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tv   Today in Washington  CSPAN  October 18, 2010 10:00am-12:00pm EDT

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is too much poland. polling.- too much president bush said, i do not pay attention to polls. i do what is right. guess what happened? now we have another president in the office who says the same thing. everybody wants to pretend that they do not pay attention. the average americans who pooled together across this country have a lot of wisdom. i think polling helps us understand the collective wisdom and i think our leaders would do well to pay attention to that. host: thank you for joining us. thanks for joining us today on "washington journal" and that is all for the program. will be back tomorrow morning at 7:00 a.m. eastern time. thanks for being with us.
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[captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2010] . . >> midterm elections are about two weeks away. each night we are showing debates from key races around the country. here is our lineup for tonight. live at 8:00 eastern the west
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virginia debate. later, the first of three house races, wisconsin's seventh district followed by 11th district of illinois. we have links to other related web pages at politics. >> this week, daniel reed on the future of human interaction with computers and his company's role in technology and software. tonight on c-span2. >> in the final weeks at camp in 2010, at the c-span video library is a great resource for voters. the c-span video library of free online anytime.
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the secretary of state, hillary clinton, spoke to the commonwealth club of california just ovfor just over an hour on friday. she spoke about relations with china, the afghan peace process, and u.s. cooperation in helping mexico fight drug violence. [applause] as you all know, secretary clayton has distinguished herself over four decades of public service as an advocate for human rights, skilled attorney, first lady of arkansas, and of our great nation and united states senator from the great state of new york. [applause]
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secretary clayton joined the state department in january 2009 and since taking on this sand very serious post test is its 64 countries around the world. she has work on strengthening america's relationship with other nations and advancing the concepts of democracy and civil society. please join me in welcoming secretary clinton. [applause] >> good evening.
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this is such a great treat to be back in san francisco. it is somewhat disconcerting because this is only the third place in the united states that i have spoken since i became secretary of state. in [applause] the first place, which some may question whether it is still in the united states, it is of course washington where i of spoken several times, and hawaii on my way to asia. i have been invited to come to the commonwealth club many times over the years, and was unable to accept the kind invitation, but i thought it would be inappropriate time for me to have this conversation. -- but i thought it would be an appropriate time for me to have this conversation.
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but i want to thank all of the officers and members of the commonwealth club. it is a great treat to see the former secretary of defense, bill perry and his wife right here in the front row. and i welcome them. [applause] i know, even though i cannot see much beyond the third row, that there are a lot of other friends. i am so pleased to be here with all of you. mostly this is going to be a conversation, but i wanted to make a few points, because i think it is important to give you a bit of an overview of what we have been trying to do since january sai 2009. clearly for me as secretary of
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state, it is a primary mission to elevate diplomacy and development alongside defense so that we have an integrated foreign-policy in support of our national security in furtherance of our interests and values. that seems self-evident when i say it tonight here in this gathering, but it is actually quite challenging to do. it is challenging for several reasons. first, because of the diplomacy of our nation, which has been from the very beginning one of the principal tools of what we do, has never been fully and well understood by the general public. it appears in the minds of many to be official meetings, mostly conducted by men and three-piece
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suits with other men and government buildings and palaces to end wars and all kinds of impasses. and of course, there is still that element, not only with men but the work of diplomacy is still in the traditional mode, but it is so much more today, because it is also imperative that we engage in public diplomacy, reaching out to not just leaders, but the citizens of the countries with whom we engage because even in authoritarian regimes public opinion matters. in our interconnected world it matters in ways that are even more important. ho we have tried to use the tools of technology to expand their roles of diplomacy.
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similarly with the appointment, i have long been a passionate about what our assistance programs mean around the world, how they represent the very best of the generosity spirit of the american people. u.s.a.i.d. did so much good work in the 1960's an 1970's. the green revolution, that absolutely extraordinary commitment that the united states, researchers an agricultural scientist made to improving agricultural or around the world transformed the way people were able to see themselves and build a better future. when an overtime, it became hollowed out -- over time it became hallowed out when became
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subcontracting mechanism. the work that used to be done by development experts housed in the u.s. government became a much more part of contracting out twiswith ngo's, so the reputation was no longer what it needed to be. when i came into office of secretary of state, i sort of follow the example of the defense department, which has for many years conducted what is called the defense review. when i was in the senate, i served on the senate arms forces committee. i realized what a tool this could be. -- i realize what a great tool
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this could be. it helped to guide to what it was that our country would be doing for the next four years when it came to the nation's defense, so i embarked on the first ever diplomacy development review, which will come out by the end of this year. it is quite an undertaking to do it for the first time, because you have to question all of your assumptions to figure out how to present what we do best. in to set forth a vision -- and to set forth a vision with strategies that will take us where we want to go as a nation. i am also working very hard to make it non-partisan. certainly our national commitment to defense is non- partisanship and has bipartisan support in the congress, and i
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want the same for diplomacy and development. one aspect of what we're doing to promote diplomacy and development that is quite new and has special importance for the bay area is our emphasis on innovation and use of technology. we have been working very hard for the last 20 months to bring into the work we do the advances that many of the companies and the innovators here in california have brought to business, have brought to communications and particular. innovation is one of america's greatest values and products, and we are very committed to working with scientists and researchers and others to look for new ways to develop hardier
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crops or live-saving drugs at affordable cost, working with engineers for new sources of clean energy or clean water to both i.s.m. and climate change and also to improve the standard of living for people. social and entrepreneurs who marry capitalism and philanthropy are using the power of the free market to drive social and economic progress. here we see a great advantage that the united states has that we're putting to work in our everyday thinking and our reached around the world. let me give you a couple of examples, because the new communication tools that all of you and i use as a matter of course are helping to connect and empower civil society leaders, democracy activists,
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and everyday citizens, even in closed societies. earlier this year in syria, young students witnessed shocking physical abuse for tby their studentteachers. a decade earlier the students would have just suffered those beatings and violence. the students had two secret weapons, cell phones and the internet. they recorded videos and posted them on facebook, even though the site is officially banned in syria. the public backlash against dissidents was so swift and vocal that the government had to remove them from their positions. [applause] that is why the united states and the obama administration is
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such a strong advocate for the freedom to connect. earlier this year i gave a speech about our commitment to internet freedom, which if you think about it, is the freedom to assemble, the freedom to freely express yourself, the right of all people to connect to the internet into each other to access information, share their views, participate in global debate. i am well aware that telecommunications is not any silver bullet, and these technologies can be used for repressive purposes, but all over the world we see their promise. we're working to leverage the power and potential in what i call 21st century statecraft. part of our approach is to embrace new tools. kebbel we are also reaching to the people behind these tools,
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the innovators and entrepreneurs themselves. we know that many business leaders want to promote some of their companies' expertise to help solve problems around the world, but they often do not know how to do that. what is the point of entry? which ideas would have the most impact? we are increasing new public /private partnerships that link on the ground experience of diplomats with the energy and resources of the business community. one of my first acts as secretary was to appoint a special representative for global partnerships. we have brought the allegations of technology leaders to mexico and colombia, iraq, in syria as well as india and russia to meet with activists, teachers, doctors and so many wmore. josh nesbitt joined a state
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department delegation to colombia. on the trip he learned firsthand about one of the biggest problems in the country's rural areas, injuries and deaths from unexploded land mines. he was so moved that this month he is going back to work with the government, local telecom companies on at mobile application that would allow colombians to report the location of land mines so they can be disposed of safely. similarly in washington will bring together experts from various fields to join us and working on some of these big foreign-policy challenges. last year we held our first state conferences. just last week, the cell phone industry around the world convened a group to talk about how to advocate for girls and
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women to put access to cell phones. it is a new initiative called "m women." [applause] at usaid we are pursuing market- driven solutions that really look to see how to involve the business community, and we have just unveiled a new venture capital style fund called, development, innovation ventures, which will invest and creative ideas that we think can lead to teen-changing innovations in development. as part of our first round of financing, the fund has already invested in solar lighting in rural hugh landa, and an affordable electric bicycle that
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doubles as a portable power source. the door is open to each and everyone of you. i just met with a group from twitter, and i know there are million ideas that are born every day here. if you have a good idea, we will listen. despite all the progress we have made, but we cannot take for granted that the united states will still lead in the innovation race. we're working to foster innovation at home and promote it abroad, and president obama has set a goal of devoting 3% of our gross domestic product of research and development. [applause] to ensure that by 2020 week regain the position that we held
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for decades, which we have lost, namely, having the highest proportion of college graduates in the world. we need to make sure that american companies have the incentives they need to keep innovating. companies must be assured that if they sell their products around the world, they do so without the fear of piracy, the intellectual property rights are protected, and the rule of law applies to everyone equally. in our efforts over the past 20 months we have been raising these issues at the highest levels across the globe. we cannot do this alone. we need your help. one way to contribute is by joining one of the new public/private partnerships i have described. we've recently launched a new mentoring program, call tech women haed tech women.
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women will spend five weeks gaining skills and experiences and california. just this week twitter joined the program and i hope many more will follow. i urge you to become involved with the social entrepreneurs or movement. there is money to be made through socially responsible investments. putting financial and social capital to work is one of our goals. next year we will host a conference for social entrepreneurs and investors in washington. most of all, we just once to let you know that when i talk about diplomacy and development in the 21st century, it is not just what i do when i go off to asia or africa or latin america or anywhere else, it is what we all do. because i am convinced that it
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is not only are connections through government that will really turn the course of the 21st century, but indeed it is the people to people connections, and there is not anyone anywhere who does not know that our free, it dynamic society was so many opportunities for people does not in some way hold out both promise and example for them. whether you care about haiti where we have work from the very beginning of the disaster to help with relief and reconstruction, or whether you care about the violence in mexico from the drug cartels and helping to put together an anonymous crime reporting tip lines so that citizens can report what they see and learn without fear of being exposed,
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or whether you care about national treasures like those in iraq that were in danger-over the last several years so we worked with the national museum and global map google maps to sd engineers to baghdad to take 15,000 pictures to catalog the antiquities that were in danger of being lost, or whether you care about empowering young people or mobile justice and the democratic republic of congo, the site of some of the most terrific gender and sexual-based violence in the world. we're planning a project to use technology to facilitate justice for survivals of violence and and eastern condo.
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whatever it is you care about, we want you to know there is a place for you to become involved in work with us at the state department, because i believe strongly that you each to complete a role in helping us chart a better future. thank you all very much. [applause] >> thank you for coming. welcome to the commonwealth club. you know had to draw a big audience for sure. -- how to draw a big audience for sure. freedom house as an index of freedom around the world. this year that came out and said there have been four years of decline in freedom of round the world, which is the worst they
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have seen and the 40 years they have been measuring best. they said that half the world is free. given all the things you talked about, the trend of freedom seems to not be going in the positive direction. >> i think there is a worrisome trend, that despite a lot of the advances i was just talking about and the tools of communication that has such potential for empowering and liberated people to pursue their own goals in life, there are some counter trends, and we see effort by government to prevent the access to information that we believe is a fundamental value and freedom. we see governments that believe democracy consists of having won the election -- one election,
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and that is it. a lot of progress that was being made to promote democracy was not firmly embedded in the societies that have know experience with what it means to have a democracy, the establishment of institutions from a free press to an independent judiciary, protection of minority rights. we also see that even in very developed democracies that have always prized freedom and their right to privacy, there are new threats, such as the threat of terrorism that has caused governments around the world to become much more cautious and careful and tried to keep their citizens eightsafe and time impd
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regulations that this chip away at the citizens' freedoms. i still believe the trend lines are positive, but you cannot take them for granted. >> thomas friedman believes there is a correlation with the price of oil and freedom around the world. that higher oil prices regions do you think the price of oil has an influence on freedom -- to you think the price of oil has an influence on freedom? >> there has been a correlation between the hunts to for nation for national resources ad
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attitudes taken by governments that have those resources to has been them and protect them, but i do not think it is just that. there are other aspects of society that are rooted in their own history and culture that contribute to that. it is fair to say that there is a so-called oil curse. when countries discovered oil, start marketing that oil, is they are not called loughthoughr visionary, very often it becomes a small leak that benefits from that. the benefits are not broadly shared. the progress of democracy and freedom is halted. the necessity for democracy to deliver services for people in order to maintain the support
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for a new democracy is unfortunately diminished. there is certainly a connection in some places. in some places it is more obvious than others. >> you said the 70's were the glory years. how will this really be different than past reforms of the mechanism? >> it is going to be a much more comprehensive effort to rebuild usaid. in order to do that we have to have a clear focus of our mission. in the president's speech by the united nations the president
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laid out of focus on trying to enhance economic growth, and build middle-class is around the world, because that does correlate with stability and increasing political freedom and democracy historically. it also means doing a really hard scrum of usaid. -- really hard scrub of usaid. we're working hard to try to streamline the delivery of aid. i will give you an example. we have 24 different agencies that provide some sort of aid, development aid. it makes it difficult to speed with and that sort of faded voice in the country and to avoid redundancy -- to speak
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with an authoritative voice in the country and to avoid redundancy. you may go to another place and with the u.s.a. i deprogram get your children immunized. you may go to another place to try to uphold -- to try to get health care for pregnancy and labor and delivery. you may go to another place and try to get health with your crops to get fertilizer and seed. we have all of these parallel structures. the problem is if you are an ambassador in the country and secretary of state, if you call everyone that works directly for the government or on contract that is working in development to come together, as i have done
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in the past, i guarantee you that people in the room often do not know each other and rarely work with each other. at some point that is not a sustainable model. in our own tough budget times, i have to be able to not just come and speak to the commonwealth club, but also make the case to the american public and congress that these investments are in furtherance of our security values and interests and that we're born to be good stewards of the tax dollars. we're looking through the diplomacy and development review that will be coming out at the end of the year, we're looking to start in motion reforms and how we do the business that will actually give us more impact for what we do, and be very good stewards of the tax dollars that are provided to us. >> people talk about cross
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agency collaboration, but will this really change? >> i will give you one example. one of my priorities and the president's priority was to figure out how to rationalize and better coordinate what we did to end hunger and promote food security. starting right after i got there, i asked my chief of staff, cheryl mills, to run a government-why'd process, which meant bringing the department of agricultural anin. -- starting right after i got there, i asked my chief of staff, cheryl mills, to run the government-wide process, which meant bringing in the department
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of agriculture. it was challenging to get everyone in the same room talking about their contribution and how we could better focus on what they were doing to produce results. at the end of the process we came out with a program that will focus on improving agriculture so that people can become more suspicioussufficient themselves. that is where i met rod shaw. he wasn't in the department of agriculture. we're working very hard. democracy is a challenge, no matter where you find it. we are conscious of that. we have emphasized our feed the future initiative. we have emphasized better
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organizing global health. we have usaid, the sstate department, centers for disease control and all of these other groups that are working on this. and then we have a third government initiative on climate change. we want to try to change the way our own government functions and then change the way the other governments function and deliver services in ways that make sense to people within their own cultural and political atmosphere. >> our guest today, hillary clinton. and i am brian dolan. afghanistan is a place where the u.s. is trying to promote economic development and democracy. how you define success in afghanistan? -- how do you defines success in
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afghanistan? >> i define it as a stable country that is able to defend itself and is making progress towards institutionalizing democracy when and better services for the people. in order to get to that, we have to work with the afghan government to build up their own security forces, and we are seeing progress in that arena, not enough, but enough to be able to say we can see a path forward. we have to help rid ocertain strongholds of taliban insurgency from interfering with and preventing the gradual expansion of security and stability. we have to really help the governments at all levels
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understand how better to function, and we have some affect of ministries and others that have a long way to go. -- we have some effective ministries and others that have a long way to go. when i become -- became secretary of state are military efforts, and civilian efforts were under resources. we were basically treading water. we either had to make a decision to try to move toward what i just said as a model that i believe represents success or not, and just try to pick off insurgents and leave it at that. it is a very difficult environment for all of obvious reasons that this audience knows, because you followed the news.
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it is not a hopeless one and not the failing environment. it is one that has a lot of challenges that are inherent that have to be dealt with. its culture is not our culture. the way that we have tried to approach the civilian side of the equation is to increase our presence. upon reviewing their rework -- where we were, it is very difficult to build relationships, mentor, do the kind of our rich we were seeking. we are now over 1000. they are very committed experts.
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it has been an effort. i am not one to sit here and tell you that i know what the end of the story will be, but we have made a very committed effort and a strategy that we will follow through on. >> reportedly the u.s. has a dual-track strategy with increasing bombs in afghanistan and opening and negotiating track with the taliban. what are the conditions or expectations of the strategy? what is the end came to monitor shipped with the taliban? >> this is an afghan-lead process, which we support. we have agreed upon redlines. there are two tracks to that. what is called reintegration and what is called a reconciliation.
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here is the difference. in reintegration it is focused on the battlefield and individual fighter that is ready to go home. we find more and more of those of, as reported by the military commanders. these are mostly young men who were either intimidated into adjoining the taliban or chose to do so through family or village pressure or because it was a way to make a living. for many years the taliban paid a lot better than anything else in afghanistan. this was one of the problems as to why we lost the momentum that everybody thought we were building in the prior administration because there was no real emphasis on helping to employ young men and helping to build a security force so that there was a choice.
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one of the first things we did was raise the pay of those who joined the police and army. we began to get many more recruits. and in reintegration, if they're willing to leave the battlefield and renounce violence and any connection to al qaeda and abide by the laws of afghanistan we will help facilitate their reintegration. reconciliation is more along the lines of the classic negotiation among leaders. the leadership of the taliban looking to see whether or not they are willing to end their fighting. we're just the beginning of that process. you may have seen where afghanistan has since established a peace council under the former president
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to lay down principles that will guide them in pursuing their discussions with representatives of the taliban. we have the same redlines. they have to denounce violence, give up violence as a means for pursuing their goals. they have to renounce al qaeda, because remember, president bush told the taliban and they would turn over bin laden and pronounced al qaeda, the united states would not go after afghanistan. and they would not. we said that as part of the condition, that you have to renounce all tied up and abide by the constitution and laws. -- that you have to renounce al qaeda and abide by the constitution and laws. the military forces have asked
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been asked to facilitate meetings the leaders have had. we're really testing the waters on these. it is very challenging, because many of the leaders live in pakistan. many of the sanctuaries for the taliban and pakistan is where the planning and organization and the direction and coordination with al qaeda continues. we have also, as part of the review that the president ordered back in january of 2009, we have engaged much more intensely with the pakistani leadership, both civilian governments and the military leadership, and that made it clear to them that we want a different relationship, " we expect their assistance in going after -- but we expect their
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assistance in going after al qaeda. >> let's talk about pakistan. very important strategically to the u.s. all the sudden, the floods, it would displace mawhich displacen people. does that make the country more vulnerable? >> is certainly makes a complicated situation even more so. it does not make it a failed state. pakistan has some strong state institutions and their strong control ties. the military is obviously the strongest, best-functioning institution in the country. we have worked hard to support
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the democratically-elected government, but we have been very frank with them about what they needed to do to become an effective government. as you saw in the aftermath of the floods, the civilian government was very slow to respond. the military responded as they had after the earthquake of 2005 and the united states was very much involved in trying to help that relief and recovery effort. what has happened with the flood has set back pakistan's development. the last time i was there in july, i announced as part of a multi-year package of aid some infrastructure projects focusing on water and electricity that were very needed. now following the flood, the infrastructure needs are even more pressing. bridges that have been washed
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out. agricultural land that has been eroded and. other kinds of systems that were providing electricity, either damaged or destroyed. we are taking a hard look at it next week. iwe're looking at how we can better target this. i have also been very clear with this message to pakistan. in pakistan as well as outside of pakistan. the united states cannot and should not be expected to help pakistan with its development needs and less pakistan is due more to help themselves, and that includes reforming the tax system that does not tax the elite and deleon didn't -- the
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property class. pakistan has one of the lowest tax per g.d.p. percentages in the world. we are working with them on reforming their tax system, because some of the richest people in pakistan paid less than $100 and all taxes. when i was in london -- brussels yesterday [laughter] i was with kathy and ashton, the newly appointed high representative of the european union, and we did a press conference about aid for pakistan, and i said and she echoed our expectation that the elite of pakistan they should do more to help our own country if they expect us to help them. [applause]
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>> i have another question about iran. are we close to engagement or confrontation with them? >> when we started to try to put together an international coalition in support of sanctions that really would fight -- most people thought we could not get china and russia to go along, and we did. then the united states followed with our own sanctions, and other countries followed with additional sanctions. from all that we can determine from the analysis of economic activity and political debates within iran, the sanctions are having an effect. therefore, we are hoping that their recent out reached by the iranian government to catch the ahy ashton, our representative
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of the negotiating forum, it is by no means clear how seriously they will engage, but if they come back and at least negotiate, that will give us additional insight and information. one of the problems with dealing with iran, in addition to the historical problems we have had is there is a lot of debate and division within the government. trying to see them make a decision whether they will negotiate with us illustrates
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clearly the division between the elected leadership, despite the plot election, the supreme leader in the clerical leadership, and increasingly revolutionary guard, which is playing a bigger and bigger role ensiinside iran. >> another nuclear question is of a start treaty. when do you think this will get through the senate? >> it got through it before and relations committee on a bipartisan vote, which is very good news. -- it got through the foreign relations committee on a bipartisan vote, which is very good news. we have broadbased bipartisan support from people like bill
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perry and george shultz and others who have written and testified about the benefits of this treaty. it is part of our broader effort to find areas of common interest in collaboration with russia. we have also broaden and deepen a strategic dialogue that is trying to build bridges not just at the leadership level, but going much deeper into the government. russia is trying to gain acceptance into the world trade organization. we're supporting that. russia has opened up its territory for transit of legathl
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weapons and equipment into afghanistan. russia is working but us on counter-terrorism. we are trying to find as many areas as possible, while still speaking out about occupation in georgia and repression of human rights and said russia and other areas where we do not agree, and the start treaty is obviously a major result of that collaboration. >> during your confirmation hearing, senator murkowski asked you if there would be a priority to ratify the laws of the treaty, which she supports. what are you doing to advance the loss? there are a handful of opponents of our concerns about sovereignty issues. >> it is one of the most important treaties that we need to ratify it, and we prioritize the start treaty this year. we will prioritize the law of
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the season next year. -- the laws of the seas next year. it is critical to how we will manage the arctic, critical to our credibility with working with countries, so much in america's interest. the objections to it are just not well-founded. i am hoping that we will be able to get a hearing on its early in the year ended a vote on it as soon thereafter as possible. as things stand now, it is more difficult for us to deal with what are becoming increasingly pressing maritime issues, both in freedom of navigation and in the exploitation of the seabed for searching for everything
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from oil and gas to minerals and all that may live there. and i am hoping we get too early next year. >> another international issue that you sign on is a pipeline prim from alberta that brings tm directly to the midwest. this is some of the dirty as fuel in the world. -- dirtiest fuel in the worlds. [applause] >> there has not been a final decision made. >> are you willing to reconsider it? >> probably not. [laughter] we have not finished all of the analysis. as i say, we have not yet signed off on it, but we are inclined
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to do so and we are for several reasons. we will either be dependent on dirty oil from the gulf or dependent on dirty oil from canada. until we get our act together as a country and figure out the renewable energy is in both our economic interests and interests of our planet -- [applause] i mean, i do not think it will come as a surprise to anyone how deeply disappointed the president and i are about the inability to get the kind of legislation through the senate that the united states was seeking. that has not stopped what we are doing. we have moved a lot on the regulatory front through the epa here at home, and we have been
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working with a number of countries on an adaptation and mitigation measures, but obviously it was one of the highest priorities of the administration for us to enshrine in legislation president obama's commitment to reducing the hour and emissions. we do have a lot that is still left to be done. it is a hard balancing act. it is a very hard balancing act. but it is also, for me, energy security requires that i've looked at all of the factors schiedathat we have to considere try to expedite as much as we can america's move toward clean renewable energy. the double disappointment is that despite china's resistance
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to transparency and how difficult it was for president obama and i to drive even the copenhagen agreements that we finally got a crashing the meeting of china and india and brazil and south africa -- [applause] >> would have liked to see not one. -- that one. >> at the same time, they are making enormous investments in clean energy technology. if we permit that to happen, shame on us. [applause] the united states should be the leader in this. it is one of the ways to stimulate and grow our economy. and [applause] that is a small window and to the dilemma we are confronted with.
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>> let's stay with china for a minute. the u.s. has resumed military relations with china. the currency is not where the u.s. would like it. there has been some speculation recently. i believe there is a state visit planned later this year. where do want u.s.-china relations to go before that visit on those fronts? >> there is going to be a state visit. thethis is another one of our efforts to balance many competing efforts. we are committed to working towards a comprehensive relationship with china, which is certainly in the interests of cooperation on so many issues in the world today. we continue to speak out in disagreement with the treatment of the dolly llama in tibet.
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we continue to speak out. we continue to speak out in favor of providing defense of capability -- defensive capability of taiwan. we continue to speak out on human rights inside china. we also work very hard to have china on the side of sanctioning north korea, sanctioning iran, working to implement those sanctions. participating in the international effort against piracy. looking for ways to partner on clean energy, finding opportunities to work on development in africa where china has many contracts and exploitation of natural resources, and we want to try to better find ways to assist the people in those countries by
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working together. so it is a constant balancing act, and there is no either or, because the relationship with china is and will remain a core, central focus of american foreign policy for as long as i can see into the future. we support china's peaceful rise. we want china to be a responsible member of the international community. i thought one of the most historically significant actions that just occurred was the statement by communist party elders in favor of greater freedom of expression and said china. there is no way the united states can force the kind of internal changes toward greater openness, respect for human
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rights that we would like to see. we can advocate for it and stand up for it, but ultimately it will have to be motivated and directed by people inside. there will be a day of reckoning, just as there will be on the currency. . .
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>> we have the number of questions about mexico and the gang and drug violence there. they are about to go from being an oil exporter to an oil importer. what can we do about mexico? >> i care deeply about mexico. i'm extremely impressed by the courage of the president in taking on the drug cartels. [applause] this is one of the most difficult fights in the country faces today. we sought over the last couple of decades in colombia. we are watching drug-traffickers undermine and corrupt
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governments in central america. we're watching the brutality of their violent assaults on mayors, governors, the press and each other in mexico. it has been one of my highest priorities. we have worked closely with the mexican government to assist in ways they have requested. i went to mexico shortly after becoming secretary of state and said what i believe which is the united states shares the responsibilities for the violence plaguing mexico. [applause] our insatiable demand for illegal drugs, our unwillingness to crack down on thousands and thousands of weapons being traffic across our border into mexico --
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[applause] i thought it was an obvious thing to say. some political commentators criticized me for it, but it meant that for the first time, the united states was coming to mexico not to tell mexico what to do, but to say we have a problem, not you, we have a problem and we want to help you deal with this very serious problem for the safety of your citizens and stability of many local governments. we are working hard. it's not just a question of providing blackhawk helicopters, which we have promised to do, or better equipment for police and military. it is helping them build an independent judiciary, build a
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corrections system that can keep the criminals in once there,. working to improve their prosecution and conviction rate. helping to professionalize their police force because they don't have a national police force. every american should support what the government of mexico is trying to do and send a clear message that we will be their partners and that they need to win the struggle against drug traffickers. you cannot accommodate them. what has happened is these drug cartels are now taking on the attributes of the insurgent and terrorist groups we see elsewhere around the world. for the first time, mexican drug gangs are using car bombs.
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like you would see in iraq or pakistan. you see them being much more organized in a paramilitary way. one of the most violent of the drug gangs are former special forces members from the mexican army who went over to the dark side. this is a struggle that has a huge consequence for the united states, not just along our border, but far into our nation. i'm glad you asked about that because there is so much more we can do to help mexico. we are looking for ways of the mexican american diaspora can help as well. i'm going to be rolling something like that out hopefully early next year. that is something that would like to underscore -- i said in
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my opening comments that diplomacy and the outreach cannot just be left to our government. there are so many ways we can influence what goes on in other countries. through technology, the anonymous crime took blind we're helping mexico set up. and through the diaspora, also places in asia, those are the biggest sources of foreign aid. we just rolled out the idea that we unveiled at the united nations, along with honduras and el salvador, which is to leverage remittances to assist in infrastructure building in countries that are so dependent on remittances coming from the united states. we're coming up with lots of ideas, but please take this as
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an invitation to let us hear from you about rethought to have about helping us tackle this complex of problems we face. the good news about communications technology is we can communicate. the bad news is we know what's going on everywhere and there's no escape. it's not like we can just deal with the biggest countries in the world and call it a day. we know what's going on in every corner of the world and that requires the united states be engaged and effectively so across the globe. you would think with virtual communications, our jobs might be easier. but in fact it is more demanding because of what we know and what we are called upon to try to do on behalf of our goals and hopes for the world. >> i would like to remind you to
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stay in your seats until secretary clinton has departed. i would also like to thank everyone who pulled this together. everyone's staff has been terrific. we have been camped out here for a week. the commonwealth club, thank you for making this possible. i don't know if you have time for a question from a 10-year- old -- >> i hate to leave. >> i am 10 years old and i'm worried about my future environment. what can people do to help? i am here with my teachers. [applause] >> i think there is a lot you can do. it has been my experience that young people are much more
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environmentally conscious and committed to protecting the world your growing up in than some of us older people are. therefore, working on projects in your school, asking questions like this of people like me who talk about priorities for our country. it's important to work with the environment in your area. there are lots of ways and lots of projects young people are doing that set an example for what can be accomplished. i am out of politics, as you know. the secretary of state is not involved in any political activity. certainly not elections. so speaking as a private
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citizen -- it [laughter] [applause] i think people running for office should be asked to explain their position on what they're going to do -- [applause] and i know from what i read in the newspaper these days that there is a lot of frustration, anxiety and even anger in our country right now over unemployment, over feeling our government is not working, our economy is not working, just a lot of concern which is very real. i hope that people take some of that energy and focus it on the environment and on climate change because we really do have
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to have a longer range view of what is going to make our country strong and rich and smart. [applause] i have no doubt that the united states -- and i believe president obama's policies are going to be borne out and demonstrate their effectiveness. we did not get into the problems we are in today overnight. we got into them over time. we can get out of them, but we cannot get out of them if we're not thinking. if all we are doing is reacting and the being upset and mad and looking for someone to blame instead of working together.
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that is going to require a renewal of american partnership and solving the problems we face and not pretending they are ignored or resolved in any easy way. i'm hoping your question will be on the minds of everybody because clearly the air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat, it's all connected to the environment and it's up to us to give it to you in as good of shape as it should be. [applause] >> our thanks to secretary of state hillary rodham clinton. thank you for coming. i hope you will come and see is again. [applause]
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please stay in your seats. [applause] >> you can see all of the secretary of state's remarks on we will be heading soon to the university of virginia for a look at the recent citizens united verses fec supreme court ruling. that will get underway live at noon eastern here on c-span. in the meantime, some campaign is -- the speaker of the houses in pittsburgh today, giving a speech at the women of steel convention. she will be touching on jobs and issues about contributions to gop campaigns by the u.s. chamber of commerce. meanwhile, the minority leader is raising money for his campaign to become speaker of the house. he has raised $1.9 million in
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the third quarter, that more than triples the amount he made in the second quarter. the committee is a joint effort between the minority leader in the national republican congressional committee. our midterm elections are about two weeks away. each night on c-span, we are showing debates from key races to drop the country. here is the lineup for tonight -- at 8:00, the west virginia senate debate. one hour after that, the first of three house races -- wisconsin's seventh district, and illinois district debates. we have dozens of debates for you to watch online with political ads, some speeches, and campaign rallies and leagues to other pages. -- links to other pages. >> microsoft's daniel reed on
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the future of human interaction with computers and his company's role with software. that's tonight on c-span2. >> before we look at the supreme court ruling on corporate spending, here is a look at the former japanese prime minister who talked about the future of security in the asia-pacific region and the rise of china. this is from friday and from an event from the hudson institute in washington d.c. he expressed concern over china's foreign-policy adventurism and called on the u.s. and japan to work together on issues involving the chinese. [applause] >> thank you very much.
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secretary wolfowitz is out there somewhere. the hadson president and herb london, it's a pleasure to be with you all today. many of you who were with us last i had the pleasure of hearing the prime minister speak in connection with our dinner. it was a great event and his remarks were terrific. i know my colleagues that hadson join me in saying to the prime minister -- [speaking japanese] there will be a brief pause while that is translated into japanese. [laughter] the prime minister is very well known in america.
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you have on your seats some of his biographical data. little bit why since he was introduced last night, since you have this data, since he is well known already, there is this unnecessary introduction for me to perform today. i guess they thought if it was the price and necessary, i could handle it. the economy here is shaky and the jobs are low and this will keep employment going. there's always a hudson policy reason to do things. the prime minister has great experience with a great country. they're struggling through temporary problems. as prime minister, his vision began with pride in his country. with the steps toward balancing the budget, with a firm stance
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toward north korea, with warmer but realistic relationships with china, with a visit to india that proposed a broader asian alliance, and with support for nato's efforts in afghanistan. as i look around the room today, i see many heads nodding at your agenda. this is election time in your -- this is election time and you may find your name written into some of the ballots. [applause] just to help those who want to, it is abe come as in a blink in. -- as in a lincoln. perhaps you would like a
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challenge any good, run in america for office. there is one other policy area where americans would be very much supporting of what you have done. that is sympathy for the japanese families of the abductees. [applause] there is another element of the prime minister's program, and that is a close relationship with america. he further this as prime minister, he furthered it as the chief cabinet secretary for the previous prime minister, but he built on this on a foundation that was laid a generation before him. when i first entered the government and the state department in the 1980's, america reoriented its policy to be closer and more focused on its relationship with japan. the president was ronald reagan.
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our foreign minister was george shultz. the japanese prime minister was the father of our guest tonight. the rejuvenated the relationship, but they in turn built on a foundation laid a generation before. the treaty of mutual cooperation and securities signed in january of 1960 has been the foundation of american and japanese security ever since. but that treaty was not controversial up time. it took a strong and visionary leader to see the treaty through and it cost him in the and his premiership. the president was eisenhower. the prime minister was the grandfather of our guest today. it is perhaps little less none
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that in 1957, when the prime minister was negotiating the treaty, he came to washington to work on the treaty and also to play golf. as happens, this weekend, the prime minister will play golf at the very same country club. the prime minister's trip here to america has engendered a great deal of attention and many questions have been raised. but the one that is truly burning for most people in america is who is the better golfer, the grandfather or the grandson? hudson is a research institution, so i have spent some hours watching video of his swing. during his trip here, he sank a 30 foot putt.
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it is to be remembered we are a very thorough institution and the golf clubs or not as good as the golf clubs today. we have to allow for that factor. in 1957, golf balls were not digital. but we have some video satellite footage of the prime minister's swing. and i am pleased to say we have done this analysis and i can't announce it is the better golfer -- i can announce who is the better golfer. the answer is the former prime minister. [laughter] i would like to close by reminding everybody about one other aspect of the prime minister's tenure. it is the tradition on new year's day for japanese prime ministers to go to a shinto shrine.
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while the prime minister went to the grand shrine, built 1500 years ago, a wooden structure and it never decays. how does a wooden structure never decay over 1500 years? it does it because it is rebuilt every generation from scratch. the process of rebuilding begins six years before it is rebuilt. it begins with a festival which took place during the prime minister's tenure. the u.s.-japan relationship has never decayed. it has been rebuilt by each generation. my particular favorite aspect of the shrine is not the shrine itself, but the sacred area next
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to the shrine on which the shrine will be rebuilt. it is basically an and the area except for a single post maybe 2 meters tall. the new shrine is built around that post. it means the column of the heart. it's an echo of ancient japan and it reminds us that strength begins in the human heart. the u.s.-japan relationship is built on the love of freedom that reside in the human heart. at the essence of our long relationship which will continue due to visit such as the one where having today, at its essence are common values much more than geopolitics. that is what connects us. no one can tell us more about as common bellies than the prime
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minister. [applause] >> thank you very much. i would like to express my thanks to the hudson institute, one of america's leading think tanks for providing me the opportunity for me to speak to you today. it's a great honor for me to address an audience that includes the chairman of the hudson institute and many others.
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i have met many others from the hudson institute on several occasions and maintain friendly ties with them ever since. it is my pleasure to have the chance once again to meet my washingtonian friends who are so important to me. i have a deep admiration for the founder of the hudson the phrase he coined, "thinking the unthinkable" has provided me with four -- has provided me with much food for thought in my career. my own interpretation of that phrase, "thinking the unthinkable" is as follows -- to
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provide hope for the future based on a clear understanding of the past. and an accurate perception of the presence. -- of the present. in japan, the sense of the people is that it's difficult to find any hope for the future. a contributing factor to this feeling is the fact that china's gdp surpassed japan's for the first time this august, meaning that japan has lost its 40-year long position as the second- largest economy in the world. this development was predicted several years ago and most japanese except this as a time that was sure to come. to put a positive spin on it,
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this is an immediate response. but my concern is it will lead to fear of resignation. i am alarmed at japan's declining standing in the world and the feeling of stagnation that has spread throughout the country. at the same time, i am convinced japan has the means to revive itself. this is the main point i hope to impress here -- i hope to impress upon you that it is part of the reason for my visit to washington. japan faces a number of difficult challenges today. i would like to focus on two of these challenges and provide my
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thoughts on what we can do to overcome them. the first issue is the fiscal deficit. the second is the rise of china. theegin, let's consider enormous fiscal deficit. the united states faces challenges with its own deficit, but japan has already passed 10 trillion dollars, which is twice the size of japan's gdp and one of the worst in the world. there are a couple of aspects bets [unintelligible] 1 is the fact that 95% is held by the japanese people themselves. that's a marked contrast to greece where 70% of the debt is held by foreigners. another is the value of japan's
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overseas assets, which is now the largest in the world. and once again, completely different from the greek situation. japan is in no immediate danger of bankruptcy, however it is true that japan is saddled with a ballooning fiscal deficit. one factor behind this is demographics. our birth rate is declining why -- while our population is aging. in the birthrate is hovering around 1.3 child poor woman -- per woman as a result. forecasts indicate our current population of 128 million will fall to 100 million by 2015.
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a declining population means a smaller work force and fewer consumers which will be a drag on economic growth and tax revenues. moreover, as the population continues to age, highest payments on the social security will be unavoidable. what should we do to restore our fiscal situation? [unintelligible] the best medicine will be the revitalization of the economy. without a growing economy, it is impossible to shrink the deficit. this daunting task must be
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accomplished. there is no silver bullet to bring about [unintelligible] despite our demographic challenges, i am convinced japan can overcome these issues by walking steadily and patiently to address them. innovation will be key to making this possible. during my term as prime minister, a position to innovation as one of the pillars of one of japan's national strategy. [unintelligible] the first long-term strategy to be instituted by the japanese government.
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japan possesses a high educational level and technological expertise to foster innovation. our technology in the field of energy, the environment, nuclear energy, robots and biotechnology is second to none. while corporations in south korea, taiwan and china have advanced technologically, japan maintains an advantage in many fields. the world economic forum recently released its latest global competitiveness report. japan was ranked up six from eight place last year. that earned high praise for japan's technological innovation, which cited the
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basis of our improved ranking. besides innovation, there is another one i have consistently brought up. the world is open, which is fundamental to the establishment of any free-trade regime. i believe we must work to make progress on free trade agreements, which are known in japan as an economic partnership agreement. the older population of asia continues to crime. china has 1.3 billion people. india has 1.2 billion.
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the combined population of our countries is 600 -- is -- there are 3 billion people living in this region alone, accounting for 45% of the total population of the world. japanese companies must clearly invest actively in this best working population and enormous consumer market. last month, japan and india reached an agreement between our two countries. the vision to launch negotiations in the first place was made at a summit meeting between me and the prime minister of india. in view of the fact that the
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total value of trade between japan and its partners only accounts for 16.5% of japan's overall trade. japan should change its passive stance and put more energy into increasing the number of partnerships between japan and other countries. the second challenge facing japan is the rise of china. in recent years, statements made by chinese leaders in international forums such as the g-20 have drawn increasing attention. japan is no longer the spokesman for asia.
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the rise of china is not merely an economic phenomenon. over the past 20 years, china's military spending has risen sharply to the point where is it -- where it is now 20 times what it was in 1990. china is making progress. with military applications like space and cyberspace, more than anything is the expansion of the chinese navy. it appears that china hopes to gain control not only over thailand but over the china sea
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and indeed the entire pacific. there was an article in the september 11th edition of the "wall street journal" entitled position strategy in the pacific." he put into words what i have been thinking for a long time. since the 1980's, the china military strategy has rested on the concept of the strategic frontier. in a nutshell, this very dangerous idea, these are
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determined by national powers. as long as the chinese economy continues to grow, it will continue to expand. some might associate this with the german concept of [unintelligible] there has been speculation that the impetus was the 1986 crisis in the strait of taiwan. whenever i think back on this instance, i recall the cuban missile crisis of 1962. the past the soviet union took in its wake. the soviet union in 1962 and china in 1996 both suffered the
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indignity of capitulation in the face of overwhelming naval power of the united states. both countries [unintelligible] into bringing up their navies. we all know how well that worked out for the soviet union. i have no way of knowing how the leadership of the chinese communist party would view this analogy. despite their fear of meeting the same fate of the soviet union, they are unable to resist the call of the people's liberation army for a military buildup in any case. we can say with conviction that china has nothing to gain from
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an excess of expansion of its military. it has no need to base aircraft carriers. any chinese attempt to clamp down on taiwan's would not only be an enormous fiscal burden, it would also backfire because china would blow the trust of other nations which would do significant damage to its influence. set just such an outcome has already occurred in. [unintelligible] have reacted with anger to china's conduct in the south china sea. other countries have begun to strengthen their relationship
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with the united states to act as a counterweight to the threat caused by china. they have sent a strong message to china's that it will not allow to do to china at -- will not allow china to do as it pleases in the south china sea. meanwhile, i am concerned that japan has sent the wrong message to china. a chinese fishing vessel into japan's territorial water -- intentionally run into japanese coastguard patrol ship set to times. such a barbaric act cannot be overlooked. the captain of the vessel was detained by japanese
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authorities. but japan relented in the face of strong pressure from china and release the capt., which was a very foolish move. [unintelligible] i must say that interpretation of the situation by the prime minister's office was the '90s. japan must work to strengthen its relationship with china while also competing when it is called for. but that must be accomplished and away -- in a way
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[unintelligible] that is the guiding principle that china should follow, and if it strays from the path, it should be admonished. this principle forms the foundation of the strategic and mutually beneficial relationship to which i and my chinese counterpart agreed. single party rule by the chinese communist party has been sustained by the insurance of equal results. the parties today depends on economic growth. the party has talked
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[unintelligible] and it will do whatever it takes to drive economic growth. what bothers china's party leaders more than anything else is an end to the economic growth. they fear economic disaffection on the part of the people combine with narrow minded patriotism and end up fomenting anger toward the leadership of the party. japan and the night states have much to game -- japan and the united states have much to gain from continued economic growth in china. at the same time, the past china should pursue to maintain -- the past china should pursue to maintain does not lie in foreign-policy adventurism, but
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rather in respect for values. such as freedom, democracy, fundamental human rights, and rule of law. values long embodied by the u.s. and japan. together, we must tell china to understand how important these values are. the u.s. and japan must work together to help lead china in the right direction. a firm message must be sent to china, a message that must be backed up by substance of actions. whenever i have the chance, i point out the fact that the exercise of collective self- defense ism -- collective self-
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defense is a natural right for any country. certain elements in japan continue to proclaim, completely without merit, that exercising defense would needlessly provoked china and other asian nations. but, it is exactly that type of thinking that poses a threat to japan's national interests. it is imperative that japan conduct a review of its three principals from armed exports. it appears the administration has finally become to realize this. but the administration needs to work more quickly to turn policy into [unintelligible]
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japan has neither the desire or need to become a major weapons exporter. but we should not be afraid to presume military technology. the industry says support the military industry have been hit hard by the recession and several have been driven into bankruptcy as a result. japan is on the verge of losing some of its advanced manufacturing technology such as precision molding. in recent years, the nature of warfare has been evolving in the direction of network-centric operations.
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the boundaries separating commercial technology from military technology has become increasingly [unintelligible] as a result, it is possible our industry could lose its competitiveness. we must not allow that to happen. afraid the time i have been allotted has come to an end. but i would like to say that in the audience today are some of the warriors who fought the good fight and helped to achieve victory over the soviet union in the cold war. i'm sure you are fully aware
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[unintelligible] i hope you will lend as your expertise as we attempt to address this state of affairs in our region. president reagan, one of the heroes of the cold war, provided hope to the american people when he proclaimed in his 1981 inaugural address -- "we are too great a nation to limit ourselves to small dreams ." i would like to deliver this message to my fellow citizens who are mired in pessimism. to my american friends, i would like to say that i do not stand
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alone in japan. there are many members and policy intellectuals in japan who agree with my point of view. i would like to leave you with the message that japan is certain to rise again. thank you very much. [applause] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2010] >> mr. prime minister, thank you very much this frank, bold, and visionary remarks. we in washington are truly honored to hear them and i think they bring back memories of a former prime minister of great britain who also spoke a great truth in his years when he was not at downing street.
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that being said, you have graciously agreed to take a number of questions. if you have questions, please stand up, identify yourself, and be brief. the questions will need to be translated as well. >> can i speak in japanese? english is better? to make our country rise again, i think the stability of political matters -- there are more stable and that is very
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important. but to political matters aside, i think my concern is the younger generation is not willing to go [unintelligible] so if the prime minister is now making a lecture in front of junior high school students, it's very difficult to imagine in this situation, i think, but if so, what kind of advice would you provide to the young generation?
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[speaking japanese] >> if i were to speak -- can you hear in the back? if i were to speak to a group of young people, i would tell them i would like to have dreams. they must have dreams and they should be proud of the fact that were born in japan. i would like them to work not only in japan but also in the international arena to help people who may be in trouble. >> i'm a trustee with the hudson institute. if the united states fails to
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stop iran from becoming a member of the nuclear-weapons club, what impact do you see it will have on the credibility of the american nuclear umbrella guarantee for the security of japan and the free nations of asia? [speaking japanese] >> currently the nuclear non- proliferation treaty, that regime is in a very difficult situation. >> [speaking japanese] >> currently, iran and north
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korea in northeast asia are attempting to acquire nuclear weapons, which is an emergency situation. >> [speaking japanese] >> what is necessary is for the world community to use sanctions against both of these countries. >> [speaking japanese]
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>> in this context, unfortunately, north korea has undertaken a nuclear test. i think what is necessary is for the united states to use its nuclear deterrent not only to cover japan but to cover the rest of northeast asia. i would like to see the united states have a strong position against this, a strong nuclear deterrent. >> with the possibility that the united states may engage in incremental withdraw from asia and the possibility that you referred to, mainly the threat of china's adventurism, to what degree is the possible that article 9 of your constitution would have to be modified in order to deal with the possible
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threat? >> [speaking japanese] >> it has been mine thought we need to revise article 9 of the security treaty. i misspoke -- that article 9 of the constitution, not to be security treaty. they have a budget of five they have a budget of five


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