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tv   [untitled]  CSPAN  June 13, 2009 11:00am-11:30am EDT

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west, so i think, if anything, he will have the same way of leading. the claims are brazen that people have been making about the huge landslide victory when there doesn't seem to be much to support that. mr. ahmadinejad doesn't care what his critics say and won't take their criticism into account. >> when do we expect a finalization of this issue? >> later today saturday or early sunday morning. >> thank you for joining us from tehran. >> thank you. .
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and later, the housing crunch and where it's headed. every weekend is filled with books and authors on book tv. look for your schedule on-line at now a senate hearing on u.s.
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policy towards north korea. the witnesses include steven bosworth, a special representative to north korea for the state department and john kerry of massachusetts for the foreign relations committee. this portion of the hear something 90 minutes. foreign relations committee,. [inaudible conversations] >> the hearing will come to order. we are here today to discuss recent troubling developments in the korean peninsula and the road ahead in dealing with the democratic people's republic of korea. we're going to hear first from the administration point man on north korea and my friend and constituent ambassador stephen bosworth, the dean of the fletcher school of law and diplomacy at tufts university.
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but also. expert panel of witnesses who together have more than 100 years of experience in dealing with a challenge to that we face in north korea. north korea's test of the long-range ballistic missile last april followed by its second nuclear test last month are frankly reckless and irresponsible acts that do nothing to enhance north korea's security. i was pleased to see that last night in new york the permanent five members of the u.n. security council agreed to speak with one voice and tal north korea and that its conduct is unacceptable. the draft security council resolution which we expect to be voted on soon imposing a sweeping new arms embargo on north korea and also bans financial transactions linked to its north korea's nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programs. a significantly it calls upon
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member states to inspect all cargo to and from north korea on the high seas and seaports and airports. if countries have reason to believe the cargo contains material related to north korea's nuclear program, or other weapons programs, the obama administration should be commended for this strong united out, and china deserves recognition as well. as north korea's ally and largest trading partner china complain the size of role in the peaceful resolution of this crisis. i was in china when the north korea conducted its second nuclear test and i am convinced based on the meetings i have in, china shares are pursuits. we can all be forgiven for feeling that we have been here
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before. as one knowledgeable observer wrote to me recently, we are now quote, hip deep into the third north korean nuclear crisis. and the first crisis ended in 1994 with the signing of the agreed framework which froze the north production of plutonium for eight years. in 2002 the bush administration confronted north korea with allegations that it was cheating on the free market but the bush administration ruled out direct talks to resolve the issue. the result was the second nuclear crisis, the demise of the agreed framework itself. north korea's withdraw from nuclear non-proliferation treaty and the quadrupling of north korea's stockpile of fissile material. so today we confront a more dangerous north korea that says it is determined to bolster its nuclear deterrent in defiance of its neighbors and other members of the international community. how we deal with north korea
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this time around will have grave implications, not just for maintaining peace and stability in northeast asia, for our alliances with south japan and korea, south korea and japan but particularly have an impact on our ongoing non-proliferation efforts with respect to iran and any other would-be nuclear power. step one is to get a unified response from the united nations. the result appears to be imminent, but then we must resist the temptation to go into defensive crouch. in the past teaches us that the benign neglect is not a viable option america must lead efforts to stop the current negative cycle of action and reaction and begin the hard diplomatic work needed to deliver results. and as we seek to engage, we should remember the council of former secretary of defense
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william perry who advised us to deal with north korea quote, as it is, not as we would wish to be. we should not assume that north korea sees the world the way we do. recent developments should convince us to test our assumptions about north korea and its motives. for instance, when i was in china discussing this with chinese leaders it was clear that there are a number of reasons for north korea's current actions. in one begs the question is north korea really just trying to get our attention? in a fairly sophomoric but nevertheless extraordinarily dangerous way. the practice of the party had our attention. from day one of the obama administration made a point of offering to engage directly. and given the evidence of the past six months it seems equally possible that north korea is simply consumed with its
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internal leadership succession issues or possibly even simply responding to its dislike of the policies of south korea in recent times. and that has encouraged it to adopt a brash and defiant posture against external pressure. the greatest likelihood i suspect that ambassador was worth what degree is that there is some of all three of these involved. in the position they're taking. and some observers on the outside have concluded that the policy with north korea is essentially hopeless. i completely bluntly disagree with that as i am confident as ambassador bosworth does. it is an imperfect will but the lack is that even with north korea when we engaged in diplomacy, diplomacy paid some dividends and it could again in the future.
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so finally, there is a common assumption that north korea will sell anything to anyone. north korea -- north korea's export of nuclear technology to syria appears to prove that case but i believe and i think many share this and president included that it is worth testing whether a combination of all bilateral enforcement initiatives such as the proliferation security initiative combined with cooperative threat reduction efforts champion by senator lugar, that those could alter the north's conduct. as we test our assumptions and it's important that we do and examine our options, we have to consider not only who is at the table but also whether to attempt to reinvigorate six party talks launched bilateral negotiations or devise a new architecture. we also have to consider how to prior to rise the many issues that demand attention including nuclear proliferation, human rights, regional peace and
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security, economic development, and humanitarian concerns. i personally believe that we can get back to the six party talks, that we should get back to them, and i believe we will get back to them. i also believe that bilateral is an important route to simultaneously take knives and sulfur in the number of years. i look for to hearing from our witnesses on each of these questions and me say one quick word before passing to senator lugar -- i know i speak for every single member of this committee and for every american when we express how deeply concerned we are on a purely humanitarian basis and the basis of common sense and decency, deeply concerned we are for the fate of two american journalists who are under detention in north
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korea. we are offended by the severity and excess of the sentence which was pronounced on them and we hope that common sense is going to prevail and that north korea will see this not as an opportunity to further dig a hole but as an opportunity to open up and reach out of the world to suggest there is a better way to try to deal with all of these issues. we urge north korea to do what is right, we urge them to do properly, and unconditionally and to release those young women from custody. senator lugar can i thank you very much mr. chairman for holding this hearing to review the present situation in north korea. the recent provocative actions by north korea and that you have signed a are moving in that country toward even greater isolation. almost universally the international community has condemned the north korea's nuclear test, missile launches,
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detention of american reporters and bellicose remarks. there is wide speculation about the motivations for the north korea's behavior and some observers point to dynamics within north korea surrounding the eventual leadership transition of it chairman kim jong il. they suggested that an array of top security service officials and military leaders are positioning themselves in the transition entry by pressing for hard-line actions. and from threatening to shoot down aircraft to stop in the district -- distribution of american food aid by ngos and even the world food program. regardless of motivation north korea has been engaging in a new level of international provocation. it is urgent that the united states and its partners develop policies that are clear and consistent. and we should be willing to engage the north koreans must be greater certainty a provocative step by p'yongyang will result
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in unpredictable and meaningful consequences for the north korean regime my support a full review of the united states policy toward north secretary clinton has said that the administration is considering all options in responding to north carias latest actions and i look forward to hearing additional details about this review from our first witness today, ambassador bosworth. in a number of points should be considered by the administration as it develops a number three in strategy. did the lack of a strong unified and persistent response by china, russia, japan, south korea and the u.s. to test a provocative actions by north korea patrick into p'yongyang decision to proceed with the latest nuclear test? do north korean officials believe their country's relationship with the iran or syria will be permitted to develop without consequence of those relationships include a
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cooperation on weapons of mass destruction? what is the nature of the cargo in number three and planes and ships arriving in burma? which is sometimes a transit point for further global destinations. russia has been transparent in its cooperation with burma in the development of a nuclear reactor reportedly for medical research purposes. it is number three a contributing to the development of burma's nuclear program and if so in one way. what level of international cooperation exists to scrutinize north korea's global trading network and its potential proliferation routes? and can such cooperation be improved? is there a clear understanding of the efficacy and current status of agreements relating to the six party talks in the north korean nuclear program? in essence would any new negotiations be starting from square one? the united states and china have cooperated closely in the six
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party process about our priorities are not identical. with regard to north korea. while the united states is focus on eliminating north korea's nuclear weapons program, china's primary concern relates to regional stability. a point not lost on the north korean officials. given recent provocations have prospects for more concerted chinese actions been improved. facilitate the broadest possible basis moving ahead i encouraged the obama administration officials two actively consult with congress as they proceeded in developing a comprehensive north korea's strategy. i am joined with chairman kerry in welcoming our ambassador, nancy lindborg, and leon sigal today's hearing. we look for to there in size and hopefully their inspiration. thank you mr. chairman. >> thank you very much, senator lugar, as always they are
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thoughtful and important questions to ask and hopefully we will get the answers to in the course of the afternoon. let me say we do have two panels today and we will try to get everybody to hear at inappropriate manner. in victor cha is in the former asia director at the national security council and professor at georgetown university. evans riviera is the president of the three a society and former deputy assistant of east asian pacific affairs. if leon sigal is professor of social science research council in new york and author of disarming strategy is, of a agreed framework, and that nancy lindborg is president of mercy corps and work inside the north korea to help deliver food aid to women and children in many parts of the poorest parts of the country. they are greatly appreciated for their expertise being here and i just introduced ambassador
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bosworth, as many people know he is one of our most distinguished veterans of the diplomacy in the united states. served in many different posts. i had the pleasure and senator lugar did also way back -- way back in 1986. i were two recklessly with ambassador bosworth and senator lugar was then chair and worked very closely with him on the philippines and we had many meetings in many visits to the philippines as we transition to the democracy from the marcos regime and it was a really astounding transition. i will say again as i have said previously in public that we were lucky fortuitous to have an ambassador of his skill on the ground helping to move a complicated issues as attractively as he did. and it was an enormous privilege to work with them and i'm really
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impressed then and have sans. we are delighted you are back on the job. this is a region you know well. you are the right person for this job. and thank you for being with us. >> thank you mr. chairman. senator lugar, it's a pleasure to be here. i wish i had a more positive news to convey, but it is nonetheless i think very important that we be in the process of consulting with the congress particularly with this committee and others as we try to move forward. i will not repeat with the two of you have said with regard to the situation that we face and what has happened to bring this to the point we're at. i thank you have each summarized that a very completely in very accurately. and i think i was a however and i have submitted a statement written for the record and just to make a few comments on that -- i would note that the international community has in our judgment reached an important moment for the
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security of northeast asia. if north korea does not heeded the unanimous call of the international committee and return to negotiations, to achieve the irreversible dismantlement of their nuclear and ballistic missile capacity, the united states and our allies and partners in the region will need to take the necessary steps to ensure our security in the days of this growing threat. in the interest of all concerned, we very much hope that north korea will choose the path of diplomacy rather than confrontation. we are seriously and are two upon a four pronged strategy. regional consultation, you and in bilateral sanctions, defensive measures, and if north korea shows seriousness of purpose diplomatic engagement. first we are consulting with our allies and partners in asia. especially those who have been involved with us in recent years in the six party talks. president obama and secretary
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clinton have been in the forefront of this effort reaching out to leaders in japan and, south korea, china and russia conveying a desire for a strong and unified response to p'yongyang that it will suffer consequences if it does not reverse course. last week i participated in a mission to the region led by secretary of state, deputy secretary of state steinberg where we reiterated this point. i can say that our partners share our view that north korea's nuclear and missile threats is a challenge to the international order and a hindrance to lasting stability in northeast asia that must be addressed. we found that our asian partners agree that north korea's provocative behavior is changing the security situation in northeast asia. and we agreed to take coordinated steps to get north korea to reverse its lead as provocative stops here and china
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obviously has an impartial role to play in influencing the path north korea follows. on our recent trip we find that china shared a deep concern about north korea's recent actions and a strong commitment to achieve denuclearization. our challenge now is to work with china to turn a back commitment to effective implementation of the u. n. security council resolutions. second we are responding to north korea's actions with new measures designed to raise the cost to north korea of going down this dangerous path. we are working with other security council measures -- members on a range of measures to prevent north korea from engaging in the proliferation of nuclear weapons. and nuclear technologies and to try of the funding for its nuclear and missile related entities and other companies. third, we are in conjunction
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with our allies taking prudent steps to implement defense of measures aimed at enhancing our military capacity and our extended deterrence in the region. on our recent mission we began to outline a future plan of responses and defensive measures that the united states and its allies will take should north korea refused to adjust course and should it continue to implement its it announced plans for provocative behavior including future misfile or nuclear tests. we are committed to do what is necessary to protect the american people and to honor our commitments to our treaty allies. fourth, and are from last, we remain willing to engage north korea to resolve our differences through diplomacy. a central tenet of the obama administration's approach to foreign policy has been a willingness to engage in dialogue with those with whom we
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have had differences. sometimes a very serious differences. from the beginning this has been the approach we have pursued with north korea, but so far north korea has not responded in kind on a recent trip we made clear that the united states remains open to bilateral dialogue with north korea in conjunction with the multilateral effort to achieve the denuclearization of the korean peninsula. if we as we have stated repeatedly, the united states has no hostile and tend toward the people of north korea, nor are we a threatening to change the north korean regime into force. we remain committed to the september 2005 joint statement from the six party talks, the core goal of which is the verifiable in denuclearization of the korean peninsula through peaceful means. we believe it did before its
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north korea's own best interest to return to serious negotiations to pursue this goal. the united states position remains unchanged. we will not accept north korea as a nuclear weapon state. in in short, mr. chairman, diplomatic outreach will remain possible if north korea shows an interest in abiding by its international obligations and improving his relations with the outside world. if not, the speak -- to the united states will do it must to provide for our own security and that our allies. we will work with the international community to take defensive measures and to bring pressure on north korea to abandon its nuclear and missile programs. the choices for the future art north korea's. thank you again and for inviting me to testify today. before i respond to any questions you might have i would like to mtion an important
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humanitarian matter that is unrelated to the political and security issues i have just addressed. and the conviction and sentencing this past monday at two american journalists in p'yongyang. as secretary clinton has said, we appeal to north korean authorities on humanitarian grounds to release these two women and return them to their families. do to privacy act considerations i am not able to answer questions about our detain citizens in this public hearing, but the department of state and the secretary of state appreciates in the interest we have received by members of congress. i can assure you we are pursuing every possible approach in order to persuade the north koreans to release and send these women home. thank you very much mr. chairman and i look forward to the questions of the committee can i thank you very much. >> mr. chairman, will there be an opportunity for the committee to be briefed in executive session with regard to the two
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detainees? >> absolutely, i think the easiest thing would be if you want to get on the telephone and call secretary steinberg i am confident you'll get your briefing or call the ambassador outside of this proceeding and he would be happy to brief you. >> certainly. >> thanks. >> i see we have a boat that has started. what i think we will do, senator, if you are willing, i will ask if you run over and vote you can get back here and that we not interrupt the proceedings. thank you. mr. ambassador, you used appropriately strong language and i want to see if we can flush this out a little bit. you talk about consequences. you talk about the challenge to order. you talked about how this must
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be addressed. you talked about how these are provocative steps several times using the word provocative steps. you said that they must reverse their actions and our policy is a verifiable it denuclearization so i thank you have been very clear about how we react to this and what our goal is, but i want to try to understand a little better what the range of consequences. and what is coming together? maybe you can even share with us some framework of these discussions in new york and give the committee and those listening a sense of what we are anticipating. >> i will certainly be happy to try, mr. chairman. with regard to the discussions in new york as you can appreciate this has been a primary focus of our efforts. the security council is now considering a new resolution
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that if adopted would impose unprecedented new measures which two address the threat posed by the dprk missile and nuclear proliferation activities and to compel that country to commit itself to political dialogue in denuclearize asian. these measures will give the international community some new tools to work with on the problem of a north korea. it would include adopted first a total ban on arms exports and a major expansion of the ban on arms imports. new financial sanctions to limit the ability of this dprk to fund its wmd and ballistic missile related activities. enhanced inspection act provisions for ships suspected of carrying prescribed goods such as weapons of mass destruction or ballistic missile
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parts. designation of new entities and goods for sanctions. and with than in the u. n. security council itself, improved mechanisms for monitoring the implementation of these sanctions which i think is very important. and so that is i think outlining a range of the actions that would take place, will take place and from which an order to retain -- obtain relief the north koreans will have to begin to comply with the earlier commitments and obligations. >> and if they don't? >> these measures won't go forward. as i stressed our strong preference is to engage in serious of active diplomacy with north korea and this is not something that the united states is doing on a unilateral basis. we are acting very much in concert with our two treaty allies, japan and the republic of south korea, and in conce


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