tv U.S. House of Representatives CSPAN February 22, 2011 1:00pm-5:00pm EST
gdp, because when there is strong in gdp, people have jobs, higher incomes. that is the goal, americans will be able to find jobs that serve their lifestyle. host: annapolis, add, on the independent line. caller: thank you for c-span. when i retired, i set myself up so i have no debt. i reserved my cash at that time in my home. then, i decided because of some fact that i would move my money into the bank. the bank does not pay any interest. and, they charge the fees which are in excess of the little bit of interest they give me. quite frankly, this year, i
will move all of my money out of the stupid banks because they are not doing anything. i think there are a lot of people like that. host: where will you move it to? caller: i will move it back under my mattress. host: have you thought about gold? caller: if i see a good opportunity. host: neil irwin? guest: is part of the policies that the federal reserve are pursuing. it is true that retirees suffer as a result. it means you are not able to earn the interest rates you would normally get from a bank. the reason people do not put money under a mattress, is because it's something goes wrong, your bank -- your house its route, you are all of long -- you are out of luck.
you might run to be cautious about leaving the bank system entirely. that said, the issue is exactly right. rates are very low. that encourages investment, but definitely retirees, and those with big savings suffer as a result. to lakeland,o florida. caller: i am really worried about journalists, economists, and political leaders not factory near peak oil and gas prices increases. in florida, our new governor wants to cancel the high-speed train because he does not think there will be enough riders. should there not be enough -- more talk about peak oil? where is that being factored in? host: neil irwin, can you speak
to that? guest: hit is hard to know what the probability is that the scenario which it is hard to know what the probability that the scenario which the caller laid out is possible. it is not just the supply side. how much oil is left in the ground, although that is relevant. the other question is how rapidly due china, and other emerging nations, become more wealthy and grow? there are of 1 billion people in each china and india. first of all, it is mathematically impossible to them -- for them to get to the levels of energy consumption that we are used to in the united states. can there be a path for growth for those countries as they get wealthier that is more energy efficient? regardless, there is a possibility we will see the sun
going rise in energy prices as long as there is strong -- see this strong rise in energy prices as long as there is strong growth. host: neil irwin is our guest. he wrote a piece for "the washington post" that the savings trend is on the optic. the consumer financial protection bureau is having a conference today, and the keynote speaker will be elizabeth warren, special advisor to the secretary of the treasury for bob consumer -- for the consumer protection bureau. she will talk about the one- year anniversary of the credit card act, outlining the priorities of her agency. we will have live courage of that started around 9:00 a.m..
neil irwin, what are you expecting to hear from them today? guest: this is an interesting agency. they were created in the dodd- frank act. they are just getting rolling. there are a lot of questions about how this bureau will work. they have some tricky things to juggle. they do not want to limit credit availability to watch, because they want people to be able to use a credit card when their car breaks down. they do not want days to stop extending credit entirely. on the other hand, there have been exported to of practices. people have been irresponsible. you also do not want to force to and people into the black market, whether it is literally loan sharks, or pawnshops. you want people to have access
to credit, but in ways that do not leave them in bad shape for the walled term. try to double the budget juggle that would be a lot of term task -- trying to juggle that would be a long-term test. caller: i have a question. all of the savings is great, but what happens if the dollar gets effected by the oil trading, and the dollar collapses? what happens to all of those savings? guest: if the dollar were to decline a lot, most people are not expected a dollar collapse, as it is still the most liquid currency in the world and the currency people use when they want to find a safe haven. that does not seem to be changing anytime soon, but if your scenario were true, the main impact is it would make
imports a lot more expensive. the price of oil would go op a lot. anything you bring in from abroad would certainly go up. for domestic industries, it would make the export levels competitive, and might lead to job creation. u.s. businesses would suddenly have an advantage. it is not something anyone wants to see. it would be bad for financial stability. at the same time, a moderate decline might help us with some jobless issues and things of the export side. caller: if the dollar collapses, what happens to people's savings? i see a spike in silver and metal going up. people are saving, but they could be sitting in metals, which do not lose their value.
guest: first of all, that is not true. metals, gold, other precious metals -- if you bought in the the-1970's, and sold in late 1990's, you lost a lot of money. it can offer returns, but it comes at a risk. people should not assume that is a free lunch. what would happen to savings of the dollar declines? well, they would go a lot less far around the world, and a lot of goods would become more expensive. in terms of more domestic industries, not much would be changed. host: we are talking about american savings, but i also want to update the situation in libya. ap is reporting garments are scrambling to get citizens out of -- governments are scrambling
to get citizens out of the country. vegas -- democratic line. caller: with regards to oil, here in las vegas, we are embracing solar power. that can make up for a lot of importing oil. also, i was wondering, mr. neil irwin, why are you not embracing the work of elisabeth warren -- elizabeth warren who was working for the middle class, and finally, your opinion of paul krugman, and finally, suze or man. guest: i am not criticizing elizabeth warren. she is doing hard work to
create this agency. all i'm saying is there are a number of trade-offs this agency will need to juggle. host: you were saying there are questions from others and criticism. guest: they do not exist yet. they have not done stopped yet. as they do, that will be the question -- how do they strike this line? host: they have one year to get this agency up and running backs -- running? guest: the question is the federal reserve. host: please explain the difference between big banks and local credit unions. guest: big banks are very large and have branches all over the world with $1 trillion in
assets. all local credit union is a non- profit -- a local credit union t. a non-profit paren because they are not for- profit, a lot people find it more useful and pleasant. there are good vintages for the big banks. they have bigger bulls of -- that are good advantages for the big banks. they have bigger pools of money. host: mass., good morning. caller: one important factor that is left out of the discussion is what role the federal deficit has in private sector savings. the deeper the government goes
into debt, the easier it is for the private sector to pay down debt. an example would be in december, everyone got a 2% tax cut. workers and an unemployed people now have extra money in their pocket, which they can choose to pay down debt, state, or consume. the treasury had to issue more debt the two sides are like mirror images. the deeper the government goes into debt, the more savings box private sector -- the more savings the private sector has. >> i think that as an important point. there is an aspect to which everyone can not do leverage at the same time. one person's savings is another person's investment. that is what banks do.
if no one was borrowing money, that there would be a problem, but the government has soaked up some of the de leveraging. host: donald, michigan. go ahead. caller: until we get the country back to working, it will be hard for anyone to say. everything is going up. gas prices, food -- until we solve that problem, and get the country to work, we would not be able to save anything. host: our unemployment rate. guest: that is true. we are at a 9% unemployment rate. that is enormous. none of what items they should put a gloss on the fact that we have a terrible job market.
flowing out of that is the true measure of whether the economy is where in needs to be. on unplowed as one of the biggest things hanging over -- are employed is one of the biggest things hanging over. host: republican, florida, go ahead. caller: good morning. basically, bought financial house in model we have today, is somewhat obsolete. the good news is that every senator or congressman will be receiving a new financial housing
>> welcome to the department of state. starting first in new zealand, we just released a statement by secretary clinton expressing our deep sadness of the news of the second major earthquake in six months that has struck christchurch. on behalf of president obama and the people of the united states, we send our sincerest condolences and sympathy to the people of new zealand. when the earthquake struck, american and kiwi officials were in a meeting. our long-term history of french and long history of -- history of friendship and assistance in times of need.
in that regard, usaid is dispatching a rescue team from los angeles. they are at the airport. they might well be airborne at this hour. the u.s. starteam is overseeinge suffer. for new zealand, it will be a long time. yes, sometime tomorrow, and new zealand time. the united states condemns the murder of four u.s. citizens whose yacht was seized by pirates. this deplorable at destroys the
need -- this deplorable act emphasizes the need to address pirates off the coast of africa. our sympathy goes to the families of the victims of this time. we will honor their memory by continuing to strengthening international partnerships to bring these criminals to justice. the united states also encourages additional african contributions to the peacekeeping effort. sure. >> does that mean you're still using efforts by a contracting companies? you're not too happy about those?
>> i am not sure that i put those two together. on the case-by-case basis, shipping companies may have vessels that are in waters that have every right to have beefed up security on board these ships. we are doing as much as we can in terms of a combined task force of naval vessels that continue to patrol these waters. the ultimate solution to the piracy challenge rests on land. we have been gauged -- we are not only supporting the transitional government in its efforts. we have also been gauged deference in somaliland to help bring stability. >> they have contracted with private companies for a private
army basically to go after this. you still think that the efforts should be focused on the task force? >> the solution is to bring improved governance and the economy in somalia, resolve the conflict that is on going there, so those are not necessarily functions that a private contractor can perform. >> they could not give us the details of the negotiations. >> what negotiations? >> on the u.s. navy ships. was there any money going? >> and our policy is not to provide ransom to anyone in the
circumstances. >> because of this mother ship that is now supporting the pirates has gone as far as india and china, what is the u.s. doing about that? crux i will defer the -- >> i will defer the operational details of what has transpired here. after hearing gunshots, forces did move towards the yacht from the ship. my understanding is that they have captured 13 pirates. there are already two parts in u.s. custody. we will turn to the department of justice to determine the status and future legal consequences. i would just say that we take the prosecution of these pirates very seriously. we just had a successful conviction of the lone survivor of the mayor said incident from my oft year.
ersk incident from last year. >> where will these gentlemen be tried? >> that is a fair question. i will defer to the department of justice. >> do you get involved in the repatriation of the bodies? >> again, that probably -- at some point, perhaps. it depends. i am assuming that military forces that have assumed command of the immediate area there, at which point they will bring them to shore. obviously, we will assist in their repatriation. >> there is no crime scene. >> true. >> normally, if lives are lost
overseas, regardless of consequence, we will perform our consular duties and assist in the repatriation of remains. >> you coordinate with neighboring countries? do you coordinate efforts? >> we have coordinated with countries like kenya, who have assumed a leading role in the prosecution of pirates. the court has been set up in other locations as well. but yes, at one level, it is a regional jobs, but, really, it is a global challenge. part of the answer here is that, any country whose national interest or citizens are put at risk need to take responsibility for prosecution of those who commit piracy on the high seas. >> this afternoon, the secretary will meet at 2:00 p.m. with the
foreign minister of latvia to review a wide range of issues of mutual concern with our nato allies, including security in europe, a crackdown in dollars, afghanistan -- a crackdown in belarus, afghanistan, and other parts of the world. in sudan, they remain committed end to theive an conflict in door fodarfur. the u.s. urges bay immediate secession of hostilities and joined an international effort to tranquillity.
staying in africa, the united states applauds the people of you gone up for their participation in the february 18 presidential and parliamentary elections and congratulates president and 70 on his reelection. the elections and campaign were generally peaceful. we're concerned that the government resources for person campaigning and heavy deployment of security forces on election day. we urge the government of you gotta to undertake the electoral and legislative reforms that will substantially improve future elections and strengthen the country's commitment to democracy and human rights for the next generation of you got in citizens -- of you gonna -- andan citizens.
>> wire you congratulating him on his reelection? >> -- why are you congratulating him on his re-election? >> the results reflect the will of the people of new gonnuganda. clearly, there are some structural forms that need to be undertaken to approve elections in the future. diplomats will be leaving for europe to discuss a wide range of bilateral regional issues. finally, before taking your questions, turning to libya, yesterday, the department
ordered u.s. embassy family members and non-emergency personnel to depart libya. they will depart over the next few days. the safety of all american citizens, again, remains our paramount concern. at our embassy, we have approximately 35 employees and their families who are affected by this order should departure. we continue to evaluate a range of transportation options to help them apart, along with other u.s. citizens who are present in the libya. the airport in tripoli remains open. but it is a challenging circumstances at the airport currently. many international air carriers are increasing the number of seats available to respond to the demand for flights from libya and for american citizens who are there, they should maintain contact with the airlines if they have tucket --
if they have tickets to depart. >> can you tell us why they were not able to move out of the country already? >> as i said, we have some options. we have been in touch with airlines, asking them for those who have for you a commercial service and that have been allowed to land in tripoli to perhaps of larger aircraft so that there is more seats available for those who wish to depart. we have charter flights standing by to travel to the airport if necessary. this is something that we continue to work with libyan authorities. the fact is that, today, we were not able to move any of our personnel out of the country. >> hold on the second appeared i want to understand -- hold on a
second. i want to understand what is the case. if they go to the airport, why can they not leave the country? >> what? >> why have enough left already? is it true that someone to the airport's and did not board flights? >> we are not able to move any of them out of the country today. we will do our best working with libyan authorities to move them out as quickly as we can. >> are you considering any sort of seize out or overland routes? >> we are evaluating, as are other countries -- they are looking for the safest course of evacuation. land is an option. see is an option. the commercial airport is open. obviously, there's a great many
people who are trying to depart tripoli carly. we're working this with libyan authorities. >> is the airport is a place for people to be right now? >> obviously, we made this decision because we are concerned about safety of our citizens. but we're working as hard as we can to help our citizens to part. >> recognizing that it is not a complete accurate figure, how many americans are registered with the embassy? >> that is a good question. there are several thousand american citizens in libya. most of them are dual nationals. of those who have american citizenship, we're talking in maybe the 600 range, give or take. some of the more for energy
companies. as you have seen and reported, they themselves are shutting down their operations and making their way out of the country today. as to how many require assistance from the embassy, it is hard to know if this point. our embassy itself, in terms of the numbers, it is a relatively small post. >> what did you make of qaddaf y's speech. you did see some of it. >> i did see some of it. >> what did you think of him that owing to stay, to die a martyr, and never to give up? >> it is fundamentally an issue between the libyan government and its people. they are standing up and demanding a greater say in the events of their country.
as the secretary has indicated, yesterday, in her statement, we have great concerns about the libyan response to these protesters. we continue to be guided by our fundamental principles. we do not want to see any further violence. she called directly on the libyan government to cease the violence. its response has led to significant bloodshed in libya. we want to see universal rights respected. we want to see the government respond to the aspirations of its people. >> this is essentially a bloodbath that is going on there. when you were talking about this, it seems like a very calm approach. some people say that something needs to be done right now to help the people who are being attacked by airplanes, air attacks.
what is the united states doing? is there a sense of urgency. >> of course, there's a sense of urgency. our first focuses on the security of american citizens in libya. our response has been joined by many others in the international community. there was a security council meeting this morning. there will be another 63 council meeting this afternoon. i expect at the national -- that the international community -- there will be another security council this afternoon. i expect that the international community will react as the events unfold in libya. >> [unintelligible] >> we had several meetings over the weekend. our assistant secretary had multiple conversations over the weekend with libyan officials,
including foreign minister mussa kussa. we have been in touch with other leaders in the region and there is a united v. we view the situation in libya with grave concern. >> their ambassador calls it genocide. in case it is genocide, there may be a consideration of taking some united action to rescue people. >> i would simply say that right now our challenge, just as your challenge, it is to understand what is going on in the country. just as you have had difficulty in getting your reporters cents in libya, we have a relatively small post and we have had difficulty in verifying some of the horrible reports that are emanating from libya. i'm not minimizing our level of concern here.
but it will take some time to evaluate and understand what exactly is happening, what has transpired already. we're focused right now trying to do everything we can working with others who are in touch with the libyan government and libyan leaders directly to stop this bloodshed. we have a concern about this. we are still trying to fully understand exactly what is happening, a very complex and difficult environment, where we do not necessarily have as many eyes on the ground as we do in other countries. >> has efforts been made to qaddafi directly? >> we have not. the u.s. director bonn came sooban ki moon has spoken with
him. what you just after -- what you just asked me is not factually correct. just as we have said quite carefully in each of these cases, it is not for the united states to choose the leader of libya or the leader of in either country. it is for the people of libya who are standing up and protesting the policies and actions of their government. ultimately, they will be the judge of what is happening in libya. we are expressing our great concern and alarm. as the secretary's statement said yesterday. certainly, we can say that there is a contrast between the decisions made by egyptian security forces in response to these protests. the contrast is very stark
against the response by the libyan government. >> there was called for mubarak to leave. in this case, you're not doing that. why is that? >> again, we have expressed their concern about the ongoing events. we will not hesitate -- >> i am not clear on why you're doing that. >> i cannot say it any better than what the secretary said yesterday. >> when was it that the u.s. asked blowback to lee. >> i do not recall that we ever mubarack toasked the barri leave? >> i do not recall that we ever publicly that. this is the call for the libyan people. they have the right to have whoever they choose to rule the country. >> "the wall street journal" says that you had more moveusiasm for toppling mothng
.ramubarak now there is a bloodbath going on. should there not be some sort of urgency? >> i am not saying there is not. in multiple discussions with libyan officials over the weekend, as the international community, we are expressing our grave concern about what is happening there. we want to see the bloodshed stop. our calls have been very clear and very compelling. i do not know that we can do anymore this point. >> how do you weigh in all the factions? clearly, you have a situation where there is a splintering of emerging divisions within libyan
society. you have a number of libyan diplomats stand up themselves and criticize the action of their government. but this, at its heart, needs to be a debate within libya about the future of its country and the nature of its government. >> the libyan ambassador has sought asylum in washington. >> i am not aware of that. >> to have direct access to these two pilots who have defected. do you have access? >> i do not know that we have any particular requests of that nature. >> between the libyan people and the government, thousands of people are dead. part of his speech, he talked about the violence not being
used yet against demonstrators. >> the secretary of state said very clearly compellingly-day and today that the bloodshed needs to stop. we condemn the violence that is occurring. i do not know that we can be any more clear. >> senator kerrey suggested this morning. >> as i said a moment ago, you tell me. we are trying to ascertain facts, ascertain what exactly what is happening within the country. our primary focus is moving american citizens out of libya. the security council is meeting today and that is to gain as much knowledge as possible, as to what is exactly occurring in
libya. as we gain a greater understanding of what is happening, we can take appropriate steps alive -- in line with our policy is. >> so you may consider senator kerrey's suggestion? >> as with any country, or any relationship that we have, where we believe that actions are contrary to our values, our laws, our interest, we will review a, relationships as we go forward. >> one of his sons was here two years ago meeting with the secretary. has anyone spoken to him? has anyone spoken to anyone else who claims to work for the khaddafi government directly? >> i just said that the
assistant secretary has had multiple conversations with the foreign minister moussa course koussa directly. we will work with the libyan government as we move our families and our diplomats and american citizens out of libya. we have been in more lustily contact with the libyan government in these last few days. >> during the hour-and-a-half- long speech, he indicated that he was not listening to what the u.s. or what the europeans wanted, that he would be willing to die until the last drop of blood, and that he would then go house to house to try to put down this rebellion. how effective is the u.s. conversation with libya if he can go on television and say these things and make these threats against his own people? >> again, which is why i said earlier that ultimately this is
an issue between the libyan government and the libyan people. >> how many people have to die? >> we do not want to see anybody die. again, go back to what the secretary said yesterday and she will have press availability after the meeting. i am sure you ask her what our views are today. we have said very compellingly that we have great concerns about what has happened. we said very compellingly that we want the bloodshed to stop. but, as you say, the leader has his own views. >> -- in this regard. >> i have just been laying out for you everything that we have been doing from our own bilateral conversation, our consultations across the region, the security council meeting that we are a part of going on, but this morning and this afternoon. we are doing everything we can to try to encourage libya to stop the violence.
>> moussa koussa -- seeking me -- [laughter] >> we have both expressed their direct concern over the reports that we have heard. we have also requested the libyan government's cooperation as we removed our citizens and our diplomats and their families from libya. >> is there a no-fly zone over libya? do you support one? >> we are meeting as a national community. we're trying to get a fax on what it -- on what is -- we are trying to gather facts on what is happening. >> you said you could not get them out. were there actually charter flights on the ground and you
could not -- >> no. >> were the people gathered there? >> i can give you a play-by-play from here. our family members, the 35 or so that are affected by this, are prepared to leave. they may be at the airport. i do not know. i am sure there are american citizens at the airport who are attempting to leave. we will do everything in our power to help them. right now, we are working through existing commercial airline arrangements. we have the ability to bring in charters or other means to get people out if that becomes necessary. but that also requires the support of the libyan government. >> in other words, the libyan government said you cannot do this. >> no, the libyan government said it will cooperate as we removed our citizens. and we are working with them on these arrangements. >> oil production, gaddafi said
that protesters can sabotage the oil production in the country. >> again, those are better questions to ask the department of energy. there was a meeting this morning and there will be another meeting this afternoon. >> are there any proposals? >> again, that is why the meetings are being held today. >> there are allegedly a million egyptians across the border between egypt and libya. will the united states coordinate with egypt? >> again, we are in touch with other missions that are, themselves, is evacuating diplomats' and family members. there are security officers at the embassy trying to evaluate the security situation and the best means of departure. right now, we're focused on the airport. >> do you think the qaddafi
regime -- also his son said that rivers of blood will flow. what you think of that? >> as i said, we want to see the blanchett stop. we want to see the government in the -- we want to see the blood shed stop. we want to cede the government engage with its citizens. -- we want to see the government ended with its citizens. >> you want to see the government engage the protesters. but you have aircraft and guns and fighter jets bombing the people. they have shown no willingness to engage. and the speech that you did not watch -- >> i watched. >> they said they will not engage and that the people who
are protesting deserve the plant that -- the death penalty. there is no indication that they are listening to your message. by saying that you're waiting to find out the facts on the ground, you can control any of these -- you cannot confirm any of these atrocities on the ground. you have the western dictator fidel castro saying the same thing, that no one can condemned qaddafi yet. the other thing he said that nato is preparing to invade libya. setting castro's side for a moment -- >> ok. >> why is it that you're taking such a light touch with qaddafi right now? >> i reject the notion categorically. there is a security council meeting that happened this morning. there is a city council that is happening this afternoon.
we are going to respond as an international community. and i would point to those meetings this afternoon. we will have their response through the security council. >> why is it that, in this case, you will do the security council? >> it is not just the united states. it is the international community as a whole that is gravely concerned about what is happening in libya. and we will respond with one voice in expressing our concern and demanding that the bloodshed stop. >> why is it not proper for the united states itself to come out and condemn and criticize q addafi himself for his actions. >> again, the secretaries words
yesterday were compelling. >> any update on the american diplomats in pakistan? the high court has given until march 14 for the government there to answer. >> the ambassador met today with the minister of state for foreign affairs, continuing our work with pakistani authorities to resolve the issue. >> reports -- whether you are working for the caa or the embassy, -- or the cia -- >> correct. >> on egypt, are you considering
lifting the travel ban to egypt? >> there is no travel ban. >> travel in advisory? >> undersecretary bill burns who is in cairo, second day of meetings there, along with david lipton, we're looking for ways to help egypt. certainly, it depends significantly on tourism and we want to see that pillar the economy restored and also rick -- also economic reforms that lead to a healthier and more broadbased economy for the people of egypt. >> you said that your priority is to secure the evacuation of american citizens. is this something that you were worried that the libyan
government might resist for american citizens if you speak up against this? >> we are concerned for the safety of our citizens. we're working with the libyan government. they have pledged to support us in the evacuation. we hope that that cooperation will be forthcoming. >> is there development for release of prisoners, the efforts to start a dialogue by the government? >> we commend the steps made by king ahmad as well as the crown prince and others to restore calm to bahrain, to allow a peaceful demonstrations to take place. we view recent announcements to launch a national dialogue and the release of political prisoners as positive steps towards addressing the concerns citizens.bahraini
>> the egyptian government has given right of passage for iranian warships to pass through the suez canal. are you concerned about sanctions inspecting the vessels? the un security council resolutions have cautioned about expecting iranian vessels. >> at this point, we will continue to monitor the movement of these ships. >> you do not think it is a provocation? >> again, we will be watching carefully to see where these ships go and the implications of that. >> they are transiting the can now, you do not think -- >> we have, for a long time, supported freedom of navigation. so the decision to allow them to transit the canal between iran and egypt, obviously, we have
concerns about iran's behavior in the region and we will be watching carefully the implications of this ship. >> so the egyptians giving them prove it -- so the egyptians giving them permission is not a provocation? >> -- >> north korea has proposed defense minister meetings with the u.s. >> we have supported talks with north and south korea. we support dialogue. right now, we are focused on inter-korean dialogue i have two minutes. c-span3
[captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2011] >> we are here at cleveland state university. the president will make some final comments. it will start at 1:55 p.m. eastern. accompanying the president on this trip is treasury secretary geithner and others. we expect to hear from the president in just a couple of moments. following up on the news conference from the state a target, you can watch it in its entirety on our website, c- span.org. libya appears to be slipping further into chaos. qaddafi vows to fight until the last drop of blood.
the house and senate are out in washington this week, not in washington. they are out for the presidents day holiday. but harry reid today announced that he was looking ahead to the budget debate that is still ongoing in washington. the hill reports that senator reid will take two actions that he says are aimed at averting government shut down after march 4. the hill rights that harry reid is introducing a bill or will be introducing a bill when the senate returns that temporarily extends federal funding for 30 days to have spending talks with the republican house. senator reid has appointed an emissary to john boehner to lead the talks for the rest of the budget year. senator reid has tapped as chief of staff to begin negotiations with john boehner's chief of staff. the house and senate will be back next week, next monday, as a matter fact.
>> we are waiting to hear from president obama. he will be speaking here shortly. this event has been attended by cabinet members and karen mills, the president's economic adviser boston goals be -- austin g oolsby and others. the president will then return to washington and meet with defense secretary robert gates in the oval office. with the house and senate out, there is news that john thune will not run for president. house represent -- she said that
>> ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states. [applause] >> thank you. please, everybody, have received. we just completed a wonderful session with many of you. let me thank you again for your participation. i want to acknowledge a couple of people i did not have a chance to mention on the front end. first all, the mayor of cleveland, frank johnson is here. please give him a big round of applause. [applause] and a wonderful member of congress marshall fudge is in the house. [applause] she was here. as well as a great member of congress steve fletcher at.
[applause] as i may have mentioned, i have been here before. this is the third time i have visited cleveland state university. every time i come back here, i get more and more excited about what is happening. each time i come here, you have done more to retool and reinvent yourself. that is something the entire city is doing right now -- reinventing itself. during one of the sessions somebody asked, why come to cleveland? and i said -- not only are big things happening here, but they are emblematic of what is happening all across the midwest and all across the country. this is a city that was founded on manufacturing. like a lot of cities in the midwest. and the economy changed, and a
lot of people wrote of cleveland as a shell of its former self. but you, all of you in the audience, you knew differently. you have been working to reinvented the rust belt as the tech belt. you have fiber-optic cables that run beneath cleveland streets like the railroads and highways of the 21st century. drawing new businesses to open doors downtown. your universities, that hospitals, entrepreneurs, businesses, teamed up to -- to provide technology. as a consequence you have made cleveland and emerging global leader in both fields. you positions yourself to attract the jobs, businesses, and the industries of tomorrow. and that's what i have been spending the past few months talking about -- how america is going to win the future. how are we going to reinvent ourselves.
we are still an outstanding manufacturing. one of the things i think there is a misconception about -- and i mentioned this during one of the sessions -- is somehow or manufacturing days are past. we are still one of the dominant manufacturers in the world. the challenge, the difference is that what used to take 1000 people to manufacture might now take 100 or 10 because of increases in productivity. so, it is not good enough just to rely on the old industries. we have also got to invent new ones. that is what you are doing here. over the last several months i visited with organizations like the chamber of commerce. i traveled to large companies. recently i went to intel because it is doubling down on america, investing in new plants and equipment and amazing facilities. those large companies, those large institutions are important to success. but the truth is, when it comes
to our economy, it is the small businesses that pack the biggest punch. especially when it comes to employment, which is obviously one of the biggest challenges we face coming out of this great recession that we had. entrepreneurs like each of the ones here today create two out of every three new jobs in this country. you are the cornerstones of the community. you are the sources of pride for working families. you always gone all out in, have taken risks on behalf of america. that is why we convened this winning the future forum on small business. to talk about how america can help you succeed so that you can keep helping america to succeed. for those of you who just joined us, we spent the day in breakout sessions talking about five areas of obstacles an opportunity for america as a small business. the entrepreneur should -- how you convert your ideas into companies -- capital, and how we
can increase is so you can have access to capital, workforce development, so we can make sure america has of the best trained workers in the world and that it is done locally and tail would -- tailored to the businesses of tomorrow. exports and obstacles you face in selling your goods and services around the world, and finally, clean energy. what opportunities do you see in the 21st century clean energy economy. we had a terrific discussion -- the groups i participated in were remarkable and had great ideas. i know members of the cabinet had fun. which is why we are going to do it again. over the next several months what we are going to be doing is teaming up with the mayors, governors, and small-business owners to hold a series of these jobs forums across the country. as steve, is successful entrepreneur several times over,
came and participated in our discussion, i am pleased to announce he agreed to join our jobs council as we work to create jobs, grow the economy, and keep america moving forward. i should mention a couple of things that we heard during some of these breakout sessions. obviously there was a lot of and his is on capitol. we talked about the -- there was a lot of emphasis on capital. we talked about the sba programs in place to provide financing to a lot of start-ups and small businesses around the country. we also heard from you about in ports and ideas. right now we are already giving -- about important ideas. we are giving a tax break, 0% in capital gains for investors who invest in small business but few of you said it works well -- we could also use tax credits for angel investors because the early financing off on it -- often can be what makes a break accompany.
we talked about the fact that people were encouraged by the investments we are making in clean energy. but most of -- one of the most important things we heard could be done -- and something steve will be taking up -- is creating networking opportunities in particular fields and in particular clusters because oftentimes it is the contacts that you make in that networking process that may open up job opportunities. and that doesn't cost the u.s. treasury anything to set up but it may make all the difference in terms of success. when it comes to work force development, one of the most important things that we all learned is how important it is to get businesses in an early with the universities and community colleges, a hugely underutilized resource, to develop the actual training program so young people have confidence if they go through the training program, they have a job, and businesses have confidence if they hire the young people who went through the training program, they are
trained for those jobs. one of the things we really enjoy hearing about word of local efforts of organizations like jump-start, as well as institutions like cleveland state, in helping to pull all of these various elements together. and that is part of the reason we were able to identify some of the most innovative business when -- businessmen and women in northeast ohio. jump start has worked to help nearly 3000 local businesses lift off. and provided the resources to keep them aloft in what is called and entrepreneurial ecosystem. innovation clusters. small-business incubators made up of universities, suppliers, manufacturers, and more -- basically a self-contained supply chain that covers everything from attracting the initial capital to shipping the final product. this cluster concept is so important.
we are all familiar with cost -- clusters like silicon valley. when you get a group of people together and industries together and institutions like universities together around particular industries, then the synergies that develop from all of these different facets coming together can make a hold a greater than the sum of its parts. -- the whole greater than the sum of its parts. that is making you a local economic development engine to tap one of our greatest assets, the entrepreneurial spirit. recently we start a new series on the white house website in which advisers asked for advice from the public -- we gave a catchy name, advise the advisers. last week we asked business owners like you to advise what
drives you, helps you, and what hold you back. what are the barriers we are experiencing? we want to hear about your successes and your failures and what you learned along the way. businessmen and women from across the country weighed in. i know my staff made every -- read every single submission because i told them to read every single submission. one woman in columbus some that the entrepreneurial spirit. she said as young as eight years old i can remember having business ideas, and i was one of those go getters out there with lemonade stand, babysitter club, worked as a tutor. i am truly an entrepreneur at heart. it is not easy to give up a good job for the unknown, but i realize that is what must be done in order to realize my dreams. so many of you have had that same feeling -- you are willing to take the risk to realize your dreams and through that you realize america's dreams.
it is not easy to jump into the unknown. but each of the business owners here today has done it. whether in advanced biotechnology or just making really good barbecue. [laughter] just a couple of examples of folks that are here. dr. albert green, a ceo. is he here? there he is. his company is a product of one clusters, working to make cleveland a global up the center of the development and manufacturing of flexible electronics. the printing of electronic devices on materials that can bend and flex like clothing and tablets and medical implants. and we gave them a boost with a contract from the small business administration so they can council the small businesses that spring from this cluster on things like patents and exporting and getting these
revolution a products to market faster. -- revolutionary products to market faster. kent state university is an integral part. one of the first spinoffs of the liquid spinoff -- crystal spinoff was albert's,. manufacturing flexible liquid crystal displays from a state of our production line in the kent -- in kent. dr. green says we are turning the tables, manufacturing high- tech products right here in ohio and selling it in the united states and abroad. he almost doubled his staff last year and wants to keep its manufacturing base right here in ohio. but to keep up with global competition he has to be able to invest in new technology. he has to draw on a highly skilled local work force and he has to sell his products around the world easily. he participated in it export section with our secretary of
commerce and he also joined a trade mission to india. everywhere they went, people were asking, are your products made in america. the world wants american goods. and my administration will go to bat for america's businesses are around the world. and you should know that. [applause] we have also got -- where is norman? there you are, norman. good to see you -- norma. she is the ceo of a company that provides multi megawatt energy storage solutions using -- and i have no idea what this is -- redot fuel cells. that is one of the coolest things i have ever said out loud.
[laughter] with help from an award by the department of energy smart grid program is poised for a next- generation and the storage system that will improve efficiencies that will help families and businesses cut down on energy waste, save money, and reduce dangerous carbon pollution. they are also retraining local workers with the skills necessary to manufacture new components. not everything has to be high tech. in 1923, one family began making fine italian cheeses right here in cleveland. joe, where are you? there he is back there. the ceo. last month joe received a $5.5 million loan from the sba 504 program that helps small businesses expand and upgrade their equipment. they will break down this summer
on an expansion of the operation off of book i wrote. is that right? that will not just add 60 workers but double the output of ricotta cheese -- [laughter] making this one of the tastiest investments the government has ever made. and the second phase of expansion will include new mozzarella and provolone factories. i want samples. you guys are leading the way. we know there are some things government can do to help clear the way for your success. we can make sure america remains the best place on earth to do business by knocking down barriers that stand in the way of growth. that is why we passed 17 different tax cuts for small businesses. that is why i proposed lowering the corporate tax rate and eliminating unnecessary regulations to help larger
businesses create jobs. we actually talked about this and one of the sessions -- we also have to get our fiscal house in order, and that is why i put forth a budget that included a five-year spending freeze and will help reduce the deficit to -- by $400 billion in domestic spending levels to the lowest levels since dwight eisenhower. i want to work with democrats and republicans to make even bigger dent in our deficits -- find a new savings, cut excess of spending wherever it exists. at the same time, we can't sacrifice investments in our future. i was just with a group of young people and one young man who is in the sciences pointed out that he is concerned that his professors are having more and more trouble getting grants because our r&d budgets in this country have been declining as a relative share to gdp. we decided we have to increase that back up. that is part of our budget -- investing in innovation.
we have to avestan cutting edge research and technology -- invest in cutting edge research and technology. also in the skills of our workers and the next transportation networks that move goods and information as fast as possible, because if we don't, tomorrow's businesses won't take root here and you have a harder time competing but -- with the rest of the world. so, if we want to win the future we have to out-innovate, out- educate, out-build, and, yes, out-hustle the rest of the world. stories like yours and places likely limit be confident we can do that. . places like cleveland' sometimes the unknown is scary. but it has not stopped any of you and it has not stopped america. we have never taken the easy route. we have always done what is hard. we have been willing to take
risks to do big things. and we also get each other's backs, like here in cleveland because we know when it comes to america's success, there is no room for division between business, labor, democrats, and republicans. when it comes to competing for jobs and industries, we are on one team, america's team. we will rise and fall together. i absolutely believe that. and we keep that in mind, there is nothing we can't do. god bless you. god bless the united states of america.
>> it will be international politics later this afternoon as the leaders of the three major irish political parties meet in their final tv debate in dublin. the election is happening this friday. the leaders of the parties -- michael martin and brian cowan, the prime minister stepping down as leader of the party. live coverage of that debate getting underway at 4:30 p.m. eastern here on c-span. it later today, wisconsin gov.
scott walker will speak about that state's budget and his proposal to eliminate most collective bargaining rights now held by state employees. the governor earlier today telling the associated press that state employees and start receiving layoff notices as early as next week if the bill is not passed. we will have live coverage of his comments this evening at 7:00 eastern on c-span. >> you know, i asked you to come here this evening so that we can immediately hear a firsthand report from the secretary of state regarding negotiations that of just been going on in europe. >> you can this -- look at this as historical curiosity or as we look at this, as in many ways, a forerunner of today's managed news. >> find something you did not know about the 43 men who served as president of the united states with the c-span video library. thousands of hours of president of programming all free, on- line.
watch what you want, when you want. "abraham lincoln" is a unique contemporary perspective from $56, journalist, and writers. from his early years as a springfield lawyer to his presidency during one of our nation's troubled times, and his relevance today. while surprise -- while supplies last, a hardcover edition what -- for a special price of $5 plus shipping and handling. go to c-span.org/books. it used the promo code lincoln at checkout. -- and use the promo code lincoln. >> the justice department held a ceremony last month marking the 50th anniversary of robert f. kennedy swearing in as attorney general. georgia congressman and civil- rights pioneer john lewis. you also hear from some former aides of robert kennedy during his tenure. this two-hour event begins with
audio from robert kennedy's swearing in from january 21, 1961. >> at your request i have a great honor to administer the oath of office to the following members of your cabinet. douglas dillon, to be secretary of treasury. robert s. mcnamara era, secretary of defense. robert f. kennedy of massachusetts to be attorney general. gentlemen, if you could raise your right hand and state your names and repeat after me. i will support and defend the constitution of the united
states against all enemies foreign and domestic, that i will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, that i take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose or evasion. that i will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which i am about to enter so help me god. >> i think we are fortunate to have them all. as president of the united states -- therefore it is a great pleasure for me to welcome them as part of the official family.
♪ [applause] >> good afternoon. come on, folks. good afternoon. this is a happy occasion. to misses kennedy, the kennedy family, and distinguished guests and my colleagues and to those who served and supported our nation's department of justice, it is my pleasure and it is my great honor to welcome you to the robert f. kennedy department of justice building. [applause] today we come together to celebrate the achievements and the enduring contributions of our nation's 64 attorney general.
a man whose legacy continues to guide us, whose memory continues to touch us, and whose example continues to inspire trust. as we reflect on his remarkable life, we also mourned the recent loss of another great champion for justice -- robert kennedy's dear friend and brother in law, sargent shriver. sargent shriver served our country in many ways. as an advocate for equal rights and opportunity, as an ambassador for this nation, and as an innovator for promoting global understanding and healing. throughout his life he were to live up to it his brother-in- law's charge -- deeds and not talk to make a difference. our thoughts and prayers are with the shriver and kennedy family's as well as the family of robert kennedy paused long time and trusted assistant, angie novello. on tuesday we lost both of these public servants but this
afternoon their presence is felt. as one member of the kennedy family put it best -- sarge is smiling down at us. i believe he is. i believe it is a privilege to be joined by former department leaders that made this a truly historic union. with us we have a former attorney general, a cadre of assistant attorneys general, first assistant, administrative aide, blind attorney and supports the of that work along side of attorney general kennedy in the criminal division, land division, antitrust division, tax division, civil rights division, and attorney general office, as well as others. if you were part of the justice department from 1961 until 1964, please stand, so that we may recognize you. [applause]
i want to thank you all for being here and helping us pay tribute to one of america's most committed public servants and one of this department's most effective leaders. there is much to admire about robert kennedy. and there is much to learn from his tenure as attorney general. even now, exactly 50 years after robert kennedy stood with his older brother in the east room of the white house and support the oath of his new office. like many of you, i can remember those days. i can still remember sitting in the basement of my childhood home in queens watching on our black and white television the inauguration of a young charismatic new president. that was january 20, 1961, half a century ago. i was in the fifth grade, and i can still recall my mother's
enthusiasm, my father's pride, and my own sense that something, something exciting, something important was happening. the following day was marked by another historic moment, when attorney general robert kennedy was sworn in, and i was told, after justice department guards initially turned him away for lack of an id card -- [laughter] i am not sure they continue to work here after that. he was finally shown to his office on the fifth floor of this building. in january 21, 1961. my understanding of the obligations of an attorney general as a visionary, as a force for progress, and as a model for leadership, had not yet taken form. but it would soon enough. because just two years later there was much talk about the attorney general kennedy and the successful effort that he led to integrate the university of alabama. this was an act of courage. this was an act that had
negative political consequences. this was a defining act. this was not the easy or necessary thing to do. it was the right thing to do. on june 11, 1963, my family watched and celebrated news reports that two brave young students had, with the help of this department, stepped past gov. george wallace to become the first african-americans to enroll in the university of alabama. years later, one of those students, a wonderful woman named vivian malone jones will become my sister-in-law. i would like to ask vivian's family, my family, to stand. [applause]
long before i married her lovely sister -- that would be sharon, and a friend -- vivian became the university of alabama's first african-american graduate. shortly after earning her degree she moved to washington and began her career right here in the justice department's civil rights division. vivian passed away several years ago. much too soon. but throughout her life she was inspired by an grateful for the courage that was shown by this department under attorney general kennedy's leadership. the results of that famous band in the schoolhouse door, the progress that it marked, the commitment that it signaled, and the justice that it ensured served as my first lesson from attorney general kennedy, even though it would take many years before i could fully understand it. i learned that the law is not an abstraction. it is a powerful tool that can either put up walls or build bridges. it is a strong instrument that
affects the lives and circumstances of real people and real communities for good or for ill. it is an effective means to transform our society into one that serves the interests of the many or the few. no one can doubt hall robert francis kennedy chose to use good law when he was attorney general. he told us -- taught us the law can be a powerful tool for good if we were willing to roll up our sleeves, sovereign our courage -- summoned our courage and lead and the front lines of change. in doing that, attorney general kennedy champion of cause of the least among us and made our nation more just, more fair, and more humane. he was not afraid to dream a better world and to act to create its. the lessons of his life inspired my own decision after finishing
law school to come to work in the justice department criminal division, just as robert kennedy did shortly after -- after a graduate of law school. i arrived here in 1976, a dozen years after attorney general kennedy had left the department. yet his presence was still felt. and memories of him were still often shared. i was told stories about how he would walk the hallways of his building, gutting into the offices, startling department employees. those who visited the fifth floor were likely to see his dog or young kennedy children running by. from that the very chair, which sat at his desk throughout his time, attorney general kennedy called on his team to reinvigorate the department's mission and to approach the great challenges of the day not as problems to be contained or kicked down the road but as crises to be solved. as a young
attorney, i never imagined that i would have the opportunity and the honor of assuming the position robert kennedy once held. i know i would not have had this extraordinary opportunity to serve were it not for the commitment and the coverage of robert kennedy. he, and leaders like him, made it possible for someone like me, an african-american kid from queens, to stand before you today as our nation's 82nd attorney general. i know from the core of my being that with this honor comes and obligation, a duty to extend and to strengthen the work that robert kennedy began here and to conduct myself in a manner that is consistent with his vision of who and attorney general is and how one should use the powers of that office. in his first speech as attorney general, robert kennedy argued that the time for apathy had long since passed. that's it was time to -- and i
quote -- proved to the world that we really mean it will we say that all men are created free and equal before the law. all of us, he said, might wish at times that we live in a more tranquil -- tribal world, and we don't. if our times are difficult and perplexing, so are they challenging and filled with opportunity -- unquote. despite all that has been accomplished we still do not live in 12 -- tranquil times. we continue to face difficulty, injustice, division, and an array of challenges that conserve to sharpen our skills, steel our resolve, focus our energy and compel us to action. in times like these, the importance of robert kennedy's work becomes even clearer. i am proud to report that in today's department of justice, this work goes on -- in our offices, before our courts and in our communities. it goes on in our demands of
those in power and our aspirations for those in need. it goes on and our efforts to protect our national security, to safeguard our civil liberties, to expand opportunity, to prevent and to reduce violence. to combat the causes and consequences of hate. to uphold the constitution. to strengthen the rule of law and the values that define this great nation. to protect the most vulnerable among us and to honor the principles that were at their root of attorney general kennedy's actions and the hearts of his decisions -- integrity, inclusion, tolerance, and above all, justice. as we celebrate robert kennedy's life and his impact on this department, let us also commit ourselves to carrying on and carried out his mission to make gentle the life of this world and to make good on the promise of this nation. let us answer his call to face up to our nation's problems and
live up to its founding principles. and let us heed the wisdom of his extraordinary example. this afternoon, from our video tribute, at our panelists discussions and the words and memories that his beloved daughter kathleen is here to share, we have a chance to see a fuller picture of robert kennedy and to expand our understanding of this man and his vision as well as our ability to emulate his actions. a half a century ago, robert kennedy proved that a single person has the power to improve the world around us. today, 50 years later, his example remained emblazoned in the hearts and souls of the american people and his voice echoes through the generations, calling on us to shoulder our responsibility to serve, to serve, and to serve. this lesson and this message still points as down the path that robert kennedy never finished traveling.
so, let us keep going. let us continue his fight for a world free from injustice. let us move forward, despite the obstacles before us and the cynics are around us, toward progress. let us act with optimism, without delay, and with adherence to the highest standards of professionalism, the very standards and that attorney general kennedy established. and let us a signal to all the world that in america today, the spirit of robert kennedy lives on -- in his family, his former colleagues, in his, this department of justice, and above all, in the citizens of this great nation. thank you. [applause] thank you.
and now it is my pleasure to join you in watching a department-made film tribute to attorney general kennedy which we created in his honor and in an attempt to share who amanda -- the man in that portrait, move the man is a sad and that share, to his staff, the department, and the nation -- the man who sat in that chair. we have a video message from someone who wanted to be here, the 44th president of the united states, barack obama. >> alone. i want to thank attorney general holder, at the kennedy and the entire kennedy family for inviting me to join you on this special anniversary -- anniversary. i am sorry i cannot be there but i want to offer a few words on the celebration of the life and enduring legacy of robert
francis kennedy. 50 years ago today at a ceremony at the white house, bobby kennedy swore an oath and became our 64 attorney general. his passion, his daring, his idealism remains alive in today's justice department. and his memory still burns brightly, inspiring men and women young and old here in america and are around the world to take up his call to stand up for an ideal for it -- and strike out against injustice. for me and for some americans, bobby kennedy embodies an idea he spoke of so often -- that each of us can make a different and all of us ought to try. in the face of war, he called for peace. and places of party, he carried hope. in a violent time that revealed man's capacity to do harm, he never lost faith in our capacity to love. he never lost his sense of possibility, is believed that we can, every single one of us, narrow the gap between the world
as it is and the world as it might be. so today, let us remember and reaffirm the legacy of robert kennedy. let's work together to build a country that is more equal and more just and led to refuse to accept things as they are -- let's refused to accept things as they are. let us dream, as he did, of things that never were and say, why not. [applause]
>> the ultimate weapon for the struggle -- to what the greeks wrote many years ago -- to tame the savage -- is savage and as of man and make gentle the life of this world. let us dedicate ourselves to that and say a prayer for our country and for our people. because it is the right thing to do. as president kennedy said, we are going to do this because it is the right thing to do. ♪ ♪
>> at this critical moment in history, he brought something to the department and the job which helped transform the sense of the possible. >> it is impossible for me to imagine my life not having known him. >> the standard for attorney generals, now, the past, and in the future, is robert kennedy. >> there is a tendency to mythologize not only what would have been but what had been. but at the same time, what happened at the department of justice, what happened at the kennedy administration, is a real, it has been recorded -- the successes were meaningful and they changed the nation. >> no matter what talent and individual possessed, the matter
what an edgy he may have had, no matter how much integrity or honesty he has, if he is by himself and a political figure, he can accomplish very little. >> what he did at the start of his term that set the tone in many ways for everything that followed is named the most extraordinary group of deputies and assistant attorney general than perhaps had ever graced the department of justice. >> it was a wonderful place to be. >> at the end, the morale of the department is amazing. everybody was working all the time. but it was fun. it was not -- he was serious without being serious. you know what i mean? >> it was clear to robert kennedy upon arriving at the department just as he was going to have to breathe some life
into this big bureaucracy, which was something he was used to do it. he stepped into campaigns that were slow and inefficient and overly hierarchical and he energize them by the force of his personality, by his commitment to the overriding goals. >> he opens up -- when i first joined the department i was lucky if i knew who the attorney general was, much less meeting with him and having business with him. kennedy change that and not only met with line attorneys but the wandered around the buildings, going into individual offices. >> he walked balls -- the halls. he would invite new lawyers up to his office and ask them where they were from and what they were interested in, so everybody had a sense of being connected.
but it was also the case you could be sitting in your office during whatever and he would pop been, which was both terrifying and wonderful -- he would pop in. >> we all loved him. it was impossible not to. not simply because of what he was personally -- although that was immensely important -- but because what he represented in the public life of a country. because of the ideal that he set up, because of the standards of strength, of patriotism, love for and service of country, and all of its ideals, so that you were always doing something of which you could be proud. you were never doing anything of which you were ever ashamed.
>> we have had a great deal of talk in this century in the past 100 years about equality. deeds, and not talk, are what is needed. it is only relatively recently -- and we must recognize that we as a nation have again gathered our strength, our will, and our determination to act boldly and vigorously to lift from all of our citizens the degrading burden of tolerance, bigotry, and discrimination. >> what he wanted is he wanted results. he wanted something done about mississippi. he wanted something done about louisiana. he wanted something done about alabama. and he wanted done -- wanted it done the day before yesterday. and the lawyers who worked for me believe in him, believed that is what he wanted, and that is
what they wanted. they wanted to get something done. >> his great achievement in attorney -- as attorney general was civil rights. he himself grew during that period of time. he had an instinct -- always had an instinct for the underdog, for those who are not included. >> in prince william county, virginia, the schools were closed in 1959 rather than meet the requirements of brown versus board of education. they took the position that the constitution did not compel states to offer public education, and therefore they would close their schools in prince william county. of course, overnight they had private school for white children and african-american children had none. >> this was something he did not have to do. but those children had to be given an educational opportunity. under his leadership, worked to
create school system in prince edward county that was probably the best in the country. that was a very personal example of responding to a problem not just as a lawyer but as a leader. >> we have to learn from robert kennedy's sacrifice. we have to carry on. we have to make sure that things become a reality. it is encouraging to know there are people like this who care enough about america. >> he could swirl in his chair
and looked away for a second fda asked him a tough one, or tell him a terrible bit of news. >> at the same time he was very reasonable and pragmatic about it. he didn't like you bumping your head against the windmill. he wanted you to say, something could be done. he looked for achievement and for the bottom line of a result, but he was open to many imaginative, creative avenues to reach a result. >> i think one of the great accomplishments of the kennedy justice department and the kennedy administration was it's very careful and successful management of the standoff with gov. wallace. this was high-stakes politics and it was particularly high stakes for the african americans trying to get an education and were blocked literally by the governor himself. >> have -- would you be talking
directly to the governor? >> i come here to ask you now for unequivocal assurance that you will permit these students who, after all, merely want an education -- >> we don't need you to make a speech. >> i will make my statement, governor. i was in the process. that you will not bar entry to these students, the land -- vivian malone -- and you will step aside peacefully and your constitutional duties as governor? >> did you get him to talk to the governor? >> it was typical of him -- set your sights, boom, no turning back. not too many people exactly like that. >> he discovered himself in action.
he would go down to these places in appalachia and hold a child in his hands and you could feel, it was palpable, that he identified with this kid and yearned to be able to make things better. >> he was, above all, a man who deeply loved this country and its people and had such a sense of justice and decency and right conduct that he could it -- an entire department, and indeed, later, a great part of the country to understand and to follow what he was trying to do. >> he never backed off of doing what was the right thing to do. nesshere was a seamless
to his life and you can see how his family was part of his life at the department of justice and his work life comes home as well. he is back and forth to the white house, department of justice, hickory hill -- he was in constant motion and his family was in constant motion. everyone understood that this was a dedicated family man, a father of many children. that he was dedicated to those children, dedicated to florida. >> i think it meant a lot to the people in the justice department that he had his kids' pictures in his office and they hung their kids' pictures in their offices. >> if he had his children around them and had something else to do, he would hand the phone to one of his children and have them talk to whoever it was -- maybe it was the president. >> calling of the guard -- up
the guard. hi, how are you, dear? weighed down in a southland -- way down in the southland. dino the temperature down here? 98 degrees. you tell your father that. tallow and we will all get hardship pay. -- tell him we will all get hardship pay. >> they are all going to get -- >> going to get what? say goodbye. say goodbye. >> goodbye? >> why don't we plan that -- >> he was serving his brother,
the president, in countless ways, not only the justice department but the highest councils of foreign policy. it was said at a time, and absolutely true, if it was important president kennedy wanted bobby involved. there was a time when he was having a meeting of people who were working on developing what became the war on poverty, and he was going in and out, and he would leave for 15-20 minutes, half an hour, come back, not miss a beat, back in the conversation as though he had been there the whole time. they found out later on that he was going down the hall to discuss what to do about the cuban missile crisis. complete departmentalized. totally calm and doable but those things at the same time. >> he was concentrating so much in his mind, in his head. i think what -- think of what he was carrying around -- in the
world, religious issues, russia, europe, and his job, which was running the department of justice. >> robert kennedy got a terrible news from j. edgar hoover from a phone call, he was sitting at hickory hill and his world turned upside down. >> the attorney general was not running the halls and cracking jokes before a long time after that -- for a long time after that. there was always a sense after that of a different life, a different reality. >> he came out of it, and after a period of several months like that, he was back to his
normal, hard-hitting self. he could do everything. >> history does not reveal its alternative. you just can't be sure of anything. in a way, that's why you have to make every moment counts. and he did. >> if i had a chance to talk to robert kennedy today, i will tell him -- would tell him we're not done yet. i would say for myself that i think of him practically every day. if i saw him today, i would say, you did fabulous amounts to this country. you inspired us and you made a lot of wonderful things happen. but we're not done yet. anybody here is seen my
day for attorneys general -- past and present. would you join me in wishing attorney general holder a very happy birthday? [laughter] [applause] the attorney general reminded us of part of the story of rfk's first day here. at the gate, the guard did ask to see his past. he said, well, i don't have one, but for heaven's sake, the attorney general. and a guard said, well, you don't get into the building without a pass, unless you are j. edgar hoover himself.
[laughter] the next day, he brought a pass and with it, a thirst for excellence, world up shirtsleeves, curiosity, a black bear of a dog named not many days later he came and was impressed by the number of cars and abroad. he said notes to all the owners complimenting them on their devotion. he soon send a note back to the deputy in office of legal counsel. it said something like especially on washington's birthday, i cannot tell a lie. i was parked there wall birthday and and i were shopping at the holiday white sails.
if you ask to was the highest- ranking woman, people would probably stop and think. don may have been the only non-white face. i am not sure there was even one african american lawyer in the department then. i am sure rfk would be gratified to see how to reverse the department would become, and how warm wish you would think the attorney general holder for bringing us together today. [applause]
in 1961, it did not take long to form an impression of the new attorney general. one of them was the man who helped win a 70% of the boat but then was accused of income-tax evasion. what they approved an indictment? all department hands waited and some suspense, and they smiled when they heard he had told him do what you have to do. he was convicted and spent two years in prison. yes, rfk was well known as a prosecutor. what is less recognize that he
also displayed strength on behalf of defendants. that was a time of rising public concern about crime in the streets. he was determined, as he said, that this should not just beat the department of prosecution, but truly a department of justice. he established the allen committee on criminal justice, created a national conference on bail reform and sponsored the legislation that provided paid federal counsel for poor defendants. and just down the 5100 corridor he had david hackett and david boone create the president's committee for the 4 runner on the war on poverty. and he was also physically strong, but never ask more of his colleagues than of himself. of hisnever asked more
colleagues began of himself. he hiked 50 miles in 20 hours. rfk did it in 17 icy hours and in dress shoes. when my mentor dropped out at mile 35, rfk said you are lucky, your brother is not president of the united states. [laughter] of course the most historic dimension of robert kennedy's tenure as attorney general concerns of our rights. talk about strength. rfk was moved by the strength of all of those who sat and road and marched and sometimes it died for their civil-rights. we're honored today to be joined by representative john lewis
whose life and career stands virtually the whole silver rights movement, from the freedom rights to the freedom summer and a freedom march. he was elected to the house in 1986, and soon became what nancy pelosi calls the conscious of the congress. but giant and model journalism -- a giant in modern journalism. let me note the story in interviews that he and john lewis gave in a remarkable award-winning documentary by stan nelson about the freedom rights is soon to be shown on hbo. charlene hunter gault was the first african-american woman admitted to the university of georgia. she was about lead -- all you colleague at -- valued colleague
at "the new york times." and the pride of new richmond wisconsin who joined the department during the eisenhower years, soon came to admire rfk, and for the much of 1960's, personified justice. you may recall the famous photograph of him on the mississippi street facing down an angry crowd alone. what theyach person wit remember best about rfk what they learned from several rights and what they have to learn from him. let's start with congressman louis. [applause] >> big you very much. -- thank you very much.
i am honored to be here. i want to thank the attorney general for inviting us all to be here. ms. kennedy, kathleen, and other members of the kennedy family and my fellow members of the panel, i think the first time that i got to really know of the work of the attorney-general robert kennedy, and i know john dole and john singapore have much more to say about this, was during the freedom ride. i believe it became the first real test in the area of civil rights. just think in may 1961, black people and white people could not board a bus and leave washington, d.c. nbc2 together and travel-- be seated together,
travel together without the possibility of being arrested. or jailed or beatened. and that is what happens. 13 of us, seven whites and 13 african americans traveled on the roadways and greyhound. violence in south carolina. between atlanta and birmingham a bus was burned. an organization drop the freedom ride and a group of us decided
we must continue. 10 students, blacks and whites, at this police commissioner of birmingham stopped the bus at the city limit, arrested two young people, a young black man and young white man and ordered the regular passengers to get off the bus. he looked around at our tickets. our tickets read from nashville to birmingham to montgomery.
on a friday evening after being in jail that wednesday night, thursday night, early friday morning they took us to the early alabama tennessee state line and dropped a sop and said you could make it back to nashville the best way you can. it was clan territory. we bike to birmingham. we tried to board a bus that friday evening at 5:00 and the bus driver made us pass a statement. he said i only have one life to give, i am not for to give it rps or ncaap.or in a i think the attorney general was very concerned.
he said let me speak to mr. greyhound. he said he wanted to know if there were any light bus travelers that would take us from birmingham to montgomery. that evening, apparently during the night, there was an arrangement where there would be a car, a state patrol car every 15 miles and a private plane flying over the bus. the moment we arrived as a great pass bus station in montgomery and started down to stepped-- greyhound bus station in
montgomery and started down the steps, and angry mob started beating reporters and then started on us. this young man was there. the safety director at alabama, cairo and get straight in the air and said there were no killing here today. gun straight in the air and said there will be no killing here today. many tried to interview as before the alabama people. we were disguised as members. i have been hit in the head.
members of the mob start marching on the church throwing bombs and apparently trying to burn down the church. there's a call made to robert kennedy. the attorney general spoke to his brother of the president, sent in the federal marshals, and i believe that alabama national guard were fed arise. if i have not been for robert kennedy, the president, i am convinced that some of us would have died in the church that evening. robert kennedy his power, his ability to save lives that evening. i just want to thank john synge
gnthol for all they did. thank you. [applause] john, ink yank you so much, mr. attorney-general, kathleen, friends of robert kennedy, friends of his legacy. how moving it is to be here today, and i do not think i can walk into this building without thinking back on the first time i came here, and it was before the swearing in that we
witnessed a moment ago. it was shortly after the president and bob had talked about finally his becoming attorney general of the united states. the attorney general, bill rodgers, his predecessor and friend offered him a suite of offices and he came over the first week of december. i came with him. the attorney general came down with regularity to help make the transition easy. there had been criticism of the president's appointments.
the media eckerd words -- echoed words like nepotism. there were members of the conservative bar the question whether someone had not been a court room attorney was really qualified to take the job on. he was cognizant of that. i remember on the day general rogers left he gave up bob a present, two presents. congress was about to pass along authorizing new judges. bill rodgers left bob a bottle of aspirin and a fountain pen to sign all the recommendations to the president.
i think his first concern was surrounding himself with people whose talent and ability and the professional law were admired both inside and outside the bar. on the night after he and the president talked finely about him becoming attorney general, -- talked finally about his becoming attorney general, his first call was to buy red-and- whiyron white. he invited him to become deputy attorney general, and he said bobby, i think you will be where
the action is, and that is where i want to be. i think of the talented lawyers who then came to surround him. byron accounted to that recruiting. he relied heavily on lawyers he had known through his work to the american bar association and relied heavily on former year leasales. berk marshall came from an anti- trust firm to have the civil- rights union. john doe had broken ground of civil-rights cases and the south.
jack miller headed the criminal division. distinguished lawyer that represented president nixon and his troubles. archibald cox was solicitor general and agreed to come down from harvard. it was an exciting time. for jack and for me, and i know was a moment to it whon the company of peoplee meant so much to the rule of law. ick headed the civil
division. it was an exciting experience to come to lunch, to come to work every day. and to listen to the work of justice and fold five these giants of justice. i think back on those days and of course the first crisis is the sole rights crisis in montgomery. and i am so happy to be part of this panel.
because my work in the justice department intersected with john that day when he almost died. what he did not say is that had floyd not fired the pistol that day, both john lewis in jim might have lost their lives. i remember so well charlene his first beach as attorney general at the university of georgia. a young man,
a senior in law school, jay cox. he invited him to come make the speech, and robert kennedy said, young man, you know if you asked me to come, i will speak on civil-rights. you may not get what you wish. i remember he said mr.
attorney general, i remember reading that when you were a senior at the university of virginia law school you invited ralph bunche to appear at the university of virginia for law day, and there was an upwaroar d the president of the university said he could not come, and
your classmates would not support you, but he pushed it. and and i remember he did come and somehow you integrated that audience. so we went to georgia where i laid eyes for the first time on shirley.
charlene. the president of athens called and tried to discourage the visit. and then tried to discourage an impossibility that he would have any encounter with charlene, because she had entered that university, been rejected the first time. court of appeals said you must take her. both times their lives were at serious risk. of course he went, and of course he met with her. i think back on those days, and think what it was like to be part of the vitality and the vision and the energy of the
daring. it is not a cliche to cross the new frontier with him. i think back on it and how often i remember his words and how often they echo and reechoed in my mind as crises occur. how often his words were almost prophetic. i really meaningfully to what tim edwards said, we're not through yet. the movement was a dowbout nonviolence. you cannot only bank of a few days ago in arizona to be reminded again, the impact of
years old 15 years ago. i was 19. i am not good at math, but some of you have figured that out by now. i was 19-years-old. on january 9, i walked onto the campus of the university of georgia as the first female black students to a riotous crowd of white students shouting racial epithets and calling for the crowd to kill me and hamilton holmes, my colleague who had entered the university with me. four months later i heard about what day and thought about it with a certain irony, because despite the gentleman john just spoke about, the law students
were among the organizers of the riots outside of my dormitory that led to windows to my room being broken, and ultimately to my suspension for my own safety. although we were returned within a few days. so i approached this day with a certain amount of anticipation, a certain concern, and also i think i was encouraged because so many of the georgia officials for refusing to come -- i was not anchorage by that, but i was encouraged by the reason they were giving for not coming, which is they were afraid that robert kennedy was going to deliver a bombshell on civil rights. indeed, none of the top officials of the state came to hear robert kennedy that day,
and griffin bell who was later to become assistant to jimmy carter i believe, attorney general, was to introduce robert kennedy at the last minute got cold feet. someone else had to introduce him. it was a room like this, a little bit bigger maybe. i got there early so i could get a good seat. my anticipation turned to anxiety as robert kennedy praised some of george's arch segregationists.
i sat there wondering where this was going. he named all of the segregationists, and i actually became an easy. -- uneasy. at a certain point i relaxed a little bit more and relaxed when he spoke about being advised by georgians to identify with georgia kinfolk. he said i have looked around and we do not have any kennedys in georgia, but georgia had given his brother the largest, biggest myths -- % majority of any state in the union, and he said that was better than kinfolk. [laughter] there was a little bit of laughter, but everybody was still tense. at that point i was thinking about the margin that he got was probably due in great part to
the number of black people who were won over to the kennedys when john kennedy called king and call to find out if she was ok and then quietly worked with his brother to speak to the judge to get martin luther king out of the prison. when he said that, i thought, ok, that helps a little bit, my anxiety. but my anxieties release soon gave way to -- as kennedy started to talk about the law, and how one man's rights are denied the rights of all are in danger. and i thought this is going to get interesting, because people started shuffling in the room, and this was not the most receptive crowd, even though it
was a full house. i knew then the reason for the boycott of robert kennedy's speech was justified, because he was about to drop a bombshell aimed at exploding the resistance that still continue throughout the south to the law of the land. i wrote about it, and as i recalled in the book of the time, he started out saying southerners have a respect for candor and plain talk. they certainly do not like hypocrisy. then i wrote he proceeded to lay candor and plain talk on them. [laughter] then, as far as i was concerned, what came next was the critic ross for the whole day. as i was thinking in my mind that this was a hell of a
speech, i suddenly heard kennedy say in the world rights struggle, the graduation of charlayne hunter and hamilton holmes will aid the fight of political infiltration and guerrilla warfare. i gulped. i said my graduation is going to do what? [laughter] then i said, i do not care how many people storm that stage when robert kennedy finishes speaking, i am going to be up there with them. two weeks ago i spoke at the 50th anniversary of the university of georgia's desegregation. i said at the time i was there because good people did the right thing, that i have the life i have had. ien i was doa young girl
wanted to be like brenda starr. now she could eat her heart out. i have had an amazing life. it was good people like the lawyers to press our case, good people like the judge on the federal bench who of firm did and ordered our admission and good people like robert kennedy who believed the law is the glue that holds our civilization together, and that forry day must be lot daaw day our civilization will collapse, that is what he told us that day. on that day he also talked about the black faces and federal government. most especially in the justice department. how proud he would be today to see the man at the helm of this institution who was there by virtue of his abilities, but is
also unashamedly black. well there is no way i could define what he would say about our society today, based on his words back then, i would wager an educated guess that he would be unhappy about the schools segregated and the waite downward spiral that leads to the disproportionate number of men in prison. many of them there for non- violence and first sentences. michele alexander tells the start tail in in irrefutable relief. i would hope that rfk would not embrace the false claims of a post-roussel society. acial society.
i would also hope that those who celebrate robert f. kennedy on this day would also elevates his message, the message that each of you has emphasized today, including the words from the attorney general earlier, the words we of heard from robert kennedy himself, because it is the message that is timeless and transcendent, and it is the message that urges us to keep on keeping on. thank you. [applause] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2011] >> mr. attorney general, mrs. kennedy, cathlyne i am honored to speak on behalf of the
lawyers in the civil-rights division who served under robert kennedy from 1961 to 1963. i am speaking particularly for burke marshall, harold greene, david norman, and bought a win, none of whom are present here today -- bob owen, none of whom are present here today. when all are present, i think i can speak for them. i first met robert kennedy on the second or third day after president kennedy was inaugurated. and the attorney general was prepared for a visit to my office on the first floor of the justice department, and he asked for some information about what the division was doing. there was a black farmer from
east carroll parish louisiana named francis joseph atlas. he was an independent farmer who owned 100 acres of land on which he grew cotton and soybeans. he had eight children or nine children. he and his wife has educated all of them. they had all gone off to various places in the united states to work. in november of 1960, the civil- rights commission held a hearing in new orleans and asked him to come down and testify about the fact that there were no black citizens of east carroll parish that had been registered to vote, because in order to be registered you have to have a voucher of registered official, and no white person would vouch for black man or woman.
the civil-rights division investigated the case and filed a lawsuit on the 19th day of january, 1961. robert kennedy came to my office, this was before any of the assistant attorney generals had been appointed or sworn in, but he was there to find out what is going on in the division. i told him about this case, and he said you picked a bad place to start. i said that is where he grows as cotton. -- his cotton. he came back from the testimony in new orleans and memphis at the front door by the sheriff and said -- and met at the front
door by the sheriff and said do not bring your cotton. why not? the sheriff said civil rights. as i said we brought a suit against the parish to register the cotton, and this was the first matter that came to robert kennedy's desk after he became attorney general. for the next week or so he devoted a good part of his time to trying to persuade the enners to gen the cotton. i said we have to have an
injunction. we have to be sure that there will not be any subsequent boycotts or efforts to drive francis joseph atlas out of the parish. we talk back and forth about it. he called frank ellison and worked out an arrangement. would appearnerouers and on the record tell the judge that they would gen his cotton and they would not deprive him of his goods and services that he needed to continue to run his farm. all of that was done by the third or fourth of february. i know that because to be sure this was great to work out the way he said it was going to work
out, he sent me down there to appear in court before judge hawkins and to hear them tell the judge that they would take his cotton. think of it. the attorney general for the first day put his mind and his effort and energy and drive just to help 1 cotton farmer in east carroll parish gen his cotton. that was a good omen for the country, believe me, it really was. in that first year i saw lot of robert kennedy. i can remember his words. you have to do more. what are you going to do about mississippi? that is not good enough. i want suits in every parish and
every county in mississippi and alabama and every parish in louisiana. so we started first there was -- so we started. then in july to cases were filed in mississippi, -- two cases were filed in mississippi. this put another burden on robert kennedy to see that the law was going to be enforced. all through those months in 1961
there were cases filed in clark county mississippi and boris county mississippi. august 3 jefferson and davis county. august 4 montgomery, alabama. august 4, brooklyn parish. october 16, madison parish, louisiana. and then before the end of the year, the great case, u.s. vs. louisiana. shortly after the other great case, u.s. vs. mississippi. those were remarkable times. i have been asked what i remember best about robert kennedy.
i remember his stride, his ability to get attorneys to work for him. his generosity and sense of humor. i have been asked what you think was his legacy? here this -- his legacy was the voting rights act of 1965. [applause] i have been asked why do i think he stood so strong for civil- rights? i think the words of burke marshall best expressed it when he said robert kennedy had such a strong advocate -- was such a strong advocate for public society. burke said i know bob kennedy
thought i always knew without a glimmer of the doubt, just because the trust, the need to keep the black kids, to believe in their government, we had to support them on this issue of public accommodations, at least it was the moral thing to do. that was robert kennedy i remember. [applause] >> i wondered if we could change the pace a little bit and ask what it was like to go visit hickory hill? >> what was it like to go visit hickory hill?
it began with chaos. [laughter] it was a wonderful experience to visit hickory hill. a look at the six gentlemen here today, and you cannot go to hickory hill and have dinner without seeing those angelic faces, beaming, smiling, faces withoutrful facetearful seeing it patrol the demand nightly prayers, without seeing bob roughhouse with them on the
rug. there was something called the hickory hills seminars. leading rights to the administration came to hickory hill to conduct those seminars, bringing their own expertise from their own backgrounds to share with other members of the administration. thewas bob's vision that seminars would bring the administration and those who were leading it together in the interaction that would promote cooperation and understanding throughout the administration. to go to hickory hill for
whatever reason, and there were tough decisions made there, was always for me, a sheer joy. it was an exciting experience. so many memories reside there, and i think to understand the umanity you his him manat needed to see him at home with who knew him best and loved him most, and with those children who are indeed the most vital segment of his legacy. [applause] >> john doar, i wondered if we
could recall the night of old miss. i was in washington and the department. the attorney general was at the white house. it was one of the worst nights of my life, and i was just a spectator. so much a threat, so much danger, so much violence. 4:00 in the morning, the attorney general's phone rang and there was no one else to answer it. it was the president. he said is my brother there? i said he is on his way to the white house. he said i am free to ask you, how is he doing? could you talk about that night from your perspective? >> several weeks before i was working on a voter registration county orce countest
mississippi, and there was a very peculiar three-judge court judge in that case. three judges for the court of appeals. judge john minor wisdom, judge brown from texas, and judge bell from georgia. during that time and james meredith was pushing to get into the university in the state of mississippi was keeping him out. he had been rejected by the governor for the first time, and the attorney general said to me, i think if you go to louisiana mcshane, i think they will register meredith at the
university offices. so we went there, and there was a crowd around office building, and we went up to the seventh floor, a state office building, and when we got to the door to the university of mississippi office, the door opened and there stood the hon. ross barnett. at that time the television lights went on behind me, and gov. barnett looked at me and looked at james mcshane and then looked at james meredith and said which one of you is james meredith? [laughter] we got turned back there, so then we went to memphis.
there was maneuvering back-and- forth about getting us into the university. we were halfway down to jackson one day and said it was not safe and to turn back. on sunday afternoon it was worked out that we could enter the university. secured quarters were provided for james meredith about 200 yards behind the building were all of the trouble started. as a rally after a football game with the students around in part of the building. as it got dark, and got awfully mean and there was real trouble. it was very fortunate that it
turned out as it did, because it could have turned out much, much worse. the next morning james meredith was registered, and he started his class and continued going to his glasses, and he graduated from the university of mississippi. six months before that happened, i sat with an attorney of the justice department, of burke marshall, and that attorney expressed doubts that james meredith would enter the university that fall. he was sure there would be some deal made that he would not enter the university. burke said to him there will not be any doubt about it. he will go to state university and able to stay in the university, and he wants to, he will be able to graduate from
the university. he was speaking for robert kennedy. that is what happened. [applause] johnngressman, mentioned the voting act of 1965. one could say that was the ultimate achievement of the department. as burke once wrote, only political power, not court orders or other federal law will ensure the election of chairmen and sheriffs, school board members, police chiefs, mayors, county officials -- i think of hose things, a fair man.
you are one of those men. without the voting act of 1965 we would not be living in the society we are living in today. the voting rights act of 65 transform not just americans, but transformed our nation. just think, just a few short years ago, these people would tell you and the lawyers that worked at the department of justice, that hundreds and thousands of people stood in unmovable allianclines. on one occasion a man was asked [inaudible] . there was one county where it
was 80% more than african american. there was not a single registered voter in the county. people were beaten and shot, from tehebectevicted farms and plantations. bobby kennedy said during the campaign, and he would be very proud this afternoon, he said on one occasion there must be a revolution, not a revolution in the streets, not a revolution of ireland, but a revolution of values and the revolution of ideas. that is what has happened in the american south. i have said over and over again without the voting rights act of 1965, there would be no barack
obama as president of the united states of america. and [applause] >> the congressman just mentioned changing the spirit of the south. could you tell us about the like this it of robert kennedy's contributions as the effect of the world, for example south africa? >> i think he began even then when he came to the university of georgia to talk about the importance of the emerging nations of the world and our own destiny was linked to that. i think this was the first time that a lot of people in the room had never heard anything like that. he had foresight to see where things were going, and he laid
it out that day, and he talked like southountry's africa where people were still under the awful racist systems. i think his vision was about, as he said so often in his many speeches, including the lot they speech, his vision was about not only an american society where justice and freedom and equality were values the everybody embraced, but a world society that embrace those values. i think that is where he was headed. i think that is where martin luther king was headed, to talk about how the interconnection between the justice here in the justice elsewhere.
i think that is something we still grapple with today, but as i said earlier, his values, the values he articulated were values that -- i do not know that that many people come along in a lifetime whose values are so timeless and transcendent. martin luther king was one. i still " him in a graduation speeches. -- i still quote him in graduation speeches. he was a visionary in his thinking, not only about our own society but how we fit -- fit into the global society. >> it is a wonderful note to end on. thank you to the panel for an extraordinary presentation. [applause]
years of friendship with mick came at old miss. the violence started just before midnight. the army was ready to move from memphis at that time it took them five hours to get what should have been about a 45 minute trip. at least two people were killed during that time. there could have been many more if it had not been for the courage of the marshals. he said that he could not understand how the attorney general knew so much. how they had been able to communicate. because the military the levirate signal corps facilities had not worked. reached into his pocket, took out a dime, and pointed at the pay phone.
we are indeed pleased that he could join us. at least by video. i think that he probably would not mind my reminding you of something that harold tyler, who had been the deputy attorney general when john first came to the department, when nick was appointed after five months of waiting, tyler sent him a note that said congratulations. what this country needs is a bold attorney general. [laughter] >> i wish that i could be there with you physically today. but age interferes. i would like to wish the attorney general happy birthday. do not worry about that gray hair. i wanted to say a few words
about one of my heroes, bobby kennedy. people forget that when he was appointed attorney general, he was the most least popular appointment that president kennedy made. he was criticized as being too young, too inexperienced, and most of all, i think, probably to political. so, it is interesting that 50 years later -- i do not think that anyone would have predicted, except for ethel, that we would be celebrating him as the greatest attorney general of the 20th-century. how is that possible? because he was himself a remarkable person. which no one understood, really,
i think. he was dedicated to government. to making government work. and he was dedicated to the law. he was determined to make the department of justice the face of block in the united states. as it should be. after he was made attorney general, he continued to give criticism. he got criticism from the civil rights people because he was not giving them sufficient protection. which he did not see how he could do under the laws that existed. he did a point many new attorneys. he went to court and sought to vindicate their rights. that was not enough at that time. he also got criticized for being ruthless. i think because of his attitude towards jimmy hoffa.
roofless is probably the most inappropriate word in the english language to describe a person of compassion, as he was. why did he go after organized crime and half of bellow which he did. not -- hoffler? of which he did. it was their capacity to criminalize the government. which you would not stand for. it is interesting, today to celebrate bobby for his accomplishments in civil rights in his ability against all odds to stem the passage of the civil rights act. i want to think of it in a broader context. it was not his accomplishment in civil rights alone that gave him that reputation.
what he did while achieving the goal of equal protection for blacks, what he did was to preserve the federal system. and to preserve the government of law. for that it does not matter your race or politics, the country ought to be very grateful. i often think of bobby as a leader. because he was a leader. he appointed exceptional people into the department to help him run. but you never forgot at any time that he was the attorney general. that he was the person that made the decisions. that he was the person that supported you by and doing what you believed to be right. let me add that no attorney general can do it by himself.
and that the success of an attorney general depends on every single person in the apartment having the same determination and out looked. the same capacity to view the law in its importance to the democracy that we all love. [applause] >> as the attorney general, i am going to take a couple of privileges. first, we have the former attorney general benjamin said the levee with us here today. -- civiletti here today. but combat. -- welcome back. [applause]
and i would like to ask all of the members of the kennedy family to stand so that we can recognize you all. [applause] there are a lot of them. [laughter] i want to thank each of our panelists for sharing their insights and remarkable insights with us today. it is my honor to turn the program over to kathleen kennedy townsend. the 60 to a -- 66 lieutenant governor of maryland and alumna and dear friend. like her father and so many in her family, her life and career have been defined by a commitment to public service. we are honored that she has returned to the department today
to help us to honor her father. please join me in about coming kathleen kennedy. [applause] >> thank you so much. thank you, mr. attorney general, for welcoming us all here. you are a brave man. can i mention two other people that i think our special here? secretary cohen and his wife, janet. thank you so much. and my own attorney general from the state of maryland, ben ganzler. [applause] this has been an amazing week. there have been many joys and much sadness as well. as you have all heard, my uncle
died this week. he had led a life of devoted service, accomplishing so much. the peace corps, the war on poverty, his work with special olympics and support for his wife. i am always big unman the help you, so i am big arm sarge. what an extraordinary family. the children merely help one another. i want to say, on behalf of our family, how much we will miss sarge. the other person that died this week was iangie novello. one of my father's secretaries. i cannot remember life without her. she was very devoted to him. she would come over on sundays in take dictation. that is when you had to use shorthand. i could not understand what could be understood from our
scribbles. but she always said yes, bob, with a wonderful smile. she really helped him so much. her brother-in-law was this great accountant that could figure out where the money went, and who profited. because of his help my father was able to go after many people in organized crime. that is the sadness of this week. there has been a lot of joy as well. my family has gotten together. caroline did a wonderful job yesterday in celebrating president kennedy's administration in his extraordinary inaugural address. gene smith, who i have to say, she brought peace to ireland. making me remember her wonderful husband, steve smith, who is a great friend of all of ours.
vicki is with us and, as we said yesterday, helped teddy be the person he could be. thank you very much. and for your family. [applause] there are lots of other brothers and sisters, nieces and nephews. if i mentioned all of them, i would be here forever. so, i am moving on. it is good to be here with all of my cousins. it is good to be back at the justice department. i would often visit with my brothers and sisters when i was young. i was fortunate enough to work here under janet reno. we came here as children because our father wanted us to know the challenges he was facing, what was going on. whether it was george wallace, ross barnett, or even j. edgar hoover. what will get to in a minute.
-- who i will get to in a minute. we came to the attorney general's office, which is now a conference room. but he chose it as an office. probably the largest room in the building. because you liked to work .ollaborative leavly he liked to listen and hear what everyone had to say. we would come for dinner and play with our dog, tossing a football. you've all seen how many pictures are watercolors that daddy put on the wall. it was a large room with tall ceilings and a marvelous mural on either end. even in the middle of the activity at the lower level, i always found myself drawn to those murals of muscular men and
women walking together up a hill, always striving for word, working for justice as a continual and constant challenge. that challenge, the work of taking on difficult and intractable questions, it excited my father. he wanted to be better and do better. every night about our parents' bed we would pray that he would be the best attorney general ever. could i get some water? someone? anyone? anyways. thank you. thank you, mr. attorney general. very kind of you. i first saw his dedication to justice even before he was the attorney general. he was the counsel to the senate rackets committee, where he was investigating corruption. other mothers were taking their children to the playground to
make castles in the sandbox, riding on the seesaw. climbing the jungle gym. my mother brought my brothers and i to the senate back to committee hearings. some of my first words were -- i refuse to answer that question on the grounds that might incriminate me. a useful phrase for a 4-year- old. my father was able to see that organized crime was infiltrating unions that should have been defending working men and young women. taking over what was once legitimate businesses. he said either we will be successful, or they will own the country. looking back after 50 years, it is hard to grasp the respect and deference that j. edgar hoover commanded in government and the nation at large. however, he said that there was
no such thing as organized crime. but my father would not be intimidated by conventional wisdom or the mob. and his efforts led congress to pass a law on organized crime and authorize the federal government to prosecute the thugs that would rob, intimidate, and kill their fellow citizens. the thugs were happy. they threatened my brothers, my sisters, and myself. they threatened to throw acid in our eyes. well we were at the lady of victory parochial schools, while the other children got to leave at the final bell, often we went to the principal's office to wait for my mother to pick us up. to make sure that we were safe. as you know, once my father became attorney general, his attention increasingly turned to civil rights. during the freedom riots of
1961, a simple white -- civil rights act of its were let -- were met by white mobs. just another part of the greyhound bus driver story. at one point, as you heard, they were so frightened that they refused to drive. the writers could have been called off. my father called a supervisor demanding that they get someone, anyone, to drive the buses. the government will be very upset if this trip is not continue. someone had better get in the damn bus and get those people on the way. he also mentioned that their right -- license to operate was up before the interstate commerce commission. greyhound found a driver. in 1963 charlene hunter became the first african-american to graduate from the university of georgia.
at that time, and she said it eloquently, which is why i thought of it today, the united states could only win the cold war by living up to the promise of equality and freedom for its citizens. knowing that it was not enough to melt principles, we had to get results. i still have a letter that my father wrote me on june 11, 1963, 4:45 p.m.. "dear kathleen. we are in the middle of registering two negro's at the university of alabama despite the opposition of governor wallace. i hope that by the time you get to college these problems will be far behind us. love to you, daddy. one of those students, as you heard, is dr. vivian malone. her sister is with us today. once again, good going on choice of a wife.
my father worked hard to get the 1964 civil rights act passed. he was pleased that they decided it should come under the commerce clause when he was 48 my father predicted that in 40 years that america will let an african-american president. dealing with these tough challenges like the collapse of our economy, health care, and nuclear arms control. like president obama, my father also understood that justice is not simply about passing and enforcing laws, but by creating a country that is just, acting fairly and equitably. understanding that some children are born fortunate while others are not. he said there is another kind of
violence. slow, but just as deadly as the bomb in the night. the violence of faceless institutions. of indifference and inaction. what robert frost called the slow, smokeless burning of decay. the violence that afflicts the port. poisoning relations between men because their skin has different colors. the slow destruction of a child by hunger. schools without books and homes without heat in the winter. my father knew that those that were fortunate have the responsibility to open their hearts and minds to those plagued by poverty, poor health, broken families, and inadequate education. so, he launched the juvenile justice initiative to create opportunities for children that did not have that access. out of these efforts grew the
property program and eventually the office of justice program, where i was not fortunate -- where i was fortunate enough to work under janet reno. she brought together education, hhs, hud, and justice department to build safe and vibrant communities. as lieutenant governor i took the example to maryland and we were able to reduce crime in our most violent neighborhoods. i am just three years. [applause] -- in the just three years. -- in just three years. [applause] if our gun laws were still in place, the tucson shooter would not have had the ability to keep running his deadly errands. [applause] i believe that this department
and this country has got to do a better job on gun regulation, gun control, and making our citizens safe. [applause] as my father said, we glorify killing on movie screens and television screens and call it entertainment. we make it easy for men of all shades of sanity to acquire weapons. and the violence brings violence. retention breeds retaliation. only a cleansing of society can remove the sickness from our soul. after my uncle, john kennedy, was killed, my father was devastated. he stayed on as justice for a time, but his heart was broken. all that he had worked for seemed torn apart. j. edgar hoover regain his
ascendancy and stopped the work of organized crime. so, while the work of justice continued, the spirit that it had animated would surely be canned. at that time my father loved to walk. in fact he had always taken our family on walks in the neighborhood. we often bound up at archibald cox's house, who was not really sure what to do with the attorney general, his wife, seven kids and four dogs. one thing that he knew to do was not to invite us in. [laughter] my father also loved shakespeare. growing up my room was next to his bathroom and every morning he would do situps while listening to shakespeare records. one evening he asked me to walk with him and he recited a passage from henry the fifth. "from this day to the end of the world, we shall be remembered.
we few, we happy few, we band of brothers. 4 he that sheds his blood with me today shall be my brother. " those words capture the camaraderie and purpose that animated the kennedy administration and this justice department. my father saw that spirit because, along with his brother, jack, he helped to create it. they applied themselves tirelessly and courageously to the moral oppression of our nation, helping african americans to secure their civil rights. many of us here today were not a part of that band of brothers. we may wish that we had participated in that heroic work. but i think that my father would say that every generation has its own challenges and its own need for heroism.
he was a great attorney general because he saw injustice that had been invisible to others. he car -- called on his team at the department to see it, address it. all of you, mr. attorney general, are involved in important and critical questions in this day, at this time. as you climb up that hill towards a just, peaceful, and equitable america, thank you for remembering my father's legacy. [applause] >> thank you for those wonderful words. i think that that is a very
fitting way for us to finish this commemoration in tribute to our nation's greatest attorney- general. i'd like to invite all of you to join us on the fifth floor, where we will have the reception. i'd like to say that it is my office, but it is not truly. is his office. please, join us upstairs and we will continue this celebration of attorney general robert f. kennedy. thank you. [applause] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2011]
for legislation that would reduce public employee bargaining power and benefits. he is expected to talk about that an ongoing budget issues. we will have live coverage beginning at 7:00. laware gaddafi spoke today expense of -- spoke expansively -- extensively today. we will be bringing you those remarks at 7:15 here on c-span. >> "abraham lincoln" is a unique and contemporary perspective on mr. lincoln. from his early years as a springfield lawyer to his presidency during one of our nation's most troubled times. while supplies last, publishers are offering viewers the hardcover edition for the special price of $5 plus shipping and handling.
c-span.org 02 -- the 02 c- span.org -- go to c-span.org /books. >> every morning, "washington journal," connecting with policy makers and journalists. weekdays watch live coverage of the u.s. house. also, supreme court or zero arguments. on the weekend you can see our signature programming. sundays, "q&a" and "prime minister's questions." you can watch our program anytime at c-span.org. it is searchable in our video library. washington, your way. at public service created by america's cable companies. >> irish voters head to the polls this friday to elect
>> we are standing by to take you to the ira's leaders debate, coming up momentarily, courtesy rte. by rich elections of this friday. we mentioned that brian cowen has recently resigned as leader of fianna fail. the currently fianna fail your of, michael martin, and the labor party leader, eamon gilmore, will debate. the party, fianna fail, is reported to be doing poorly in the polls because of the economic condition in ireland. you may recall that they received a financial rescue package. earlier this year.
with governor scott walker. he will be talking about his budget plan and some of the protests going on in the state capital. following that, 7:15, we will be bringing you the extensive comments of the libyan leader, aahfi.r q again, we are waiting to take you live to dublin for the final televised debate between the leaders of the irish political parties. coverage courtesy of rte.
>> it looks like it will be a few more minutes before the leaders' debate gets under way in dublin. we will have a live for you, once it does start. in the meantime, part of a conversation from this morning on supreme court justice, clarence thomas. the phone is adam liptak talking about the headline he had in the paper last week about justice clarence thomas. today marks the fifth year that clarence thomas will have said nothing during an oral argument. guest: he has one more chance today. if he holds true to form, he will go five years without asking a single question from the bench. in the last 40 years, no justice
has gone a single year much less five years without asking a single question. host: what is this matter? guest: he holds true to form, he will go five years without asking a single question from the bench. in the last 40 years,o the heart of the cases before them, to really prove the issues, to heart of the cases before them, to really prove the issues, to wrestle with the lawyers and to start a conversation among the justices that continues when they go to their private conference to vote on the case. host: is it a bad thing that he has not asked a question in five years? guest: it is a matter of opinion. every justice seems to take a different view. host: what to scholars and lawyers say about it? guest: they say it is with his
uncompromising views of the law. he knows what he thinks. he is a hard to persuade. there does not seem to be anything a lawyer appearing before him can say to move him. he does not want to give the lawyer a chance to try to persuade him from the view that he walked into the court with. host: the supreme court returns today from its mid-winter break. today could be the five-year mark of justice thomas not asking a question. he has asked a question as a justice? guest: he is not particularly talkative, but over the years, he has asked some questions. in the cases that he chose to speak of, it seemed to be the things that would persuade his
>> as you can see, we're having video problem with the signal. we apologize and hoped to get that to you shortly. bringing you the leaders' debate for the irish elections on friday. >> hello, and welcome. over the next hour and half hour debaters will try to tell you why they will be the best leaders for ireland first, each will make an opening statement. the early -- order was decided earlier by the drawing of lots.
mr. martin. >> i am here to talk about how we can together build a better future for ireland. in the last four weeks i have met and listened to many of the people in the country. i have been honest about the mistakes of the past and the challenges of the future. as party leader i said i was committed to ending the old politics of sound bites and posturing. the leaders at this table disagreed about a lot of things, but we should be able to agree that the people deserve a real debate. the issues facing this country are too serious for the usual political games. i will not spend the next 90 minutes repeating election sound bites. i will not promise any new spending or pretend that there are easy solutions to tough problems. there are no easy solutions. but what i will do is talk about how ireland can and will
recover. our plan will help us to revive the economy, restore public finances, deliver jobs, and fundamentally reform politics and government. i know that many people are suffering, but the only way to a better future is to take the right decisions and not make things worse by delaying action with more politics as usual. i look forward to a debate about how we can, together, build a better future for ireland. >> enda kenny, please make your opening statements. >> friday we will vote in the most important election in the nation's history. i understand your frustration and anger. i know your fears. jobs, your children's future, paying your mortgage. i am asking for a vote for the five. plan to get ireland working.
the pore, the disadvantaged, the old and infirm, they must be protected. we cannot tax our way out of this crisis. we need a more cost effective, efficient public service. supporting doctors, caterers and cleaners, teachers a.m. local authority workers. the reform of the public sector starts right at the very top, slashing the costs in the political system of such a big government for such a small country. i want to assure you that i will be decisive but there. we have to stop. i have the commitment, confidence, and compassion to lead ireland. together with my team we have tenacity and the togetherness of the irish people. together we will turn this
around. together we will overcome this crisis. i truly believe, and i know that when united, nothing -- nothing can beat the irish. >> eamon gilmore, please make your opening statement. >> the choice that you are going to make on friday will define the future of our country for the next 20 years or more. i asked you to choose labor because labor has a plan that is there, balanced, and sensible. to get the country working again. labor is the party of work. to fix the broken system. labor is the party of reform. to do it fairly. the next government is going to need more than just a plan on paper. it will meet strong values and good judgment. the values of labour put the
people and families first. it is not just about the national budget. it is also about the family budget. labor will make sure that no family loses their home during this crisis. that no one will be paying more income tax. and that children will not be punished for the failures of bankers. the sound judgment of labor, which long opposed the disastrous bailout. ireland is a great country and our best days are ahead. we need to renew hope and confidence and restore our country's pride. it must be done together. labor is the party that best brings us together as a people to come together and overcome this crisis. we can do it. we will not fail. friday, choose labor. let's leave the past behind and
make a fresh start. >> thank you. time to get started. before i go into the issues at the outset, you all gave your statements. what you agree on is that this country, at the moment, is facing challenges it has never faced before. people looking for honesty. eamon gilmore, the plan -- enda kenny, the plan you are putting before the people, are you being honest in the scale of the hard road coming? >> yes, i am. these stress tests and liquidity coming will be published until the end of march. is fair to say that our people are hammered, disillusioned, cynical, losing the feeling that politics means something to their lives. look at what is broken in ireland, look at the structure
that needs to be fixed and the mast that our country has been left in by fianna fail. that is why we have a plan to get ireland working. investing in jobs, protecting jobs, dealing with an entirely different budget, changing the health structure. two final points -- delivering a more efficient and effective public service for the taxpayers and, finally, demonstrating that we are serious about politics and leading from the front. >> same question for you, eamon gilmore. is what you are suggesting achievable? >> we need to be absolutely straight with people. the incoming government of this country is going to face the biggest mess that and the
incoming government has faced in history. we have a serious problem in the banks. people are dispirited. they have lost jobs. people in this country are so worried about having to emigrate. first of all, jobs. we cannot tax our way or cut our way out of this recession. we have to work our way out. second, we have to reform the broken system. we know that there are huge changes the need to be made and the labor party has settled 140 different proposals to change that. third, we have to do things fairly. people are looking for care in hospital, services for their children. that is what the labor party believes in. >> you say that heavy lifting needs to be done. can you tell us what pain lies
ahead? given what you have seen in government, michael martin, is your plan realistic? >> is honest, credible, and realistic. we are the only party that has laid out a detailed budget plan for the next four years. we have told people where we want to generate revenue. we are the only people that have generated that kind of credible party planned. in terms of restoring public finances need to make sure that we get confidence back into the economy. secondly, jobs are critical. we begin to put forward a credible plan, which we did before in this country, in key sectors, agriculture, food, technology, digital media, so on. third, we put forward a very radical political reform that fundamentally changes the way that we do politics in this
country, opening up government to people from outside professional politicians. >> moving on to the issues now, the first issue we are addressing is the economy. within that there are many headings. we will alternate each session. we will be starting off with the imf eu deal. whoever gets in, that is the first thing you have to deal with. if you had the option to negotiate a better deal, eamon gilmore, what would your plan be? >> first of all it needs to be renegotiated, because it does not work. first of all, it leaves the average taxpayer completely responsible for the debts of the banks. that is not fair and it will not work. secondly, it imposes an excessive interest rate on the irish people. at a 3% interest premium, it is
putting a straitjacket on any future government in terms of budgetary strategy that would have to be done within three years. if that is attempted, it will drive down the economy, prevent growth from happening, and jobs from being created. the european commission itself has acknowledged it will cost extra if we try to do that within three years. how can we be negotiators across those areas, making sure that banks and bondholders bear the responsibility for those investments, interest rates are reduced, and we are given space. >> we will ask you to debate between yourselves in a moment. firstly, michael martin, you are the people that negotiated it. what is your strategy? >> first of all, anyone who says that this can be unilaterally
negotiated is not being honest with the irish people. what has to happen here, first of all, the package is a facility to borrow money to pay of public charges. teachers, nurses, doctors. that is the $50 billion in the package. the remainder is the recapitalization of the banks to make sure that they get back on a surer footing. what is happening at the european level, the heads of state are discussing and potentially changing the interest rate. not for ireland, but for every country. that is the actual position. notwithstanding that, that is not the biggest problem that we face. they do attempt to camouflage the wider issue. there is a connection between the two, it does not take away from the enormous challenge that we have. intelligence diplomacy, working
with other heads of state and other governments in terms of enhancing and improving the broader framework that europe has created to deal with the issues facing us. >> [unintelligible] >> you are wrong. the dishonesty of the debate was there before ireland applied for it. long before they applied for this framework. that is well known. everyone knows that. >> enda kenny, if you are headed out there you may be the institution of the country. >> many would be amused at what i just heard here. when you and martin speak of intelligent diplomacy, there was not a member of the government that would tell the truth about the imf being here in ireland. they could not tell the truth about that in a phone call to inform the average people that
they had landed. i have been to brussels and berlin. it is only right and proper, as the leader of a major party here, that they should inform the president of the commission of our priorities. this is a bad deal for ireland and a bad deal for europe. we believe that this deal has to be renegotiated on the basis of interest rates and cost structure for the banks. i agree that this cannot be done bilaterally or by anyone else individually. it must be done by crosse european basis. i made the point, after coming back from berlin that if banks were required to sell assets at fire sale prices with fianna
fail party coming into play, this is a penal tax that will break the irish people. >> but if you are out there negotiating, enda kenny, if you go for 1% but we are spending every six weeks? >> we do not actually know the scale of the chasm of the injustice. stress test will be finished in ireland by the end of march. conducted in european countries and european banks. european countries may have to change their attitudes. >> is this strategy the right way to go? >> i think that if we care about what the strategy is, we have to have objective is.
>> do you have objectives? >> on some of the areas. i understand that he has to renegotiate, as does the labor party. we understand that it must be done on a multilateral basis. clearly, that has to be done. also they have to make space for the budgetary policy. under the steel, ireland is forced to close a budget deficit within three years. to take 10 billion euros out of the irish economy. it would prevent people from being employed. >> if you are going into coalition together, you are for 2014, you are for 2016. >> the election is not being held until friday.
the fine gael party has no platform within the election. we made the point that of 9 billion, which appears to be the prudent figure, if it was extended beyond, as the labor party does, if you were able to get that it would mean higher interest rates and taxes, higher unemployment, longer periods of austerity. the average people are saying to me that when you have a fix on this, tell us the strategy you have in mind. we do not want to continue to drift where people are disillusioned and burdened and we have a situation where ireland cannot pay its way as it did before. >> coming back to public finances in a big way, when you head out, if you head out, martin, is it understanding that
the deal you are trying to get will involve burden sharing? is that part of the bigger picture? >> there is a fundamental dishonesty to the presentation tonight in terms of what we are going to do this is pandering to the electorate. i did not interrupt you, right? the reality is that we all know in terms of sharing restructuring the wider european nations -- at the moment, angela merkel, nicolas sarkozy, they are talking about 2013. this is an uncertain territory. this is a european banking problem. the plan is, of course, to enlighten and contribute to the wider debate going on within europe. in terms of ensuring that the euro system comes out of the crisis. but it should be well informed, well-dev