tv Today in Washington CSPAN June 1, 2010 2:00am-6:00am EDT
in a significant way. we co-host the ceremonies with many dignitaries from the national park service. and now we would like to welcome john helped sector -- the whole sector p --hilzetger. . on 3 on behalf of the national park service and the staff and volunteers of the nationalemorial parks, it is my pleasure to welcome you to the vietnam veterans more apparent the national park ntains some of the oldest monunts and the national park service. they promote unity and remembrance, and giving us a way to recognize those who served and those who continued to serve our naon. the more and now there's 58,267 names of men and women who died or who were named missing in action.
i extend a special welcome to the families and friends of the six servemen whose names of recently been added to the wall. we come to honor those who have served in the united states armed forces. as a more consistent four different -- different parks -- the wall behind me, the three servicemen statute, the "in memory" plight, and the vietnam veteran women's more. the three servicemen statue is undergoing restoration to restore the original patina of the statute. as he said, during this restoration period, it will be visible through the large full wing -- full length window. the vietnam veterans memorial fund and the national park service are partners in this product and we will continue to work together to preserve all four parts of th moral so that they may stand here symbols of the service and sacrifice of our natioo's vietnam veterans for generations -- for generations to come. we're humble stewards of this
moral and we are honored to serve the public and the memory of our nation's veterans. thank you. [applause] >> i am sure everyone has had many opportunities to visit the vietnam veterans memorial. i am pleased to have a fellow veteran of that war, diane, here today. she actually served inietnam in 1968 and 1969. light is in shaman, diane evans. -- ladies and gentlemen, and diane evans. >> the greatest gift we can give to those who died in service of our country or died as a result of their wounds many years later
is to give their filies, spouses, loved ones, and friends our comfort and are grieving, support in their work recovery, and faith and hope in real possibilities. d yet another get is using another in learning the lessons of their untimely death to never again deny honor and compassion for churning -- our current generation of courageous military men and women. [applause] the vietnam veterans memorial foundation was created in 1984 in river falls, wisconsin where i waliving at the time. yay, wisconsin. we have been incorporated since 1984 and we have dedicated a monument in 1993. what we do now is support and
aid in their dealing, praise the memory of the impact of war on women, to find a way for the vietnam veterans to reach out, and support them in their journey of recovery. we're privileged to have one of these women today as our honored speaker. hi saw this woman on the internet. she was an air force active duty nurse and she was talking about her posttraumatic stress disorder. all shocked. i was stunned that an active duty working military nurse but actually talk about their emotional ones publicly where people on the internet by the millions would learn about this brave woman. i was touched by her honesty.
we take care of the emotional needs in the same way we take care of the physical ones. we're very proud of this air force nurse as we are all our military women. please welcome lieutenant conel mary carlisle. [applause] shias the chief nurse of educion and training at bolling air force base. she was born and raised in ohio. she has -- received -- she received her bachelor of science in 1988 and a masters of science in nursing from the university of maryland-baltimore in 19993 she s promoted to second lieutenant in 1989 anhas held numerous leadership positions in critical care, ambulatory
surgery, and primary studies. she has done it all. she is nastily asserted that as a critical careegistered nurse and a clinical care registered nurse specialist. she was in an expeditionary nursing support unit during operation enduring freedom, and for the air force theater in response of iraqi freedom in 2007. her proud family and friends reside in ohio. [applause] >> thank you, diane. like so many of you, i served overseas far from home. i'd deployed out iraq in 2007, and cared for our wounded who fought so bravely and i
fought to save them as their bodies lay broken amid the chaos of war. while we saw many fight for their lives and received a purple heart, we sang "amazing grace" and cried as others slipped away. i care for young man who suffered ones that would take his life. in his face, i saw all the brave warriors to fought in defense of our nation. i made sure he was not in pain and he was not alone as he took his last breath. he died a hero, as did all that passed before him and all those who will pass after him, and we honored him as we do all the fallen angels by saluting him on his journey home. i think about those in our war
who lost their names yet to be engraved, like those great heroesn the wall behind me, once a living, breathing souls forever more allies, never forgotten. so many of them who gave the ultimate sacrifice were women, serving proudly to in the past rarely got the recognition they deserved. thankfully to tape we honor all the brave women of all the brave forces, especially the tusands ofomen who are vieam veterans. theevietnam women's memorial touches me the most. the first time i saw it, i said, this is magnificent. to me, those women were real. i often wondered if i would never experienced what they were experiencing in that moment in time. during my deployment, i became
each one of those women at different times. was theoman kneeling, looking down, defeated, holding the helmet that will never be won again. i was the woman cradling the wounded warrior, fighting with everything i had to save his life. and i was the woman gazing skyward, wrapped in the arm of my colleagues, anticipating whatever was to come. i returned home one did, only my ones like so many of yours were invisible. i drifted away from reason and became absorber and distracted by what is and why. i sought solace here on the national mall where every day as memorial day, honoring the brave veterans of all our nation's wars. ince again study the faces of
those brave women and this time in their eyes i saw strength and i saw a determination and i saw hope. this te they lifted me. i found the courage to see how from my wounds and my head trauma, and is knowing tt we did the best that we could and the fallen angels were not lost in vain and america's freedom still reigns. my sisters and brothers who served before me, especially the vietnam veterans, you were my inspiration in the darkest of nights so far from home. you are with me as i cared for when did and you kept me from spiraling into a deepening despair. i know you still suffer invisible wounds and mourn tremendous losses. police know if you do not need to suffer in silence and you are not alone. i cherish you and america
embraces you. you are my heroes. but but you should proudly tell your stories, and in your honor, i hope to inspire my generation of veterans to erase the stigma of an amending they cannot do it alone and to find the courage to get the help that they need for their hidden wnds. i hope today makes a difference for all of you. thank you and god bless you. [applause] >> we really appreciate those inspiring words, and she will soon be deployed to a military hospital in asia -- actually in
japan. she will be supervising 85 people who are helping keep our service members in good health. they are in good hands with people like that running a dical services. i just want to briefly share some appreciation to some of the great people who are here. we would like everyone from the gold star mothers and goldstar wives to stand up. we have the president of the gold star mothers here and the president of the gold star wives. [applause] thank you. i wanted to thank the people with sons and daughters in touch. we have their parents on more. the american legion, we want to thank them. amvets, a jewish war veterans,
noncommissioned officers association, paralyzed veterans, vietnam veterans of america, and we want to thank our board members. many longtime friends are here, general george price, bill cooper, and others. there is a commercial message here. basedechnologies gave but the nation allowing us to film the ceremony and airing at lie. if everyone wants see of later, they can see it on our web site. they're great people to give us the prisoner of war and american flags here that we all have. they give them out for the
special events. and speaking of thanks, we all owe our thanks to a vietnam veteran named blaine jackson. who is doing jackson? you will rememr him right away because during times square, when a terrorist attack was being attempted, duane jackson was fair, and when he saw the smoking vehicle, he immediately called the police. he is no stranger. he was there on 9/11 and saw the aircraft hit the world trade center and was very much affected by it. he is a graduate of boston university. a fine human being, and he will receive the patriot award from the vietnam veterans memorial
fund, and we will ask admiral mullen and i to hold it as we get a tooth dwanye -- as we get it -- give it to dwayne jackson. [plause] >> good afternoon, fellow veterans, and the many friends of veterans. freedom is not free freedom is not free. we have our man in women overseas today -- our men and women overseas today for our
freedoms. i want to take a moment to reflect about my mother who was a wac in world war ii. [applause] fort bragg, 1941 -- although she is not with me here today, i know she is looking down and saying, thank you, dwanye, thank you america for what we hold dear andur country today. what i did that day was nothing unusual. i saw something, i said something, andfortately i am here today to talk about it. [applause] we dodged a bullet that day, may 1, many people from the new york
ty police department and the fire department. new york has been ground zero for theast 10 or 15 years. unfortunately there -- i was there in 1993 when that raj bomb went off. i was there on 9/11 to witness that. but we have to be ever vigilant wherever we are in our country because you never know. i say to young people out there, whether you are in middle school, high school, whatever, be vigilant and aware of your surroundings, even on a small smlest of events. we have to keep that up frt. i tell my son all the time who is a high school student that yomust be aware, keep your eyes and ears open. this whole incident has actually brought our family closer togetr. my wife, linda, my daughter,
tiffany, w could not make it here today, you just do not take things for granted anymore. you look deeper into our everyday existence as hav i like to pay jan -- thank chant for having me here and the vietnam veterans memorial fund. i like to give you all little memento. i am in new york city street vendor at the corner of 45th and broadway. [applause] old-fashioned american capitalism at work. to jan, i like to present this t-shirt. if you see something, say something. [laughter] [applause] the thank you for having me.
god bless america. [applause] >> when we go to new york, we have to drive by and get one of these. is is a really cool t-shirt. i am looking forward to wearing it. well, we have with us today brianna hakahane, who first picked up the violin at the age of three, she appeared on the cbs evening news, the ellen degeneres show, she has travelled and intercurrent -- entertained and moved people in very significant ways. some of the notes and the rhythms she is able to reach with this instrument, the violin, will really touch your soul.
like it. to introduce our keynote speaker, one of the great military leaders of our time is general barry caffrey. he served with distinction in vietnam in several tours there. upon his retirement from active duty, he was the most decorated fo-star general in the military. he is the chairman of the board of the education cent at a wall. -- at the wall. we're very honored to have him help us spearhead the project all along with the national park service, and so we thank general mccaffrey for his leadership. and he will be introducing our keynote address. [applause] >> thank you for your own
leadership and the volunteers and the very small staff, a liberal is of -- hundreds of people, incding our chairman, who pulled together not just this beautiful memorial but the traveling wall, bial -- activities, coupled around the leadership. i'm very honored to introduce the keynote speaker admiral mike mullen. we are here on -- to honor 58,000 killed, over 300,000 wounded, and 3.5 million of us to serve, now the biggest surviving group of veteran. admiral mullen has had a long and distinguished career with the armed forces. it is now the chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. he is the senior military officer in the armed forces. he is by law the principle of pfizer and -- to the commander-
in-chief and the secretary of defense. react -- three months after we got out of the west point, he participated in duty off the coast of vietnam. during the course of his career he served on six other warships, three as commanding officer. as an admiral, he commanded the u.s.s. george washington strike force and the second fleet. he served in the navy staff and also the staff of the secretary of defense. he obtained them master of science degree in monterey, calif., and also graduated from the advanced management program at the harvard business school. heserved as vice chief of naval operations 3 he served as commander of nato joint forces and also was commander of u.s. naval forces-your during which he was a lot -- he was leading
the peacekeeping operations in the baltics and its training mission in iraq. he also served as the chief of naval operations in thtop uniformed leader. he is also, he and bob gates, the superb secretary of defense, are weren't -- running a war against terror globally 3 46,000 our young men and women have been killed in action or wounded fighting in this conflict. we are very fortunate to have mike mullen serving the men and women of the department of defense. he is joined by his wife who has also devoted much of her time to advancing a host of samlet support initiatives. when you see admiral mullen in tv or in person, you're looking at our friend of the vietnam
combat veteran. join me in welcoming admiral mullen. >> thank you, barry, for that very kind introduction. by deborah and i came over here this afternoon. we came from section 60, which is where many of those who have died in iraq and afghanistan are buried, and their families -- many of their families are there today. but i am alsoeminded when i walk through 60 how many viet nam veterans are buried there. when we come to this hallowed ground, in ways it is like coming home. i'd too have friends on wall.
and i am particularly grateful for the leadership of individuals like bar mccaffrey and jan scruggs, who have put so much of their time and effo, particularly gen. asbury was pointing out to me, he has devoted his life to vietnam war, the proper recognition, and from our generation i am extremely grateful. and your efforts in ways that you do not know have provided a backdrop for me,because vietnam was my first war has we prosecute the war is that we are in right now. and as was not the case in vietnam in the late 1960's, when the american people turned against the military, when in
fact the american people are so incredibly supportive of our military men and women now. and think a lot of that -- [applause] and a lot of that task to do with changes and focus on what we did wrong during vietnam and what we are able to do because of those lessons, do right now. i would also like to specifically ask and cynical right -- single out all of vietnam veterans who are here and ask you to stand up. [applause] this gathering and this ceremony
is a fitting way it for this nation in its ninth consecutive year of war to reflect on the debthat we owe those who have fallen in the defense of our nation. over 3 million americans served in vietnam. 58,000 paid the ulmate sacrifice and their nas are etched here in this polished black stone. seemingly in infinite number, and never that continues to grow. today we welcome and embrace the six families who will soon read the names of their loved ones just added to the wall. has your loved ones not join their brothers and sisters, we hope this day helps to bring you closure and peace. throughout our nation's history, america's sons and daughters, the best we have to offer, have fought and died for the rest of us. the vietnam conflict was a light
defining experience for every american who lived during that era, and it continues to impact us all, the pain, the conflict, the healing, the lessons we learned in vietnam what had a very great price. and i believe acting on them is the best tribute we can pay to honor those who died. in fact, i believe the impact of the vietnam war is also significantly by our children and by their children. and is a call to ensure that we act on the challenges that are still out there. during that time as the country, we were unable to celebrate-- separate politics from the people. it was my first or and i swore i would do everything i could to keep all americans, the military
and the public, in touch with one of the other and i did that not having any idea that i would ever have the privilege of serving in the job in which i servday. we must never allow america to become disconnected from her military, never. never allow all walt to stand between citizens and those who wear the cloth of our nation. that is why i believe this site, this wall, is so special. rather than separating us, this old finds us together as a nation. it has become common in the worlds of -- words of general mccaffrey, a national place of healing. jan scruggs began this effort with three people and $2,800 of his own money. and for some of us that
remember, $2,800 back then was a lot of money. he wound up creating a movement that altered but the physical landscape here the mall and the psychological landscape of our nation. jan, your journey has helped heal a generation and we can never thank you enough. and startling contrast in the days of my youth and in ways i never imagined possible, the american people are fully behind our men and women in uniform, and their families. i am convinced that the lessons we learned from vietnam, the lessons of vietnam veterans have taught us, have played a big part of in this. it is taken many years for america to try to set things right for vietnam veterans and their families, and yet many task remain undone. many wounds remain unhealed.
indeed today we are striving to meet their needs and to field looks visible and invisible ones for our afghanistan and iraq war veterans and their families. i truly believe that staying connected is the first out to healing the wounds. in my mind, one of the best ways we can strengthen this connection, cement this bond, is to listen and learn from our vietnam veterans. bettors like decorated marine corps veteran jack lyon, how posttraumatic stress coach who tes his young counterparts, you are all brothers but now you also have lots of locals here if anything ces up. whether it is coping with read or meant anxiety or suicidal thoughts, having an experiend saddle but you can turn to makes all the difference. my good friend and former
commandant who fought in vietn said every marine, every soldier he ever saw who was in combat suffered from post- traumatic stress. and i readily believe the same is true for today's ground forces. posttraumatic stress is one of our signature wounds. so i encourage all vietnam vets, the uncles and aunts at large in particular to reach out to our young warriors to help remove the stigma associated with seeking help for posttraumatic combat stress. just like those young marines are lucky to have jack, and i hope many others, looking out for them, on may 1 we were all lucky another vietnam veteran was lookingd out for waswanye jackson, on entrepreneurship 4210 broadway, and citizen of
the great city of new york. dwanye, thank you for all you are doing in your willingness to get involved when it really mattered. across the country every day, so many vietnam vets are leading and teaching by example, lending a sympathetic ear, running non- profit organizations, even refining are taxes. one person conducted more than 300 river patrols. he helps today's bevy revise its laws capability in order to mee a new mission, iraqi security training on tt country's rivers and byways. has general abbas a once widely notice, the military never gets
to choose the kind of wars that its fight. but jack, wayne, and so many bet on veterans had chose to serve the new generations. it often takes more than one generation to overcome the nation's greatest chaenge. and so it is with today's wars. as a new generation has learned, some of the tussle is less -- applies some of the toughest lessons we learned in vietnam, patience and practice as some -- and pragmatism, learning skills sharp and in vietnam, so many are relevant to today's effort. we know we stand on the -- with dependent children of vietnam veterans as they give all they can to provide their children, our grandchildren, a safer world. so is veterans of all generations, separate yet similar, gathered today to commemorate the fallen, to
remember those on this wall, let us honor their legacy by learning from them, listening to one another, andtay connected in the future. on behalf of the more than 2 million members of the united stes armedforces, they you all. may god bless our men and women in uniform, their families, our vietnam veterans, and the united states of america. thank you. [applause] >> at this time we would like to and knowledge the family members of the service men whose names were recently added to the wl. there's some on the dias behind me. what we will like to do is ask a
of mine. that was his son reading his name. he spent a quite a while and afghanistan recently. he is very happy to be home. we will now begin the procession tohe wall. it will be accompanied by the playing of "amazing grace" on the bagpipes. accompanying him on by a land will be brianna kahane. i will tell you the names of the organization's placing wreaths at the memorial, which are now
seventh caller -- seventh cavalry, the battalion. the 25th infantry division. the first marine aircraft wing. the association of the 27th infantry. the vietnam veterans motorcycle club. scottish american military society. second brigade motorcycle club. the vietnam veterans memorial wall trip commission. ladies and gentlemen, at this time, i would ask staff sgt of
>> here is what is ahead on c- span. what would and bernstein will talk about watergate, and then leigh touhy and william lowry, one of the first african- american graduates -- and then bial, runner of the [inaudible] join us when we welcome the north korea policy coordinator, wendy sherman. then, tucker and griswold talk about the free-trade agreement. and then gordano of the bankruptcy institute joins us. also, a look at the city of new orleans in the wake of the oil spill in the gulf of new mexico.
the coverage gets underway at 1:00 eastern on c-span 2. is government broken? the brookings institution will have a panel discussion tomorrow and they will look at current challenges and talk about the ways to strengthen democracy. this will be under way at 1:00 eastern, on c-span. >> this weekend, and noted feminist author -- he has written or contributed to more than 20 books of liberal education and sexism, and legal justice. join us on "in depth" on c-span 2. >> woodward and bernstein talk about watergate and the state of
journalism. in june, 1972, they began investigating the watergate break -- watergate break-in, and the connection to the nixon administration. this is about one hour, 10 minutes. >> we have gotten this out of the way. i think that the best thing that we can do, given what people seem to be asking us, lately, particularly about could this happen again? could there be another story about watergate? we have to talk about what we did and what happened. because, this is very anomalous, in terms of the way that journalism was working then, and the way that this is working right now. i happen to be in the office on
that day, on the 17th in 1972. or 18th, 1972. bo i was taken to the editor to work on the story. >> and this was a nice day, and this was a saturday. they say, who would be dumb enough to come in to work today. and my name immediately came to their lives. >> and i was already in the office. i was lat handing in another ece. that was a good story, obviously better than the piece i was rking on. >> you never got that he's done, did you? >> i think i did. anyway five men had been arrested in
the headquarters of the national democratic party, wearing rubber gloves. they found them in business suitand they found -- as the police report would have a -- $100 bills in sequence, as well as wiretapping equipment. so obviously this was a story not about your average burglary. >> and the approach we took was the police reporter happened. what happened? what can we find out? it was very incremental -- just some examples, another reporter found out from the police there
with these cryptic entries in the address books of two of the burglars. and howard hunt had been the director -- the operational director, and as carl and i looked at this, w house. and call said, this could only be one of two claims. -- two and things. [laughter] he said the whorehouse and i said the white house. >> the rest was history. >> this was our empirical approach. .
we were looking at the clues and the building sources, and the clue was, the money. where did this come from and who was approving this? we did this in september of 1972, one of the most important stories that we did, showing that john mitchell, who had been the attorney general for richard nixon, that he controlled to this secret funding of at least $700,000 in cash that was kept in a safe. you have the same thing here, with $700,000?
>> i wish that we had this. >> the important thing is to start with the premise that we have the advantage of not being national political reporters. and at the time, there was the common belief in washington -- and that there existed this perfect, well that there was white house machinery that was incapable of mistakes. and then, here was this -- logic, particularly after we had found the money, we had traced some of the money to the committee for the reelection of president nixon, logic would tell you this has something to do with the white house. get the conventional belief,
including among our fellow reporters, both at the "washington post" and the national staff and the town and general, there were about 2500 national reporters at that time -- >> many people called it the watergate caper. like it was kind of a joke. >> it made no sense at first. george mcgovern was going to be the democratic nominee for president. there were certain extent would beat him. why would any campaign chicanery go on. in september, we were able to establish that the predent's campaign manager and former attorney general of the united states had controlled the secret fund, paid for the bog at watergate and other undercover activities against the democrats. washington was a different place then. you could make a phone call and
it john mitchell on the telephone. i have a phone number for him. i thought i could get him. on that occasion, the white house, as it had throuout the first weeks after the break-in, had made our conduct rather it in the conduct of the president and his men. the president and others would get up and attack us at the washington post for making up fiction and having any political agenda. they did it on this occasion, too. we wrote the story that said mitchell controlled of this fund. i called mitchell and said we have a story -- >> you got him, he was asleep. >> he said what time is it? i said 11:00. he said 11:00 when? i said at night.
he may have had a pop or two. i said we have a story a would like to read to you. i began reading. john mitchell while attorney general of the united states controlled a secret fund. he said jesus. i read a few more words by which time it said john mitchell well attorney-general controlled a secret fund and paid for undercover activities against the polical opposition. i got that far and he said je sus. i got to the end of the third paragraph by the time the draft was clear, he said jesus christ. you are going to print that crap?
if you run that, then a person from the washington post is going to get her tit caught in a big effect render. i was not accustomed to talking to an attorney general. i jumpedack from the phone myself because of fear of my own parts because this can certainly have the power to squeeze them. he went on to say when this campaign is over, we are going to do a little story on you boys, too. in retrospect, it is an amusing story, but i was 28 years old at the time. it was about the most chilling time in my 50 years of journalism that i ever experienced. this was a man of enormous power and the threat was real. i believe to this thrt in terms of being intimidating.
i called ben bradlee, the editor of "the washington post" to tell them what happened and he said mitchell really said that? i said yes. and you have it in your notes? he said put it all in the paper except for the tit. [laughter] >> i think the language was leave out the tit. [laughter] >> that is what we did. mrs. gramm came up to my desk. i would not used to seeing her. she said to you have any mor messages for me? [laughter] it was also just before that story that when we had the information about mitchell and we started to understand about the money and how it went for more than just the balking at
watergate, a couple days earlier, we were discussing how to write this story. weet at a vending machine room off of the newsroom floor. i felt this chill go down my spine, literally. it is the only time i really felt a chill. >> and john mitchell jumped out of the vending machine. [laughter] >> i saidh, my god, this president is coburn to be impeached. this is about eight weeks after the break-in. you said you are right. i do not know where it came from. woodward said we can never use that word impeachment around this newsroom, lest anybody
think we have some sort of agenda. awe of that moment stays with me. one of the reasons is, and bob can talk about this, watergate was noa keeper. it was about a fundamental attempt by the president of the united states to misused and used the constitution, obstruct justice, and more than anything, to try to undermine the very electoral process of our government. >> this is the important part. there were dirty tricks. there were all kinds of things aimed at the democrats who were going to run against nixon and they wanted what they perceived, i think accurately, they wanted the democratic nominee to be george mcgovern. they really went after senator muskie who w the front runner
and spied on him. they had 50 spies out in the campaigns writing false press releases. they literally hadhe gas fort senator muskie's chauffeur who would drive him around and bring documents from his senate office over to his campaign headquarters. there were so many documents at the nixon campaign wanted copies of the chauffeur called and said rented an apartment full-ti and bought a xerox machine and in trips between but photographed documents for the nixon campaign so they knew about speeches, strategic plans, personnel shakeups, and everything. if you were to list the things they did to him, they threw him
off the raill by getting the weaker candidate. if you really look at it, they tamped with everybody's vote by saying this was not just something done, have fun, or it was not just dirty tricks. it was a strategic plan aimed at giving the weakest nominee and they did it. >> it is hard to imagine how different that time is and yet, we are asked continually, could this story happen again? my answer always is could reporters do this story again? absolutely. really what good reporting is is
the best obtainable version of the truth. it is a very simple phrase and a complex process but the basic element of the process are really knocking on doors. is really about the reporter's going toothe sources. very ear in the game, we got a hold of a list of the employees of president nixon's reelection committee. it was a couple hundred people. it was treated almost like a classified document. it had their phone numbers, their room numbers, and we were able by transposing the phone numbers and the room numbers and the names to almost make a chart of who worked for home and we went out at night, we knocked on doors and tried to see these
people and their homes. one of the first things that happened is we encountered their fear. they told us more than many of them were telling us with their information that something momentous was here. >> what is interesting is we were gathering facts, supported by the editors at the post, sh had a lot on the line. what is really important to understand is the institution of "the washington post." some truly independent newspaper and voice. we could have found out these things and editors and publisher could have said we are not calling to publish this. they said that we have this
responsibility. they are really turned us loose and we were able to work full- time on this. very unusual for to particularly young reporters like ourselves. i remember in january of 1973, we had written all of these stories essentially saying there is a major criminal conspiracy being run and conducted in the nixon white house. this was not believed to a level that i think we did not it knowledge between oselves. over on the national staff, people were kind of looking at us as some kind of kooks. >> telling the editor of the paper that he should assign this story to the national political reporters because real were endangering the future of the newspaper. >> catherine graham back to us
and ask for lunch. i remember this much. we knew her a little bit. not very well. this is really an important management story. shelew my mind and with the question she asked about watergate. she had read everything we had written. she knew henry kissinger who was the national security adviser for nixon. e even read something the "chicago tribune." i wonder what she was reading the damn hicago tribune." nobody does and wash -- nobody does in chicago. she was sweeping all of this in. i was really stunn and later we described it as this capacity to manage mind on, hands off.
intellectually involved but not telling us how to report or at it. at the end, she had the killer question. like a good ceo, which is when is the whole story going to come ou when do we find out the whole truth? i said that we felt very strongly that the burglars were being paid, criminal conspiracy, they come are -- the compartmentalized information. people were frightened, truly fearful to talk to us about this. answer was never. she had this really awful to go probably never. >> i said never. she looked at me with a pained look on her face and said never?
do not tell me never. i left lunch in motivated employees. [laughter] it was not a threat. it was a statement of purpose. what she saids used all of your resources. or have an obligation to journalism, to ourselves, but it goes beyond that. if we have a truly, as we believed, a criminal conspiracy being run out of the white house, we have to validate that. we have to get the full story. what is important about that for a newspaper, or any organization, what business are you in? she realized the business we are
in is really digging and digging to the bottom of things. not kind of just printing the daily press release. that support that added, that fortitude, quite frankly, that was the x factor. >> i think this gets to where we are today perhaps in some ways. i went to work 50 years ago this year. i spent the first four years at the washington star which was also a great newspaper. this notion of the best obtainable version of th truth really being what we do, what we are about, we have comics. but everything goes into this idea of we are trying to look at the world in countries around us, the community and described
it in terms of what is reay going on. that is our responsibility and there is public trust that comes with that. i do not want to be nostalgic about another age. great journalism is the exception, not the rule. sometimes even good journalism might be the exception. this notion of what newspapers and what the press was about, there was an element commonly believed about our basic function. >> i think it is there. the problem is the business model. newspapers are not making money. >> >> i would argue with you on that. i think it is there in much less regard because in fact, while newspapers were still making 19% of the margin of profit four years ago, i think that was
still the average. >> even four years ago, i think we have lost chains accumulated more and more newspapers. the best obtainable version of the truth became less and less the ideal in our business. happily, we have had several newspapers, where that has remained the case. those newspapers in many regards are better than they were at the time of watergate. >> sir you agree with me? >> never. when it came, but theixon people then did was the
washington post had just become a public company. the nixon white house made it clear that if we pursued this story any further and continued to do this kind of reporting, that it intended, the white house, to see that the television licence which was the econic life blood of the country -- of the comny would be revoked by the sec. the response to that was we are going to continue doing what we do and when our records were subpoenaed by the re-election committee and a lawsuit, mrs. graham to us i am going to take possession of your notes. >> can you see the picture of furred getting out for limousine going into the d.c. jail?
the point is, she was willing to take the responsibility for the institution. does that suation exist today? i think much less so. i think also we have a media environment in which we are losing to some extent because of the pressure of speed, manufactured controversy, gossip, the web partly, which i think is a great reporting platform b we also need as removed to these platforms to bring to them the standards of the desk of the old journalism. >> very quickly in rebuttal, i am saying they're very good examples of journalism and the spirit is there. if you -- if you used to have a
staff of 200 and you now have a staff of 100 which is what happens to a lot of newspapers, they cannot do the digging and in-depth reporting but i think the vitality is their and my argument is that the people on the business side need to find that business model and things will get better. but i agree with you, there is not enough of this andhe culture of impatience and speed. >> we have set a tone here that will now enable you to go at us. >> our guest will be pleased to take your questions. if you have a question, we ask you to come to a microphone so that everybody can hear. who would like t ask the first question? if you do not get up at the microphone, i will go ask carl a question. >> it might happen.
>> somebody has to go first. i guess i will. in the movie "all the president's men" there's a scene when the editor shouted across the room woodstein. is that true? >> yes. >> thank you. >> that was a no-brainer [laughter] editor who did not like what we were doing for a long time used to call as the gold dust twins. i am not sure what that meant. >> with 40,000 journalists being laid off this past year alone, what d.c. the future of journalism being? >> what was the first part? >> 40,000 journalists have been laid off in the past year. >> 40,000 journalists have been laid off at traditional
journalistic institutions. my guess their air that many more that call themselves journalists who are doing work on the web. by think that we are in a new era in which there is movement all over the place. i think some of the great journalistic institutions are going to persevere and put out most of their product on t web. but let me ask a question here. of those of you who are students, how many get most of your news from the web? d of those of you who are students, how many of y read a daily newspaper in newspaper form? there is part of the answer to your question. >> a statement first.
my firm belief is that this country will never say you're likes again. that may be pessimistic in nature but it leads into my question. in a country that is concerned about whether the president of the united states is a citizen, is there room for investigative journalism that makes any sense any more? we have people that no longer to concentrate on the importance of being american citizens and the essence of being americans. where are your forces? the only investigative reporter i can think of today, and he is a force in the wilderness. he comes up with things and nobody cares. >> i disagree with your characterization. here is why. >> i think there is no question
that we have had, particularly in the last 20 yearsa dumbing down of our political culture to some extent and also of our culture in general. particularly of our media culture. the idea that we have been uninterrupted, a nation in which the service during -- the are handed the paradigm, i am not sure what we are seeing is anomalous. that there has always been a tendency in our politics whether we're talking about power moved between left and right, and also, i think great journalism
that has always been the exception. even good journalism has been somewhat of an exception. i think we get a bit too nostalgic about a golden age. my question is, if you remember when we had done the preponderant of our reporting, nobody in this country paid much attention to it. the information was there to connect the nixon white house. >> he is going to disagree me. >> know. i would not digree with me. we asked the question and trying to recount some anecdotes from working on the watergate story, how do we go about it? it is empirical. still think there is a lot of empirical recording and it really is the key. i did four books on president
bush and his wars. i had the luxury to spend a year or to getting documentation, getting memos, beginning minute notes that would describe exactly what went on. for three of those books, bush allowed me to come and interview him for hours about what he did and how he made these decisions. i think it kind of got lost. some not my fault. the extent to which he and knowledge to, particularly in the last two years, the extent to which he became disengad from the presidency. let me just give you an example. and we published it in the post anin the last bush book because it shows something and i think it applies or may apply to
the presidency in general and that is the fatigue factor. you'd just get tired. when i interviewed bush for the last book, the big question was how did you decide on sending 30,000 troops with the surge in iraq? it was kind of the key strategic decision he made in the last two years on the iraq war. his national security adviser intervened, a very self effacing man, very unusual for him to intervene, he said that was worked out between me and the chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. you know what wtf means, do you not? where is the president? i turn to bush in this is what
he said. ok, i do not know that. wtf moment two. then, he said i am not at those meetings, you will be happy to hear. was just delighted. [laughter] why should the president bother himself? then he said i got other things to do. >> ride the bike. [laughter] right out of his own mouth. right out of his own mouth is an acknowledgement that he disengaged from the presidency. i think people to not want to deal with that. he is going out of office. he was leaving. when i interviewed him, he had seven nths more in the office.
kept looking around his chair to see if he had a suitcase packed. [laughter] he was out of there. i am trying to connect this to the point that there are a lot of ways to find out what really went on. this is out of the president's own mouth. people read it and asked if it was a confession. to a certain extent, it was. >> it is very revealing about the bush. i think in the answer to an important question that you jt raised, what happens when the knowledge is out there, as in this case, and the people of the country do not respond we think they ought to or the way that one might reasonably expect people to react to a group of
ciumstances or fax? the same thing happened in watergate is what i am getting at. there was no uprising against nixon until very late. there was, finally. i believe that really the last time that we saw the american system really worked was watergate. the press did its job. a great judge and the judiciary did his job and compelled some answers from these burglars. the congress of the united states did its job and initiated an investigation the psident of t campaign activities, including the president's watergate committee, congress then went on to have a house impeachment committee which
continued to investigate and the committee voted articles of impeachment against the president. the supreme court of the u.s., led by the chief justice appointed by the president of the united states, decided the president was not above the law and had to turn over his tapes to a special prosecutor and the president of the united states resigned with bipartisan impetus and desire for that to happen. that, i think, is a significant difference in terms of what we have today. i think our political system is not functioning -- >> what i am saying is i think that the idea that you could get a supreme court decision is questionable.
the tapes. i do not know. the notion that you would have impeachment proceedings and an investigation during the bush years, it seems toe, i am not suggesting that he should or should not have been impeached, but certainly there was cause for congressional oversight and investigation of how we had gone into this war and many of the things. >> having spent eight years of my lifen this, the problem with that is, the congress of the united states passed resolutions authorizing the iraq war 3-1 in the senate and house. how are they going to launch some sort of investigation or impeachment of bush for doing -- >> of the conduct of the war. i think there is plenty of room
for congressional investigation. >> what i think that we all know and see how the congress of the united states is hamstrung today in gridlock. >> >> with the internet and average and everyday people getting more of a voice and people turning to the internet for the news, the you think that journalism is being compromised at all by people getting news who are not necessarily trained or held accountable? with people blogging about the news were notined journalists, do you think journalism is being compromised.
>> do we think it is being compromised by people who are not trained? i do not. i think there is a different problem. we do not have enough news institutions, whether they are on the web or whether they are print, in which staff of journalists are encouraged to do the hard work of good reporting and knock on doors and be good listeners and go out in search of the best obtainable version of the truth. i think that is the problem and the web has made it a greater problem rather than a lser problem. at the same time, i think that there is far more information available today. it is a question of sorting it out on the web. you can do great things like you want to know about what is going
on in the middle east and you do not want to rely on american newspapers. you go to with the arab point of view is. it is a different environment. again, i think there is a tendency for nostalgia. somebody asked earlier about you did not used have rush limbaugh and this one are that one and all of these loud voices. i would say that in other areas, you had the trumpets of columnists that we have a continuation of a noisy politics. and a noisy and opinionated journalism. that conforms to some extent a process of commentary in this country that has been on going
through our history. >> it may be different now. next question. [laughter] >> i want to see why. my question is mostly geared toward mr. woodward. i have read many of the books you have written since watergate. can you tell me how you get these high-ranking officials to tell you things that could probably have them lose their jobs? >> a good question. the whole reason we're here today. we know it is not charm. we can eliminate that. i have time to work on these things. i can get the detail from somebody who took notes at a
national security council meeting. i can then talk to somebody else and fined them ve other people who were at the meeting. i would send bush and 20 pitch memos saying this is what i have found out. i would like to talk to u. my colleagues at the post, once said you sent george bush a 20 page memo. you are crazy. don't you know from his biography and all those years it yale, there is no evidence that he ever read anything that long? what makes you think he will start now? but he did. i spent hours to wiover with him and other people involved. this empirical method. i want to find out what happened i think another tenique that works is to take people as seriously as they take
themselves. to know who they are. if somebody has written a foreign affairs article 20 years ago, i will redid and ask the about it. i am working oa book on president obama which will be out in the fall which will have the exact kind of cinema verite of this is what happened in this is what people said. it is just reporting and knocking on doors at ght. i told the story earlier. when i was working on the last bush book, there was a general who would not talk to me. i sent e-mails, i left messages, nothing. i found out where he lived. in the old technique we would not on their door.
the best time is 8:18 at night. people have even if they are at home. they have not launched another activity. it is really psychologically the perfect time. i knocked on this general's do. he opened the door and looked at me and you know what he said? he said are you still doing this shit? [laughter] i nodded. you know what he did? come on in. why did he do that? i am serious about it. i wanted to understand his point of view. i thi there is a little bit of the secret sver mostin people in this auditorium. >> people tell the truth. reporters tend to be, andhi
is something that television made much worse, television reporting, where reporters come in through a microphone in front of your face and have an idea that their purpose is to manufacture controversy, not to learn what is actually happening. in fact, we need to be good listeners. that is the other thing. give people a chance to tell their story. our sources and watergate were not democrats opposed to richard nixon. there were people who worked for nixon and for most part believed him. if you afford people a certain respect. common sense goes a long way in being a reporter. figure out who the right people are to see. go see them and listen to them. next question. >> in one of my classes on campus, we were discussing the to review and how the white
house press corps had a deep- seated hatred for you because you broke the grid is story ever of the presidency of today. my question is how you rate currently the white house press corps? but the informing the voters or is it to scripted? >> it is a really hard job. carl has made this point. back ding watergate, they had this apparatus to keep us from talking to people and to defend, it is even a better and more professional group of pr people, spin doctors, who are there. you have to penetrate tt. ihink covering the white house daily is a job andhey have already and then to find a way to get behind the scenes -- behind-the-scenes is difficult for the course it is not just the white house press corps. certainly, the run up or
whatever you want to call it to the war was an awful moment for the american press with the w md story, missing it, and the most important thing we do as reporters as decide what is news. leading up to the war, i think we did a pretty teible job about deciding what is news. >> to confess, i knew as much as anyone about it and i fault myself mightily for not being more aggressive in asking the questions. carl talks about common sense. it was ingrained there are wmd's in iraq. people asserted i had some clues abouit. i agree with that. that does not mean the cia and white house did not screw up. >> there is a larger point here.
once the war started to go badly, i believe that the reporting on the bush presidency by a good number of reporters, partly by bob but reporting by the "new york times" and other news organizations, the reporting on the bush presidency, which was a highly secretive presidency,as an awful lot of mendacity. a real dislike for the press. it is almost everything we know for about the bush presidency is we know from the press. we do not note from congressional hearings. we do not kw from anything candid that the bush white house ever put out. we know it from the press. i think the reporting on the bush presidey after the first six months of the war is a pretty hon. history of
washington reporting. >> you mentioned there needs to be an adjusted business model. i am wondering what your thoughts are on what that might be. " how old are you? >> 22. >> i am 67. you figure it out. [laughter] it is your job. [applause] >> seriously. the people who did the google and facebook and so forth, it is the new generation. it is a big problem. i am counting on you. what is your name? >> meredith. >> go to it. [applause] you have your assignment. >> let me follow up on that. what advice would you have for somebody starting outn investigative reporting?
>> how old are you? >> we have talked about this. we do not think investigative reporting is a special category. it is in-depth reporting. it is reporting. go find in newspap or organization and did in and enjoy it. when you get on to something, whatever it is, do not let up. >> i have a question. how many people here voted for barack obama? how many voted for john mccain? how many of you are pleased with the job that obama is doing? how many of you would like to see a different precedent? -- president.
i am just curious. when know who we are talking with. [laughter] now we can pander a little more. [laughter] we should have asked that in the beginning. >> it is a great job being a journalist. you make money -- momentary entries into people's lives. guess what? you get to get out when they cease to be interesting. doctors, lawyers, you are stuck with the appendixes and pains. you go into a newsroom and i think this is one of the reasons we love the news, it is electric. what is going on? what is happening? what do we not know about it.
what is our approach and methods to find out? >> the most amazing moment of my life, i was 16 years old and i walked into a newsroom. i remember that to this day. i did not get the job. was going to apply for the job. i was a copy boy. the guy who gave me the tour and rer,was my perspective highe took me over to a cart or the newspapers had just come. he said take one. they were born from just having been printed. i will never forget that. >> it sounds almost sexual. [laughter] >> it almost was. >> the warm newspaper. >> coming on to your web site. next question. >> regarding the government's insistence on the good news
story regarding two wars in iraq and afghanistan, what is that doing to the governmentnd at large and our country and the state of journalism and why are in majority of the major news outlets buying into the good news story? >> what is the good news story? with that things are going well. >> i have not read that lately. >> i missed that. >> everyone's and while the president mighsay it but even he does not say. i think that in fact, especially of late, there are stories of afghanistan about how difficult this mission is and that right now in iraq, there is terrible internal strife. it is affecting the withdrawal of our own troops and we will
continue to withdraw despite the the courts and the economic conditions. just talk to the people a goldman sacks about the ability to sell a good news story. most of the news is pretty grim and i think people realize, certainly reporters. >> thank you for being here. >> i will say that we are nearing the end of the time so we will not take many more questions. >> i sort of think of you gentlemen is the lennon and mccartney of journalism. [laughter] >> somebody said the ham and egg. >> it seems to me from what i know about you that this sort have a creative tension along
the lines of london and mccurdy. i wonder about the political tension that came to bear when you were working on the watergate project and how you think that might have had a positive or negative impact on the work you did. >> good question. >> i think both of us would say today that team reporting and group reporting can produce results and give you an extra element that is pretty hard to beat. in our case, we asked this question for the first time a few minutes ago. if it had been two different people come up with the same results have occurred? i doubt it. maybe but i doubt it. things happen on our own time. particular circumstances. and our case, there is no
question in this time in place there is a remarkable synergy, what ever you want to call it. a complementary blending of skills, deficiencies, that everything worked right. >> we are dear friends. as you can see, there are still disagreements. did you notice? aughter] we come at things in a different way. >> which is terrific. >> at the beginning when we were working together, we would say what the is that? my reaction now is maybe that is right or let's look at it that way and so forth. >> a very early, i think each of us came to understand that the other had a different outlook on aspects of all kinds of
questions. but there was a real reason to respect both the outlook skills and the methodology of the other. we often switched roles. >> i can be honest about this. the had been a reporter not two years. >> three weeks, right? >> you landed your first job in the coolidge administration. [laughr] >> garfield, actually. >> i went to graduate journalism school. you taught me many things, metimes with a hammer and sometimes by example. in terms of the relationship, it
was what happened here? what is going on? if you look at that story just on the face, the mysteries compound themselves. we were in charge, as reporters, of explaining this. what really happened here? who caused this? what does it mean? that is why we loved it. we were both on married. carl had his warm newspaper to go home to read that. i had nobody to go home to at night. [laughter] we worked. >> i am just curious. and our current political culture where i opened the newspaper and read the entire series anything you were talking about with bush, i want to hide my head under a pillow. is it simply because you are woodward and bernstein did you do not just quit and hide your
head under the pillow? >> are you talking about %+formation -- i think there is terrific information out there. >> even with everything that has gone on in the political culture, i still want to think good things about our politics is all just that. -- just bad. >> i am going to turn this around on you. sarah palin is not the president of the yet states. -- of the united states. [applause] i would say maybe there's say half empty, half full think a win on here. obviously, i think there is reason to be really concerned about our political culture but also, you cannot divorce that
from our larger culture. you could not divorce our journalism and how we did and the way it is delivered to us from what else is on those platforms, whether on the web or reality television. we are part of a larger fabric. i think the answer to your question about your head under the pillow may have to do with concern about that larger fabric. i am concerned about that. i think that larger fabric, there is reason to be pessimistic about that larger fabric, more than i have ever thought. >> to more questions. >> mine is going to be a little more philosophical.
nobody has asked this yet about deep toat. >> we have a question from somebody and aristotle. it won't be more philosophical than that. [laughter] >> certain people came together at just the right time. like you were saying, the synergy worked. you had the right editor. you have the right owner. do you look back and think that deep throat and the way, did not know the whole story, that you knew him from theour, could you have broke it without him? do you think it was divine intervention it all came out? >> we had so many sources, you could write a thesishat he was important. you could write a thesis that he was not important.
i think we look back on its now and we are glad that he actually came forward and said that he was deep throat. that got answered in the history of this and it is one of those things were as soon as it came out, people said of course. that is logical. that is who it was. he did not give us primary data. talk about -- he was encouraging us. i think that was a very important. i think he was a source of comfort to the editors at the post that there was somebody senior in the justice department behind this. we certainly would have written what to get stories without him. . .
spending went up board. >> can i take two minutes to tell the store which we have not told until today? and that is -- we keep wanting to know the future, and in fact we do not we never get the future right. when that did the second story on bullish about how he decided to go to war -- on bush about how he decided to go to war in iraq? i asked him, how do you think history will judge the iraq war? and he takes his hands out and shrubs like only bush can and says, history? we will not know. we will all be dead. [laughter] >> and for it -- and with that we want thank you for having us. [applause]
>> i really knew that we weren't done. >> real quick -- that was the tension. we got to get you home to your war newspaper. [laughter] and so i go home and my wife asked me how was the interview, and i said he answered all the question but they're really good news is that i have the ending to the book. ending to books are hard to find. about a year later, 2005high was giving a talk in washington and the subject of your great biography, hillary clinton, was the other speaker. she came up to me and said, i quote from your book all the
time. in fact i "it's so often i should give you royalties. i stupidly said no and should have said how much. she said, i "the end of the book were you asked about history and bush says, history we will not know. i said, why you quit that? hillary can get excited. she said, you cannot be president of the united states and talk like that. she is putting her fistnto her palm. you're bullish is a fatalist. he gives himself over to a history. you cannot think and talk like that and the president. and i said, well. she said, no, you cannot. george washington would never talk like that. thomas jefferson would never talk like that.
commencement speeches. leigh ann tuohy, the mother of baltimore ravens football player michael oher. she was betrayed by sandra bullock in her academy award winning performance in the movie opened "the blind side -- she was portrayed by sandra bullock in her academy award winning performance in the movie: "the blind side." >> it is my privilege to intruce for the first time dr. leigh ann tuohy. >> it's good to have some women appear instead of men helping me. i am truly honored to be up here today. when cbu called, our schedules are crazy right now and i hesitated a little bit. my husband has to call a doctor
tuohy took on a whole different meaning. so here i am and i am happy, let me tell you. i don't know how many of you know our story. that think three years ago that i would be standing here speaking much less giving a graduation speech to an amazing bunch of people was beyond my wildest imagination. but we firmly believe that god is in control of the story of our lives right now. we learned about you, lue was one of them. you guys are going to leave here today and go out into the world. a lot of you have been in it before. you look up the value in the dictionary and the are wds attached to it like worth and dignity. what do those words meaning? you go into an office, you interviewed for jobs, if you want someone that value, that they think if you have worth and
value, something that will contribute to the next level of your life, whatever that may be. and then you look at people, and you lue them. it is a two way street. everyone in this auditorium will leave here today and before that day and, you will look at someone and say, and you will put a value on them. whether someone you pass and the parking lot, a guide pumping gas next year, wherever you may be, in your mind, you go -- you size someone up and if you say you do not do it, you are lying. we all do it. look at my son, michael oher the finest young man u will ever meet. immensely intelligent, extremely athletic, the best tackle in the nfl, said from a mother's perspective. society deemed him of value less.
my son got off the bus every day at poplar and ridgway and walk to school. 30 or 40,000 cars a day past him. there was not a soul inhis world that care whether that young man lived or died. he would have fallen dead right there on the street and no one would have known him to contt. he was not using the correct last 93 he was not sure what his first name was. the things that you take granted an and still in your kids every day -- society deemed michael oher value the spirit you taken into law home and you love him and you give them hope you give him opportunity, and people, it will change a light. i have lived it. i have lived it. this young man was so close to falling through the cracks that it will rock your world when you
really think about the opportunity that could have been lost with this young man's life. and just through everyday circumstances, our paths crossed. in our house we call it a miracle. childbirth is truly easier to explain them how we got to where we are with michael. it has been dog-driven -- god- driven. he had value and no one saw it. so i challenge you that you go out and you look at the person standing next to you, no matter what side of that that they all on or where you are having a conversation, do not be so quick to judge and do not be so quick to put a value on that
individual. because you doot know what their circumstances are, an with michael, with the hope, opportunity, and love that was offered to him, if changes light. he is a contributing, a valuable mber of ciety now. and the scary thing is -- you wonder how many michael ohers are out there? they are in every city of united states of america. we firmly believe that the cure for cancer is walking around in the inner city in memphis, tennessee and all that he needs is the chance. i am not challenging you to go out and adapt a 6 foot 3 inch black kid. it is not for everybody. they eat a lot. thank goodness we were in the taco bell business. but you can do something. you can do something and you can make a difference. i am in college, you say.
what can i do? you can do something. take whatever it is that you choose to do, just do it well. there are all kinds of opportunities right under your word for it two words that changed our life -- turnaround. turnaround. get off the beaten path. get off the golf course. get out your biology class. whatever it may be, it could be right under your nose, the person that need some help. i challenge you today to make a differen, one person can make a difference and you can change somebody's life. and i will end with this little store. i am sure most of you have heard. it has become the foundation of our belief in the tuohy ousehold because this was a group effort there was a little boy and his grandfather walking on the beach one day and a storm comes along, scatters all kinds of shells and starfish upon the beach.
and there were hundreds of star fish washed up on the beach. and the grandfather made a statement to his grandson, a shame that all those areoi to die. he little boy looked perplexed and said, what you mean? the starfish have to live in the water. so the little boy francally ran down the beach and picked up starfishes st as he could, and throwing them back into the water. the grandfather stop him and said, son, don't waste your time doing that. his justice starfish. you cannot save them all. the little boy reached the arm -- reached down and through the star fish back into the water. i just saved that one. you can be the person that tosses the starfish backed out. you can make a difference in someone's life. so i challenge you as you leave here today, get involved.
this school has taught you and pleasant things and put things in front of you -- charitable. it is a gem in the city of memphis, tennessee. you are fortunate to graduate from the christian brothers university today. make a difference to that one person. 90. -- lanky. >> thank you, amy. good morning. class of 2010, border trusties, faculty, staff, students, parents and guests. it is impossible for you to uerstand that story that i feel at this moment, how prevalent -- the joy that i feel at this moment, how privilege. to addre you today, i am truly
honored. when the president called me to inform me of this opportunity, i was stunned to the extent that i asked that i might have some time to export -- some time to respond during my hesitancy had nothing to do with the quality of the event for my availability. it was a certain request for a ton to decide if i thought i deserved this honor, and most of all if i could justify your onfidence in me. upon hearing my request for more time, as your president was thinking, oh, no. we have made a mistake. what was i thinking? well, the president, after the next few months your worst fears might be realized. it did not take me long to determine that this was an extremely gracious offer, but regardless of how mguided it
was one that i had to honor. moreover, this occasion affords me the opportunity to understand my passion in this class will have another impression of the place that will suit be its alma mater. and lastly at did not want a chance for my wife, whose devotion to kenyon rivals my. like you, i will be happy when i complete these remarks. [laughter] you will get closer to achieving the milestone that you have been chasing for four years. however, our mutual happiness will result from two entirely different reasons. for you, if you will have your coveted degree. for me, i will be liberated from
the mandate and uncontrollable flow about what should be or should not be included in these remarks. when i finally say, thank you, i will be liberated to haul fully regain my more natural and simple-minded existence, not to mention the attention of my loving wife and a return to uninterrupted sleep. [laughter] class of010, welcome to the kenyon mystique. this is something frequently discussed but rarely adequately defined. by graduating from kenyon so long ago, i feel compelled to dispel the myth concerning me in my activities here. rutherford b. hayes and i were not classmates. [laughter]
he graated the year before i got here. [laughter] today i see my path is being quite simple. i want to describe how i see kenyon, what it means to me, what it might mean to you, and your futures, and finally to hopefully offer a few helpful hints that might assist you in navigating the tricky and muddy waters that way you after canyon. to that end, i do not guarantee substance, but i do -- i am convinced that to be immortal does not have to be eternal. as iaid here enjoying the wonders of this day, i cannot help but reflect on my graduation day 54 years ago. as i sat in my seats those many years ago, and i should get a clap. [laughter]
[applause] i should get a class just to be standing up here. [applause] [lauger] as i waited for the hoopla at the fayed, and that included the speeches, i suddenly broke out in may cold sweat, and my first thought was thatmy overzealous evening of serious libation was catching up with me. but then it dawned on me that what i was feeling was fear. in a few moments, i would to -- i would receive my degree. theoretically certifying my readiness to meet the adult challenges of the world. in essence, at that moment, after four exceptionally enriching years at canyon, being exposed to these fears previously unknown, my
experiences had only made one thing very clear to me -- how little high really new. -- i really knew. a frightening thought. and much has happened to kenyon since its beginning in 1824, and although their many diffences between then and now, there are similarities as well. perhaps we all kenyon resembled my opinion, it was all male. there were other features tt resonated. for instance, the founder wanted to produce man for the ministry in our urban life. althou that have subsided by the time i got here, there were other kenyan traits i found interesting. early kenyon was like a medieval monastery with a curriculum
based on classics, the bible, philosophy, and religion. in 1825, there were 25 students. the same number of students that dropped out of kenyon my freshman year in a class of 125. and that was before the second semester. by 1828, kenyon had grown to 50 sdents at the cost of $70 a year for tuition. sometis in theudience,here were you when i needed you? interestingly, five boys from the mohawk tribe i attended the school. not surprising, the school went through many years of growing pains due to financial instability. during those years, the school remain committed to to the classical liberal arts
curriculum despite the pressure -- that created a business school in the early it 20th century. subsequent to that happening, many positive actions took place that enriched the school and its traditions, among them admitting women in 1969. and selecting the school's first president -- first female president in 2003. in my youth, -- in my view, both enhance the quality and reputation of this outstanding institution. i cho this thing, welcome to kenyon mystique, because i am intrigued by the handle. following this day, you will join the ranks of us who for years have been trying to define and defend the elusive nature of this mystique. what is it? doesn't derive from the schools dedication to the liberal arts? is that the school's unique
blend of contrastsindividual muslim, independence, collectivism, east and west, rich and poor? i think it is all that and above. it is in formality coupled with academic seriousness wrapped in humane clothing. we deny no whatever one nts to call it, but it works. i promise you, much time will be given to deciphering that in the real encasement that you inhabit, but do not fight it. is a good thing. this mystique is unifying and powerful but it is even given some of us jobs and careers. how did i get here?
well, when i was looking for college choices, i was somewhat lost. but many youngsters, i was the first in the family to go to college so my parents did not feel equipped all for the guidance that i needed. i reflected on my struggles in collecting data and trying to establish a framework for my college surgery i must admit, i was not diversity motivated. i was educationally motivated. my father believes theey is for the kingdom for black americans was education. quality education. in all fairness, i got the canyon more by chance than design. i what the a school in chicago that has applied canyon with many fine studentsver the currently we have parker students here at canyon. one is a member of this class. [applause]
you cannot let them down, jak e. prior to my coming, but three friends of mine attended and suggested the dean of admission that he contact me. i met with the game when he came to parker and i was interested in what it had offered. when i finally arrived, but i was denied the chance to become reunited with my buddies. they found it so entertaining and pleasurable that all three had been kicked out of school. they had a good time, they really had a good time, but they forgot the main ingredient to inquire -- to ensure academic excellence, to study. they did not do that. it was wrong moment during the application process when i thought that kenyon college would not be a part of my future. when i applied, financially it was imperative for a never would
have been able to attend. one could take a scholarship test in the subject of your choice three supposedly your expertise. quite frankly, at 17 years old, i did not feel i have a command of any subject, especially one subject that would providehe financial windfall allow me to attend college. but despite pessimism, i reason that four years of relative success in math in high school mightnable me to demonstrate my intellectual depth. the exam was mailed to my high school. the school psychologist administered the exam and inform me that i had three hours to completed. he implying that test taking methodology that i was taught, i surveyed the entire test, determine the old level of difficulty and then determine how i was going to allocate my time.
the tests had four sides. before realized it, i had survey the entire test. a level of difficulty that i determed was impossible. there was not any thing on that test that was readily discernible. suddenly i realized this was going to be the long as three hours i ever had in my life and i was right. somehow i was given financial understanding -- assistance, and if i attended, under no circumstances shou i consider being a math major. [laughter] perhaps the most poignant example of never make assumptions occurred when i first arrived in mount vernon to attend school. i've taken the train from chicago to mount vernon and
arrived that morning about 5:30 a.m.. after being informed that taxes would not be available for a few more hou, i decided to have breakfast. i founded finer not too far from the station, and i discovered a place that was completely empty. i approached the proprietor and asked if he was serving breakfasts. after some hesitancy, he nodded. i was then ushered through the restaurant to the very end of the room next to the kitchen door. i ate in silence no one in the diner while i was there. it was during that time that i realized, this experience might be very challenging. however, all more daunting thought occurred to me. was kenyon college going to be like this? i was not sure what expectations i had one hour ride but i know what i found. i found support, sensitivity,
and scholarship. i was challenged academically but always felt the falty and staff were sensitive to mind that needs and i never had to battle all loan unless it was my choice. what is kenyon mean to maine? it accompanied my maturation. there is no doubt that i met -- left here a better man than the boy who arrived. but it is possible that the significance of canyon and the people to determine its sole did not register until later. the event that was perhaps one of the most telling moments of my entire life took pla here on this campus. and that moment was not as personally laudable as it was representative of the caliber of people who attend this college. the caliber you represent.
when i entered college, in 1952, our country was just beginning to truly crap with the issues of racial discrimination. jackie robinson had broken the color line and professional baseball was unable to stay in the same hotel as his teammates. jim crow was alive and well. it was also a time when coaches at florida schools refused to play kenyon college because i was a member of the baseball team. there were further educational opportunities for all two years away. it was against this backdrop that a group of 60 white men decided they wanted to pledge a black and a beta the -- a black in beta thta pi for the first
time. it speaks highly to those men and their values, not to mention their courage and character. as you might imagine, this was a very unpopular action nationally. but those men were determined to honor their deep conviction, regardless of the consequences. in that 56 years that have followed, i am hard pressed to idtify another act of personal involvement that displayed such courage and equity. to me, these are t kind of people who attend, work, and teach at kenyon college. this is a distinctive place. [applause] but i do not feel that distinctive this cane institutionalized. the people deserve to station.
every generation of students, staff, and faculty seemed to share the common in -- a common denominator of uniqueness. i understand halide you the college and its people migh differ from others. you do not look at the same way that i do. but that is only as it should be. for me, kenyon college proved to be an incubator. it enabled me to grow. i was challenged to think, act, lead, as well as understand the flames of references of others. i did not come here is a crusader or an evangelist, but i left with the added dimension of tolerance, understanding, and a great deal of hope. i offer the same to you. i cannot leave this podium without addressing the importance if not necessity of employment in your futures. [laughter] after spending a lifetime, all working lifetime in the field of
human resources, this might be thonly area where my utterances might have some validity. i understand yourlight. i have been there. prior to graduation and entering the air force, i was rejected by every employer i contacted. three years later, just before being separated from the military, i applaud the 17 companies for a job and receive 17 turned down. i have those letters to date. a forceful remder of the power of determination. i feel i was saved by timing and the kenyon mystique. timing in the sense that a job coincided with my availability, and the mystique work because another kenyon college graduate was sensitive to monday. for those of you not ging to write to graduate school and not able to secure job, there is hope.
despite the deplorable job environment is in the country, people are being hired somewhere or something. i further submit to you that the tools required fo connection are really your personal tool kit that has been provided largely by your own and by canyon. trust me. the key word plastic uttered in them to move the "the graduate" does not have the same significance to that. but another word today possesses a similar power. networking. during that time span here with an enormously talented faculty, if you have developed abilities, and in the process you are now on with the formidable personal arsenal. by graduating today, you are welcomed into the kenyon mystique and its broad network. use it.
as i indicated, i spent most of my working career in the field of human resources. much of that time was dedicated to their recruitment of exceptional men and women. like yourselves. i feel i have an appreciation for the employment process as well as that sought by those that do the hiring. graduates fit the mold or you're not just excellent candidate for graduate school. you're just -- your potential employees who can add value anywhere, given the opportunity and a professor of circumstances. the process relatively simple. understand the system, determine where and how you can contribute, and if needed, kenyon college can still help you connect the dots. what do employers seek? they are looking for someone who is smart, is willingo work hard, demonstrates analytic
ability, can work with others, has behavior flexibility, is mature, suggest created and the imaginative thinking, has high energy, is impervious to harhip, it does not require handling, quick communication skills both written and spoken, has a realistic outlook, as patients, is awful, and most of all, walks on water. [laughter] you may not believe this. but i may have just described you. you have all that. and one might say it is good to know what people say, but how the white crack into the system and conduct a successful job search? in my view, a successful job srch requires an understanding and/or the execution of the following -- that preparation. do your homework. research the people, co., a job and anything that enables you to
demonstrate your knowledge and your interest in the organization andhe position. realistically assess the situation and circumstances. accept what exists, not what you want it to be. temporarily put aside the technology. get out and meet people. just for a moment, lessen your decide -- your desire for order and expediency and conservati of time and concentrate on the skills that might considerably alter your life. perhaps your greatest strength is your ability to effectively communicate. included in that process is relative to a face-to-face exchanges. those exchanges may not only be identical but also refreshing. the key to these exchanges is not working. the confident and persistent, but not all as an arrogant.
the more objective and less subjective. lean toward your strength and work on your weaknesses later. recognize that resumes are important but they only kievan effective interview. recognize the communication trounce potential. never try to be someone or something you are not. it is easier to sell to you are then who you want to be. there is no substitute for rock intelligence. stay focused and use what you have and never underestimate an interviewer's ability to recognize gold. except the benefits of networking and make it your primary resource. and finally, if you're like me, i has been a lifetime trying to find sensible guidelines to help keep me grounded and hopefully allow me to contribute in meaningful ways.
as part of that process, identified a few principles. although simple, they have produced results for may. as guideposts they might serve you in the same manner. i built this principles expose me to the powers of working with while for others, securing employment, and more importantly, keeping it. if nothing else, the following might be food for thought. common denominators exist everywhere, if you look for them. schering cmon denominators is far more productive than highlighting differences. the golden rule lives on. if one can somehow put himself or herself and another person shoes, correct solutions normally appear very quickly. assume nothing. we all know what assumptions can make of you and me. that also stars.
try not to allow your emotions to overrule your reason. thtry to avoid that happening. and finally, one never learns anything while talking. obtaining new and different information generally comes from and out of body experience. so as you depart and spread out over the country, be mindful of the fact that this is in you and everywhere. moreover, you should know there are many people like me willing to assist you in any way possible. i congratulate the cat -- a class of 2010 and applaud the six founding a conference they have achieved. and this is only the beginning. addition, i congratulate her
partners, guardians, and your parents. i know that when i graduated here, my dad felt that he might agree was more his than mine. i imagine a few parents here today will fill the same way. in closing, i am reminded of thoughts from the rev. martin luther king to reflect my sentiments and framer reference shaped by him and his exceptional documents for the words speak to the hope i have for us all. we have inherited a large house , areat world house, in which we have to live together. black and white, eastern and westerner, gentile and you, catholic and protestant, muslim and hindu. the family unduly separated in ideas culture, interests, and who because we can never again live apart must learn some how to live with each other in peace. we must rapidly began to shi
from a team oriented society to a person oriented society. when machines, computers, profit motives, and property rights are considered more important than people, the giant triplets of racism, materialism, and millet terrorism are incapable of being conquered. we still lead a choice today, nonviolent existence or violent annihilation. this may be our last chance to choose between chaos and community. i have received more my share of recognition of kenyon college through the years but today's honor represents the epitome of distinction and i will cherish the stay forever. thank you for letting me share this day.
eastern here on c-span. >> deborah bial who found that the policy foundation addresses the denison university. the posse foundation seeks out inner core city youth and helps them go to college. fromhio, this is about 30 minutes. >> deborah bial. >> oh, my gosh. hi. this is an incredible honor. thank you so much, everybody. i get nervous. are you a little nervous? you look just gorgeous out there. ok, so i'm going to be official. thank you, president,again, and
at denison board of trustees, especially bill mulligan, who was wonderful and here today. and the staff and all of you for inviting me to say something had your graduation. d this is a commencement speech, right? it has to be little bit interesting. so i am thinking, what do i say? first things third. congratulations to the class of 2010. you did it. you have a lot to be proud of and a lot to look for to perjure families and friends deserve the applause that you just gave them for all of tir support and care, and this is their day as well. and a special congratulations -- i could not stand up here and not say that -- to the denison posse scholars.
yay, i love you all and i'm proud of you. about 500 use sitting out there, 519 grachev wedding, on the cusp of the next part of your life. and i want to talk a little bit about what is ahead. well, maybe, what i want to talk about his falling in love. that is what is most important, right? right? did you not learn that in sector, love is not love which alters -- alters when it alteration fines? the poets really understand that. one person writes, i love you and certain dark things are loved secretly between the shadow and the soul. the pellets, the artistic talents, we know from paul and john and ring go and george that all you need is --
>> love. >> think lady gaga found love. so happy i could die. be your best friend. i'll love you forever. up in the clouds will be higher than er. so happy i could die. and then there is drapke. had better find your heart. i better find your love. i'd bet if i give all my love, nothing is on the terrace bar. it's clear in universal. love is super important. and on top of finding love we must pay attention to the effort involved if we want love to work. even albert einstein said, and the man who can drive safely while kissing a pretty girl is simply not giving the kids the attentn that it deserves.
and you wonder where i'm going with this. i am just trying t make the point and here it is. the truth is, no one would dispute that finding true ve is a fine goal, a beautiful goal, and many of us whether we admit it or not have this as the front of or the back of oumind all the time. so my question to you is this -- wouldn't it be great if each of us, every single one of us, had that same vote intensity when it comes to caring about the world out there, at the front or the back of our mind all the time? when the world be a different place? martin luther king said, if a man and i will add a woman has not discovered sooething that he will not die for, he is not fit
to live. and i don't think he was talking about just falling in love. since some of you are going out to make some money. good, and good luck with that. some of you are going off to graduate school, also good. i know that some of you have very specific ideas about what you want to do it and be, a lawyer, doctor, an architect, as the nature -- algood. we need you to do all those things. and i understand, what you're doing that, you're still going to be looking for love. love that will sweep you off your feet, make you melt, see stars, catcher brad, and know that the whole world will be all right because this love exists -- yes. my point -- the truth is that you should have the same constant ongoing, never forget for a second feeling in your brain that you're going to contribute to the world. i am very serious. the united states was built with
the idea that it could be a meritocracy, that everyone could have the same chance to succeed if they've worked hard, if they studied, and if they care. but we are not there yet. consider some of the falling. did you know by the year 2015, when you will be about 71 years old -- 2050, when you will be about 71 years old, there will be over 400 million people who will live in this country. by that time, whites will no longer be the majority and they are not in our big cities. i do not kn if you know, the fastest-growing population is the latino population. yet they have the lowest college bowling and completion rates. today blacks and latinos make about 30% of the population, but they represent only 12% of the
student body at our top colleges and universities. schools like denison. and of allhe fortune 500 ceo's in this country, only 15 are women. seven are asian. seven of latino. five are black. out of 500 ceo's! only four states recognize same- sex marriage. and the richest 10% of americans own more well than the entire bottom 90% combined. so where is the leadership today? who are e leaders -- the decision makers and where are we focusing our energy? americans make up about 5% of the population but we consume 30% of its resources. some estimates suggest that every individual american will produce about 100,000 pounds of garbage by the time she is 75
years old. and there are more shopping malls in this country and high schools. i guess my point is that we are a little bit greedy and a little bit wasteful, and there are big things that are happening in the world that need the energy that we're putting into the being and shopping and falling in love. [applause] it is not hard to say that this world needs help, especially when you think about the effect diversity have all of us, whether race, class, sexuality, or socio-economic status, our collective experience is being affected every day by racism, bias, misogyny, and phobia. in truth, i believe -- i really do -- that each of you cares. and i can tell from the incredible camplus columns and writing and projects that you are inclined to do something, to
act. and now you are going out there and i hope you carry those passions into the world outside the denison bubble. and i hope for you to date you really care, that you care about the wars that are still going on in the lives that are still being lost, my hope is that you care that the unemployment rate in this country is close to 10% and that you realize it is close to 16% for african-americans. my hope is that you care that a record number of americans are you look -- are losing the homes, that you care about the racial and religious profiling and the inequities that exist in the public schools, causing huge gaps in preparing this for young people from different racial and class backgrounds. i hope you care that the oil spill in the gulf as threatening the livelihood of thousands of ordinary hard-working residents, and at women still make only
seventy-seven cents to the dollar that every man earns, and that hate crimes unfortunately are on the rise. those are facts. those of us to graduate from great institutions like denison have the most options more doors open for a spirit we have more chances to become what we dream of becoming. but if all we do is focus on our cells, i mean, for goodness sake, everything is an iphone and i had -- and an ipad -- the are all i in. i know they're cool, but then what happens to the rest of the country, all those people did not get to graduate from places like denison? who will be there to represent all americans? of all the state legislatures in this country, only 8% or black. 3% latino, 1% asian, 1% american indian.
87% of the state legislators are white. who lives below the poverty level in this country? 24% of blacks and latinos live below the poverty level. how many whites? 9%. something is wrong with this, right? 75% of americans who come from wealthier backgrounds will get a bachelor's degree by the time they're 24 years old. compare that only 9% of americans who come from a low socioeconomic background. we are still perpetuating a class system based on race. and we would be wrong to imagine that the issues that we need to address are defined slowly by race and class. gender, sexual to, religion, nationality are all important in understanding e american community. in my view, we are not ok. 40% of americans believe that
gay couples should not be allowed to adopt a child. this world these help. i have never forgotten the picture that was printed on the front page of the "new york times" of the parents holding the body of their child killed in an earthquake in china. people call up newspaper to complain. the photo was too upsetting, they felt. it should not be on the cover of the newspaper. what you think? our hearts should be open, not just to falling tilt -- falling in love, but t the world. we need to look. we need to care. and we need to contribute. let's not allow the media and corporate branding of groups defined as. why it do we spend our time texting, looking down, and never seeing what is going on around us. when i started posse, i thought
this could be aay to create a new network of leaders on this great planet, no one tt would represent the diversity of this country and therefore reflect the concerns, the cares, and the dreams of all americans. it would be this network that would sit down at the table where decisions get made and better represent the collective. i see that vision coming true for our incredible poss scotte laws, but when i stand before you, i see it coming true with each if you in the equation. this is an historic time. we cannot deny that we've made progress in terms of so rights and women's rights. we of the first african-american president of united states, and that deserves a moment. [applause] .
and we pool our resources, if we care about each other's problems, we have a much better chance of building something for us all. my husband, he writes for a newspaper. he says, you know what? the dream, the american dream, that is on life-support. well, let's prove him wrong. reach into the depths of your
soul and live your life so fully that you feel as if you are about to burst. care about each other like crazy, and love like crazy. there is a myth. maybe you know it. th the creation of the world started with earth, erebus, and love as the first being. ve came from the egg of night, and bringing joy. well, give yourself equal importance. fall in love. number one. and two, make the world better. i know you can do it. you are sitting right i that seat, right there. you are graduating. feel it. this represents one of the most significant moments of transition in your life, so sit
jpmorgan chase talks about his experience of being fired at citigroup in 1998. from syracuse, new york, this is about 15 minutes. what's the chancellor, the board of trustees,the syracuse faculties -- that chancellor -- >> the chancellor, the board of trustees, the syracuse faculty is, the graduating class of 2010, -- syracuse faculty is -- faculties. graduating today means you are through final exams, through submitting term papers, all of that nervous is, the cold sweats, the sleepless nights, -- all of that nervousness. that is a feeling we banking executives know these days. we call it testify before congress. i am honored be here today,
but i also know that some of your fellow students have raised questions about me being your commencement speaker. when i heard about these protests, i wanted to understand what was behind them, so i had a good conversation with someone. i am sure she is here somewhere. i heard her concerns about me and the nation's banking system and about capitalism itself, and some i thought were legitimate. others, i disagree with, but whether i agree with her or not, i say, "good for her." i am proud of her for speaking up. in fact, it is completely appropriate to hold me accountable for those things i am responsible for. we should all be held accountable, but what does it mean to hold someone accountable, and how do you make yourself accountable? today, i will talk about what it takes to be accountable in the hope that it might be of some value to you in the years to come.
i want to point out that i am sure in my voice this year -- in sharing my court korea my views with you does not imply that i did everything right -- and sharing my views with you does not mean i implied that i did everything right. the roc this crisis, i have seen many people embarrass themselves -- throughout this crisis by acting like lemons by simply going along with the pact. i also saw people under enormous pressure always did the right thing. graduates, you will soon leave this wonderful community and venture into a new world to get ready for new jobs, new opportunities, and this korea along the way, you are going to face a lot of pressure, -- new opportunities, and along the way, you are going to face a lot of pressure, pressure is to do things simply because everyone else is doing
them -- pressure to do things simply. do not be somebody's lap dog. have the courage to speak the truth, even when it is unpopular, and have the courage to put yourself on the line, strive for something meaningful, and even to risk what may be an embarrassing failure. i think teddy roosevelt understood this nearly a century ago when he said, and i quote, "it is not the critic who counts, not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles or how to do more of dds cld have done it better. the credit belongs to the win -- and now the woman -- who is actually in the korea, whose face is marred by blood and sweat, -- who is actually in the arena, bause there is no effort without erring and
shortcoming, spends mself in a worthy cause, who at the wars, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly -- who at the worst, if he fai, at least fails while daring greatly." [applause] thank you. it takes knowledge to be accountable. having the ability to speak up is important, but it is not sufficient. if you have the guts to take a stand, what you think is a principled stand, then have the brains to based on facts and analysis and critical thinking. in some places, it is always clear what the right thing to do is, where in many other situations, it is much more complex. there is a temptation to come up with simple and pioneer in answers, especially when this
could not possibly apply -- simple and by mary answers. be as simple as possible, but no simpler -- simple and by mary -- binary answers. it should never end. you will learn by reading, and read everything that you get your hands on and by talking to and watching other people, and you especially learn by listening to arguments on the other side. it is your job to constantly learn and develop informed decisions and opinionss you move forward in your lives. there are some very important people out there, andeading their views and analysis will help educate you. if you think you are a socialist, read milton friedman, a famous capitalist. if you're a capitalist, we karl marx. if you think you are a republican, listen to the democrats, and vice versa. do not object all out of hand
and be willing to change your mind. do not fall into the trap of being rigid and simplistic. it is ok for us at times to blame and be dissatisfied with others and to hold them responsible, but it is not ok to oversimplify it paint everyone it should not be acceptable to denigrate entire groups. not all companies, not all c.e.o.'s, not all media,,not all studen. among these groups, there are some terrific people, and among those groups, there are some terrible people. to categorically judge them as equal is just ignorance, and it is not fair. it is not just korea is just plain wrong. -- it is not just unfair. it is plain wrong. [applause] one must be accountable to
oneself. shakespeare said it. "to thine own self be true proprietor -- be true. if i want to know all about you, all i need to do is talk to your teachers, your friends, your colleagues, your fellow students, and your parents. i would know if you are trustworthy, hard-working, empathetic, ethical, and deliver on your commitments or if you are lazy, willing to let people down. it is up to you to determine how you want to that book to be written. it is a choice. do not let others write ity got you -- it for you. if you want to be a winner, then compare yourself to the best and the knowdge that it will never happen without har work abe lincoln once said, "good things may come to those who wage, but the are those who hustle."
if you want to be a leader, act like a leader. if you want to be trusted, then demonstrate it by earning every day. if you want to be known as honest, i do not even shade the truth, and make sure your friends and colleagues will always bring you back to earth, let's all do at times, when you are deceiving yourself. -- like we all do at times. it takes knowing had to deal with failure to be accountable. the world is complex and challenging, and yet, the economy is getting better, but you're still entering the job market at a tough time, but, in fact, throughout your life, you're going to have to face tough times and failure both personally and professionally, which some of you already have, but how you deal with failure may be the most important thing in whether you succeed, and some of the greatest people of all times, and i am thinking of nelson mandela and indira gandhi
and abraham lincoln and others, who fad enormous setbacks and persevere all amid seemingly impossible odds. as you all know, we have gone through the worst financial crisis since the depression, and there were mistakes ron by those who helped bring on the crisis. there were those who actually acknowledged the mistakes, and it is true that many in the crisis denied any responsibility. but in this crisis, there are many who take responsibility and do something about it. at the darkest moments, when it seemed like a whole system was unraveling, that is whenen and women in my company and other companies around the world took extraordinary action korea they did not want or complain. when they got knocked down, they got up and tried to do something about it. they worked for days and weeks on end, sacrificing time with family and friends, to try to contain the crisis, all the while know they may fail they were not doing it for money
or to score points. they understood that the well- being of millions of people depending on getting the situation under control. they did not lose their nerve when things seemed bleak. they showed the fortitude that is necessary to handle a tough situation and to deal with setbacks. this was a lesson i had to learn in my own professional life. before i became the ceo of jpmorgan chase, as president of citigroup -- i just want to mention, that was 10 years ago -- and one day, i went to work and was very surprised to have been fired by the man i had been working with for over 15 years. i remember coming home to try to explain to my wife and my three young daughters, and my wife and one of my daughters is here today. they were in naturally scared for our family. my youngest daughter was 8 at the time. she is here today. she asked, "dad, will we be able to keep our house?
will we have to live in the st.?" i said, "of course not, darling." my middle daughter o had always looked forward to going to college said, "dad, but i still be able to go to college?" and i said, "of course, darling." and my oldest daughter talked about the cell phone. some make no mistakes. setbacks will happen. when they do, it is ok to get depressed, blame others, for a while. a ventura, you have got to get up, dust yourself off, learn from it, and move on. [applause] it takes humility to be accountable. we all stand on the shoulders of those who came befor us. humility is the realization that as you came before paved
the way. never fully yourself into thinking that your success is yours alone. your success is the result of your parents -- never fuool yourself. there are those who encourage you. in fact, this country was built by so many people who make endless sacrifices before most of us were even born. it is important to respect what they have done and be grateful for it. [appuse] but we also need to have the strength of character to hold ourselves accountable. as graduates of this world
class iversity, you'll be contributing to the lives of other. you may go on to become a leader. that is a time it becomes about them and not about you. leadship itself is an honor, a privilege, and it carries a deep obligation. the rat your lives, you will need people who are not smart, talented, as skilled as you. they may not have had all of the benefits that you have had, but many are doing the best they could possibly do, and they take great pride in doing their part well. being accountable to them means treating them all with the respect they reserve -- deserve, whether a ceo or a clerk. it requires grace and genosity of spirit. [applause] and to great compassion. to me, this is the highest form of accountability. success depends on it. in the words of a poem by
rudyard kipling, if you can keep your head without them losing theirs and blaming it on you, if you can lk with crowds and keep your virtue, nor lose the common touch, you lose the earth and everything in it. and so, it takes courage common knowledge, a strong sense of self, a capacity to overcome failure, a a healthy amount of humility. these qalities are the heart of the success as a nation. i want to keep one concluding thought in mind. this is not a god-given right. america's success. it is something that we all must work hard to achieve. if you have studied history, you will see nations and empires rise and fall. the united states and the world has faced many challenges, some far tougher than the ones we face tod, and i am confident th we will recover in the short run, but in the long run,
and you, the next generation, must continue to call the challenges we face. we must confront our health and education systems. it should not be acceptable that in the united states of america only 50% of inner-city school kids graduate high school. [applause] we must develop a real, substantive energy and environmental policy. we have hathree major energy crises. it is not acceptable to have a fourth. we must build the infrastructure of the future. as a nation, we must continue to welcome the best and brightest from around the world to our nation. these are al serious issues, but if we work together, we can fix them. you'll have the ability toarry the responsibilities you face in life. and so many ways, all of us in this stadium are truly blessed. we are lucky to live in this
country and to have the opportuniti we have been given, but that brings obligations. as you go about your life, remember your country. regardless of what you do and what you achieved an live, tried to leave everything and everybody that you touch of a better than they were before. continue to be true to yourself and your values, the resilience, be honest, the humble, never stop holding ourselves accountable, and you'll not only have the kind of life you wish and deserve, you will also do your part to make this country and abroad a better place for generations to come. to the class of 2010, congratulations, gooduck, and godspeed. thank you. [applause] >> here's what's ahead.
actress meryl streep. then a commencement address by drew brees and after that president obama and vice president biden pay respects to the fallen on memorial day. join us later today when "washington journal" welcomes north carolina policy coordinator wendy sherman and then todd tucker and daniel griswold and later sandra dano to have bankruptcy institute joins us. "washington journal" is live today and every day starting at 7:00 a.m. herein here on c-span. also a look at the gulf of mexico oil spill. hosted by eric asher. our coverage gets underway at 1:00 p.m. eastern on c-span 2. is government broken?
the brookings institution is hosting a panel discussion later today asking that question. we'll talk about ways to strengthen democracy. this gets underway live at 1:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span. >> this weekend on book tv's in depth, noted feminist and scholar martha nussbaum. join our three-hour discussion with your phone calls, emails and tweets on book tv in depth on c-span 2. menopause applause >> meryl streep addresses graduates at barnard college. she has received a record 16 academy award nominations. she talks about her background and career.
this is about a half-hour. >> dry mouth. wow. thank you, all. thank you, president, president tillman, members of the board of trustees, a distinguished faculty, proud, swelling parents and family, and gorges class of 2010. -- gorgeous class. if you are all really, really lucky, and if you continue to work super hard, and you remember your thank-you notes and everybody's name, a you follow through on every task that is asked of view and also some hal anticipate problems before they evenrise, and you
somehow sidestepped disaster and score big, if you get a great test scores on your lsats or mastas or ersats or whatever, and you get your dream job or dream grad school or internships which leads to a super job with a paycheck mmensurate with responsibilities of leadership, where i somehow get that documentary on a shoestring budget, and it's accepted at ndance, and maybe an winds sundance, and then yo go on to be nominated for an oscar, and then you win the oscar, or if that money-making website that you designed with your friends somehow suddenly attracts investors and advertisers and becomes the go-to site for whatever is you are selling, blogging, sharing, or net
casting, and success, shining, hoped for but never really anticipated success comes your way, i guarantee you, someone you know or love will come to you and say, "will be addssed the graduates at my college?" [laughter] [cheers and applause] and usa, "yes, sure. when is it?" may 2010. may 2010? yes, sure, tat is months away, and then, the nightmare begins, the nightmare we have all have, and i want to assure you, you will continue to have even after graduation, 40 years after
graduation. about a week before the due date, you wake up in e middle of the night, "oh, i have a paper due, and i haveot done the reading. oh, my god!" you have been touched by the success very, people think you know why. [laughter] it is true. people think success breeds enlightenment, and you are duty bound to spread it aroun like a new work, reallymanure, -- manure, really, fertilize those young minds, let them know in on the secret what it is that you know that no one else knows. the self examination begins. one looks inward.
one opens an interior door. cobwebs. [laughter] black. the light bulbs burn out,the hairless danks refrigerator of an unseemly over schedules, unexamined life that usuall gets taken out. where is my writer friend, anna quindlen when i need her? on another book tour. hello, and meryl streep. -- i am meryl streep. [laughter] [applause] and today, class of 2010, i am really, i am very honored and humbled to be asked to pass on tips and inspiration to you for achieving success in this next part of your lives. president spar, when i
consider the other distinguished dal recipients and venerable board of trustees, the many accomplished faculty and family members, people who hav actually done things, produced things, while i have pretended to do things, i can think of about 3800 people who should of been on this list before me, and and, you know, mize success has depended solely on putting things over on people. [laughter] so i am not sure the parents think i am that great of a role model anyway. [laughter] i am, however, an expert in pretending to be an expert in various areas, so, just randomly, like everything else in this speech, i am, or i was, an expert in kissing on stage and on screen. [cheers anapplause]
how did i prepare for this? well, most of m preparation took place at my suburban high school or rath behind suburban high school in new jersey. one is obliged to do a great deal of kissing in my line of work. they're kissing, as kissing, kissing up, and, of course, actual kissing. much like hookers, actors have to do it with people we may not like or even know. we may have to do it with friends, which is, believe it or not, particularly awkward, for people of my generation. it is awkward. my other areas of faux
expertise, river rafting, mining the fx ofadiation poisoning, which shoes go with which bag, a coffee plantation, turkish, poland, german, french, italian, that's iowa-italian, from the bridges of madison county, a bit of the bronx, aramaic, yiddish, irish clogged dancing, cooking, singing, riding horses, nick takoma playing the violin, and simulating steamy sexual encounters. these are some of the areas in which i have pretended quite professionally to be successful, or the other way around korean as have many women here, i am re. women, i feel i can say this
authoritatively, especially at barnard, where they cannot hear us. what am i talking about? they professionally cannot hear us. women are better at acting than men. why? because we haveo be. it successfully convincing someone bigger than you are of something he does not want to know is a survival skill, this is how women have survived through the millennium. pretending it's not just play. bartending is imagined possibility. -- pretending is not just play. pretending or acting is a very valuable light skill, and we all do it, all of the time. we do not want to be caught doing it, but nonetheless, it is part of the adaptation of our species.
we change who we are to fit the exigencies of our time, and not just dirty degree or to our own vantage. sometimes sympathetically, without even knowing it for the betterment of the whole group. i remember very clearly my own first conscious attempt at acti. i was 6, placing my mother's half slip over my head in preparation to play the virgin mary in our livingoom. [laughter] as i swaddled my betsey wetsy doll, i felt quieted, holy, actually, in my transfigured face and very change demeter captured on super 8 by my dad pulled my little brother harry to play joseph and dana, too, a
barnyard animal, into the trance. they were actually pulled into his native a scene by the intensity of my focus. in my usual technique for getting them to do what i want, yelling at them with never have achieved that, and i learned something on that day. later, when i was 9, i remember taking my mother's eyebrow pencil and carefully drawing lines all over my face, replicating wrinkles that i had memorized on the face of my grandmother, whom i adored, and i made my mother take my picture, and i looked at it now, whereas i look like myself now, it was my grandmother then, but i really do remember in my bones how it was possible on that day to feel her age. i stooped. i felt weighted down but
cheerful, you know, i felt like her. empathy is at the heart of the actor's art. and in high school, another form of actintook hold of me. i wanted to learn how to be appealing, so i studied the character i imagined i wanted to be, that of the generically pretty high school girl. i researched her deeply. that is to say, shallowly, in "vogel, -- in "vogue," "seventeen," but i saw in those pages -- ia and apple today, period.
i peroxided my hair, -- i ate an ale a day, period. i ironed it straight. i demanded brand-name closing. my mother shot me down on that one. but i did, i worked harder on this characterizationeally than anyone i think i've ever do since. i worked on my giggle. i liken it. ecause i thought it sounded childlike and kind of cute. this was all about appealing to boys, and that the same time being accepted by the girls, a very tricky negotiations. often, success in one area precludes succeeding in the other. and along with all of my exterior choices, i worked on
what actors call my interior adjustment. i adjusted my natural temperament, which tended to b -- tends to be slightly bossy, a little opinionated, loud, a little loud, full of pronouncements and high spirits, and i will fully cultivated softness, agreeableness, a breezy natural sort of sweetness, even a shyness, if you will, which was very, very, very, very, very effective on the boys. but the girls did not buy it. they did not like me. they sifted out, the acting. and they were probably right, but i was committed. this was absolutely not a
cynical exercise. this was a vestigial survival courhips skill i was developing -- courtship skill i was developing. and i reached a point my senior year when my adjustment felt like me. i actually convinced myself that this person was mate n she may, pretty, talented, but not stack up, you know, a girl laughed a lot at every stupid thing every boy said, and who low-rise at the right moment and deferred, who learned to defer when the boys took over the conversation. i really remember this so clearly, and i could tell it was working. i was much less annoying to the guys that i had been. they like me better, and i like to that. this was conscious, but it was at the same time motivated and
fully felt this was real, real acting. i got to vassar, which, 43 years ago, was a single-sex institution, like all colleges in what they called the seven sisters, the female ivy league, and i made some very quick but lifelong and challenging friends, and with their help outside of any competition for boys, my brain woke up. [laughter] [cheers and applause] i got up, and i got outside myself, and i found myself again. i did not have to pretend. i could be goofy, the heated, aggressive, and slovenly, and open and funny and tough, and my friends let me. i did not wash myhair for three weeks once.
they accepted me like the velveteen rabbit. i became real instead of an imaginary stuffed bunn, but i stockpile that character from high-school, and agreed life in jürgen some years later as linda in "the deer hunter." there probably not one of the graduates who saw this film, but it won best picture in 1978. robert deniro, chris walken, not funny and all, and i played linda, a small-town girl from a working-class background, a lovely, quiet, hapless girl, who waited for the boy she loves to come back from the war in vietnam. often, men my age, president
clinton, by the way, when i met him, said, "men my age mention that character as their favorite of all of the women i have played." [laughter] and i have my own secret understanding about why that is, and it confirms every decision i made in high school. this is not to denigrate that girl, by the way, or the n who are drawn to occur in any way, because she is still part of me, and i am part of her. she was not acting, but she was just being in a way that cowed girls, submissive girls, beaten up girls with very few ways out have been paid forever and still do in many worlds. -- have behaved.
now, as a measure of how the world has changed, the character mostention as their favorite. miranda priestley. the beleaguered it totalitarian at the hd of "runway" magazine in "devil wears producada." to my mind, this represents such an off -- optimistic shift. they relate to miranda. they wanted to date linda. they felt sorry for linda, but they feel like miranda. they can relate to her sues, standards she sets for herself and others, the fecklessness of leadership potion. the "nobody understands m" thing. the loneliness. they stand outside one character, and a pity her, and the kind of fall in love with her, but they look to the eyes of this other character.
this is a huge deal, because as people in the movie business know, the absolute hardest thing in the whole world is to persuade a straight male audience to identify with a woman protagonist, to feel themselves embodied by her. this more than any other factor explainshy we get the movies we get and the paucity of roles where women drive the film. it is much easier for the female audience, because we all brought up identifying with male characters, from shakespeare to salinger. we have less trouble following hamlet's dilemma of the surry viscerally -- hamlet's dilemma of a surly or romeo's or tyba ioor huck finn or peter pan, and
i remember holding that sort up to cook. i felt like him. but it is much, much, much harder for heterosexual boys to identify with juliet or desdemona, wendy in "peter pan," or joe in "little women." or "the little mermaid" org "pocahontas." -- or pocahontas. what, i do not know, but it just is. there is alwa been a resistance to imaginatively assume a persona, if that persona is a shee.
but things are changing now, and is in your generation we are seeing this. men are adapting, about time. they are adapting consciously and also without consciously realizing it for the better of the whole group. they are changing their deepest prejudices to regard as normal the things that their fathers would have found very, very difficult, and their gndfathers would have abhorred, and the door to this emotional shift is embassy. as jung said, "pay attention to the cracks, because that is where the light gets in" -- as leonard cohen says. you, young women of barnard have not had to squeeze yourself into the corsa of being a cute or tomorrow for your opinions, but you have not left campus yet.
i am just kidding. what you havead the privilege of a very specific education. your people may be able to draw on a completely different perspective to imagine a a different possibility than women and men who went to co-ed schools. how this difference is going to serve you, is hard to quantify now. it may take you 40 years, like it did me, to look back and analyze your advantage, but, today is about looking forward into a world where so-called women's issues, human issues gender inequality law at the crux of global problems from poverty to the aids crisis t the rise in violent fundamentalist juntas, human trafficking and human rights abuses, and you're going to have the opportunity and the obligation by virtue ofour providence to speed progress in all those areas.
and this is a placewhere even though the need is very great, the news is, too. this time, -- this is your time, and it feels normal to you, but, really, there is no normal. there is only change, and resistant to it -- resistance to it and then more change. never before in the history of our country have most of the advanced degrees awarded to women, but now, they are. since the dawn of man, it is hardly more than 100 years since we are even allowed into these buildings except to clean them, but soon, most of the law and medical degrees will possibly it probably also go to women. around the world, poor women now own property used to be properly, and according to "economist" magazine, for the
last two decades, the increase of female employment in the rich world has been the main driving force of growth. those women have contributed more to global gdp growth that have either new technology or the new giants india or china. crac in the ceiling. cracks in the door. cracks in the court and on the senate floor. [laughter] you know, i gave a speech at vassar 27 years ago. it was a really big hit. everybody loved it, really. tom brokaw said it was the very best convention speech he had ever heard, and, of course, i believe to this. and, you know, it was much, much easier to construct than this one. it came out pretty easily
because back then, i knew so much. [laughter] i was a new motr. i had two -- i had two academy awards, and it was all, you know, coming together so nicely. i was smart, and i understood boilerplate and what sounded good, and because i had been on the squad in high school, earnest, full throated cheerleading was my specialty, said that is what i did, but, now, i feel like i know about 1/16th of what that young women do. -- knew. things do not seem as certain today. now, i am 60. i have four adult children who are all facing the same challenges that you are. i am more sanguine about all of the things that i still do not
know, and i am still curious about. what i do know about success, fame, celebrity, that would fill another speech. how it separates you from your friends, from reality, from proportion, your own sweet anonymity, a treasured you do not even know you have until it is gone, how it makes things tough for your family and whether being famous matters is really one bit, in the end, the whole flocks of time. i knew i was invited here because of that. how famous i am. and how many awards i have one, and while i am, i am overweening lead proud of the work that i have -- believe me, i did not do on my own, i can assure you that awards had very
little bearing on my own personal happiness. my own sens of well-being and purpose in the world. that comes from studying the world, feelingly, with empathy and my word. it comes from staying alert and allied and invold in the lives of the people that i love and the people in the wider world who need my help. no matter what you see or hear me saying when i am on your tv, holding a statuette, and spewing, that is acting. being a celebrity has taught main to hide, but being an actor has opened my soul. being here today has forced me to look around inside there for
something useful that i can share with your and i am really grateful that you gave me the chance. you know, you do not have to be famous. you just have to make your mother and father proud of you, and you already have. [applause] bravo to you. congratulations. [cheers and applause] >> here's what's ahead. next, a commencement address from drew brees and after that president obama and joe biden pay respects to fallen soldiers on memorial day. next is "washington journal." coming up, a look at the state
of new orleans in the wake of the gulf of mexico oil spill. we'll simulcast inside new orleans on wistm with eric asher. our coverage gets underway today at 1:00 p.m. eastern on c-span 2. is government broken? the brookings institution asks that question. the forum will look at challenges to good governance and look at ways to strengthen democracy. this gets underway live at 1:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span. >> new british prime minister and conservative party leader david cameron fields questions from members of parliament in his first prime minister's questions live from the british house of commons wednesday at 10:00 a.m. eastern on c-span. >> now drew brees, the quarterback of the super bowl
addresses the graduates of loyola university. he talks about the rebilling of new orleans and his decision to move there after hurricane katrina. this is about 15 minutes. [applause] >> i'll be honest. i was a little nervous about using distinguished and esteemed in the same sentence because i thought it would come out as extinguished and that was not the description i wanted to use. certainly you are all
distinguished and esteemed and it is an honor to be here. we have a lot in common. most of us came to new orleans around the same time, the spring of 2006. that was not the most popular thing to do. for me, i felt like coming to new orleans was a calling and for you, there must have been something drawing you here as well. a much stronger force that we can't necessarily describe other than we though we belonged her and now four years later, we can reflect back and say that wearp part of something special -- we were a part of something special and the work is not done yet, but we are a part of something special. we have all watched the city come back and come back stronger than ever and we have seen the people come back with mooe passion and determination than before and we have all been part of the super bowl championship. [applause]
definitely couldn't leave that one out. [laughter] no matter where you're from or where you go from here, keep new orleans close to your heart. and remember what were you a part of and foe that we all are now -- know that we all are now linked together forever. [applause] as i look out at the young men and women graduates at loyola university, class of 2010, i am so excited for you all. [applause] what you about to experience will be eye-opening, certainly rewarding, challenging at times. you know they say that experience is what you gain when you don't get what you want. i can promise you that over the
next few years you will gain experience and you will not always get what you want. you will face adversity but know that the sky is the limit as to what you can all accomplish. there are some of you that will be doctors, lawyers, politicians , writers, artists, teachers, coaches, entrepreneurs, inventors, and maybe one of you will even own an nfl franchise some day. i know another loyola university member who does. that's mr. tom benson. but i can tell you this. your best years are yet to come. but that does not mean it is going to be easy. in fact, i can guarantee you that you'll face adversity along
the way and for most of you it will be the toughest thing you have ever had to face in your life. but i will also tell you that every successful person you meet or talk to will say that it is because of that adversity that they were given the opportunity to reach new heights that they never thought possible. for me, it was any shoulder injury back in 2005. december 31, 2005, i was playing for the san diego chargers. i dislocated my right shoulder going into a season or off-season in which i did not have a contract. did not have a job. when you have that kind of injury at the quarterback position there are not many people who come calling or knocking. during that time, i thought this is probably the worst thing that could have ever happened to me. but now i look back at it four years later and i say it was probably one of the best things that ever happened to me. [applause]
because it brought brought me to new orleans. there are many others that have faced that adversity and have been in those slorks or situations. i'll give you a few examples. steve jobs. you might know him, c.e.o. of apple. he was adopted as a young baby. he went to college and dropped out after his first year. he ended up then inventing or starting apple along with a partner of his when he was 20 years old in his basement. but then by age 30, he was fired from his position as c.e.o. when he had a falling out with his partner and with the board at apple. for the next few years, there was some soul searching for him.
but in the end, he ended up starting another company. you might have heard of it, pixar animation, which ended up almost $8 billion and then another company that apple ended up buying a few years later for $500 million and he was right back where he was years before. 20 years before, as the c.e.o. of apple and there he is today doing some absolutely remarkable things. but what he would say or what i have heard him say is it was that adversity he faced when he was kicked to the curb, so to speak, from the company that he founded, where he really gained strength and yet more motivation to go forth and do remarkable things. things he would not have been able to accomplish had he not gone through what he went through at age 30. another example. ellen degeneres.
[applause] we all noelen. she grew up right down the -- know ellen. she grew up right down the road. she used to go to saints games. i've heard ellen talk about the announced she was gay. at that point she was having a pretty successful career. [applause] a little slip. she was having a pretty successful career. and then once she announced that she for three years, she was out of work. people would not give her the opportunities that they had before. to her, that was the toughest thing she ever had to go through. but in the end, she was being true to herself and she then
received a small opportunity, to perhaps host her own tv show. her own talk show. and i think we all know how that's going. she is perhaps one of the most, if not the most successful talk show hosts in history . and certainly by being a new orleanian we love her to death and know what she has meant to this country and to the world, she is a source of inspiration. someone would sit here and say had she not gone through what swhept through during those thee years, -- went through during those three years, she would not be where she is today. once again, adversity is an opportunity. adversity will make you stronger and mold you into the person that you're meant to be.
you all probably remember the on-side kick in the super bowl. right? [applause] how could we forget that? i'll tell you the story behind that. you know, we had two weeks to prepare for the super bowl. i remember sean payton came into the meeting at the beginning of this two-week preparation for the super bowl and said we -- we have an on-side kick that we're putting n the plan. it is not a matter of if we are going to run it, it is when we are going to run it. it is going to happen. and sure enough, it did and it worked. thank god. [laughter] so a lesson there, it is not a matter of if you will face adversity in your life, but when. so when adversity knocks on your door, seize it as an opportunity, for that adversity is being put in your life for a reason. it is god's way of providing you
with the strength and the tools to face future challenges and to mold you into the person that ment for you to be. meant for you to be. in the end, it is this adversity that will allow you to accomplish things in life that you originally thought were reserved only for your dreams. my second piece of advice to you is this. find what you love to do and then figure out a way to get paid for it. [laughter] sounds pretty simple, doesn't it? find what you love to do and figure out a way to get paid for it. some of you out there think you know exactly what you want to do. and then there is others who probably have no idea. that's ok. because in a year from now, those that think they know exactly what they want to do, they might not have any idea at that point. and those that don't know what to do, you might have found your passion by then.
but smoipt, be patient and don't settle. -- point is be patient and don't settle. the only way to do great work is to love what you do, and as for every matter of the heart, you will know when you find it. my third piece of advice is to approach every opportunity with an attitude of gratitude and a mind-set that whatever you encounter, you will leave it better than when you arrive. we have all been part of that here in new orleans. but why stop here? in everything you do in life, leave your mark. leave your mark. be a great steward to have community and to society and to whatever business you are involved and understand that part of your purpose in life is to leave whatever you touch better than when you found it. so leave your mark and leave it better than when you found it. number four, life goes fast.
i was sitting in your seats 10 years ago. now, it is hard to think that that was 10 years ago because it feels like it was yesterday. and i guess my point there is don't forget to enjoy the moment and flect back on the journey -- reflect back on the journey from time to time. for me, standing on that podium after we won the super bowl was a moment, one of the defining moments of my life. what made it even more special was the fact that i was holding my son. and the reflections on everything that we had been through as a city, as a team to get to that point. and as we watched the