other than japan but it was felt it was necessary to leave japan to protect japan to keep control over japan. and so it's remarkable what ends up happening. let me then get to this is one of under the umbrella of the incredible ramifications the
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korean war ends up having far, far beyond the millions of dead it would leave on the korean peninsula. the fact it would divide as many as 10 million families. these families essentially were divided because the closure of that border. children and parents ripped from each other. justin millions of families and you see this now you often see pictures from the south to hold these family reunions. i mean these pictures of these peoples in their 80s and 90s had not seen each other in 70 years but they did not know if they're dead or alive. you can imagine what is like being reunited with them. in any case, what is the real impact of the korean war though? for everyone in the world
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aside from the koreans is that actually it completely turns of what u.s. policies were going to be like. both foreign and domestic after world war ii. by 1950 the united states, had no intention of probably ever going could not have imagined most americans would not have imagined a cold war. they certainly would not have imagined having this priority foreign policy and insuring and deterring actually unlimited in the calmest threat. that would never had occurred to them. had the korean war not occurred i think we would've seen a very, very different america. we certainly would have seen a very different economy. the military certainly was on its way of not being dismantled but certainly not
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prioritized. what ends up happening is the korean war just creates this incredible resurgence. today is the military-industrial complex this actually begins really with the korean war. now of course we know as a result of world war ii primarily. but the reality is without the korean war the u.s. government probably would not have made those and deliberate choices to continue to militarize and industrialize and advance and make all these advancements but the military. by the way i should point out in my pictures are just going to continue here. these are pictures of the landing how you can begin to see the full force by which the united states sort of hurtled itself and led this command of the other 17 nations that originally joined.
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by the way, just as a side, if there are any korean veterans with us in the audience who are actually listening and watching, and do not know how many of you have come back to korea since then. as we know one of the sad realities as of the generation of our veterans who fought in these wars, world war i we certainly not lost them all. we are quickly losing almost all of our world war ii veterans. and also very quickly korean war veterans most to be at their youngest 90 years old, right? the reality is most of these americans and i will call them boys because that is what they were the majority were men although some women did serve the majority or men and they actually were not men they were boys. they were very young and they
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were drafted. we are just coming out ever watching, our exhaustion was afghanistan. if you look at the numbers in a little afraid to fast forward i know i put a chart in here to show you, we've been no fighting in afghanistan for the last 20 years essentially. the total number of troops i believe that have been killed is somewhere around 3000 if i'm not mistaken give or take. and atrociously tens of thousands more have been maimed and wounded never mind the kinds of nonphysical wounds that they carry. but are just devastating. it ends up being that, as i say i'm a little afraid to fast forward i believe i put my chart of the very end which
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i won't have time to get too. the number of american soldiers killed in combat is just over 33000 which is why i started off at the very beginning showing you that monument. the monument to the korean war. and i strongly suggest anybody who is in the washington area if you have never visited the korean war them on it which is to the right behind the trees, essentially across from the vietnam memorial. those two memorials first they could not be more different in artistic representation. but there is something incredibly moving about the incredible difference in those two styles. when you have exactly it is so revealing what it says about our society at the time was
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going through and how they've been thinking about war since the korean war. look at the korean war is the war that began to change the american public's view about war. if you think about world war ii this is actually how we still think about world war ii. just a moment ago i was mentioning how in your minds to it as soon as i mention how the veterans of world war ii are so quickly dying out, all of us feel this of paying an automatically they are just these incredible heroes that deserve all of our thanks. i took a survey precisely to see, most of you would know this we own experience. this is not the attitude of nevermind what americans thought about war, but about soldiers having served in more because of vietnam.
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but, butts, vietnam alone was not where we know that turning point and where american attitude about our military, about serving in war, even the necessity or need. even the morality of actually waging war. those actually began with the korean war. i cannot emphasize this enough. if you remember the 1950s and in fact just when the civil rights movement was taking off and now here i really do wish i could find a slide, just bear with me as i fast-forward through all of these. >> i'm sorry to jump in but we are a bit over time quick that's what i figured. i will just leave you with this if you look at this horrendous picture quickly mentioning there is a book
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some of you may know one of the most well-known and well-respected african-american musicians is actually involved in this hands-off korean movement. in fact to end up having to go testify before congress. but what happened was because it was linked to the war itself and also basically the u.s. role in korea he was able to link it quite successfully. there are arguments to be made by many civil rights leaders. in fact this is exactly why later on the united states and the korean war was the first war that was actually desegregated. that would never have occurred without the korean war.
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essentially this is the war that ends up changing the world. far beyond what we think. the real tragedy is our status today it is that war that is still going on technically. i showed you the map with all the forces going back and forth. we are back at the perlow both technically claimed they are the constitutional authority over the other. on the way things are going now it does not look like any progress is really been made necessarily in the tensions between the two countries. would you call them countries now, separately that's what has become. this is downtown souls in a given his soul or no can you imagine. said this is the miracle that everybody talks about when they look at south korea today.
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but also with sadness for every korean this is still a living legacy. and does not look like this surely, but if the war's not over the war's not over. >> so the possibility of this will happen again. so i will now open it up. >> i piled us for going over break. >> it's okay unfortunately we are over times we do not have time for questions but we have provided e-mail and the chap and will provide it again but if you have a burning question want to ask please reach out to her. >> please do pick which has tons of resources she administr.
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go to >> and early 1938 will print across john steinbeck explain i'm trying to write history while it is happening and i don't want to be


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