tv Key Capitol Hill Hearings CSPAN March 30, 2015 10:00pm-12:01am EDT
much. i want to thank you for being here and joining us in this incredible celebration. i have the honor and, great honor of introducing to you a great. he reminds me of my father in that way. his patriotism, his love of this country, his stick to it in this, and his willingness to put aside differences and find ways to really get things done. senator mccain, my father so enjoyed his collaboration with you here after year, and he really looked upon his senate days working with you as some of the great moments of his senate
career. ladies and gentlemen, please join me in giving a warm boston welcome to senator john mccain. [applause] senator mccain: thank you, ted. mr. vice president, all of ted friends and colleagues visible here today, it is a privilege to be here to help dedicate his institute. a fitting memorial for a man who gave a half-century of dedication service to our country in a place he truly loved, the united states that. i wish i hadn't already told my best anecdotal ted at his memorial service. it might have been appropriate here. it concerned an exchange that he and i had on the senate floor that was known for its bigger. -- its volume and vigor.
a story that we both enjoyed telling. since many of you were present the last time, i won't repeat it today -- pity though, it's a good one. [laughter] we were on the floor. [laughter] we went to freshman senators one democrat and one republican, who got into a parliamentary dispute. i sighed taking place, so i went down and actually took the side of the freshman republican senator. who should appear out of the democrat pro-to take the side of the democrat freshman? soon, face-to-face, i do i -- eye-to-eye, violating all the rules of the senate, yelling at each other, the two young senators fled to the cloak room. [laughter] after was over, we walked out.
ted put his arm around me, and said, we did a pretty good job didn't we? that was the essence. you know -- i know you didn't mind hearing it again. ted and i both believe that if the story made you laugh once, it could make you laugh again. and again. and again. [laughter] i'm still getting last for jokes that i stole from udall years ago. i miss my friend. i miss him a lot. i knew i would, when i said six years ago, the senate would it be the same without him. it hasn't been. that's mostly for reasons unrelated to losing ted, by have no doubt that the place would be a little more productive and a lot more fun if you were there. we all know ted was a passionate liberal. he was happy to impress on you with that baritone of his. just how passionate and how liberal he was.
i don't have that personality myself. when he either of us were roused, we could get a little heated. if we were on the senate floor at the same time, and of the same temperature, well, watch out. it was a great thing, though about ted. he loved it. he loved the good fight. the harder he you went out it, it the more he enjoyed it, and a hearty laugh about it the next time you encountered him. he loved the place. you could just tell. he loved the history and the unique attributes, and it's curious means for making a criminal -- incremental progress on the problems of our time. he saw himself as a steadfast advocate for his cause of. no one in the senate opposed them like me or debated him without respect for his passion
and powers. we all listen to him. he was hard to ignore. he also saw himself as a problem solver, which all legislators should aspire to be. we didn't always agree on what the solutions to our country's problems were. sometimes, we couldn't even agree on what the problems were. when we did find common ground and forge a compromise for the sake of making some improvement to the state of our union, he was the best ally. persistent. patient. thorough. tireless. always true to his word. and just excellent company and all the battles, small and large, that he fought along the way. he made you love the place too. you saw the senate potential. and most of its successes, achieved by the dole work of legislating, as the fun as
exhibit job. he took the long view. he never gave up. he advances causes and, too often from my side, he would eventually win it all. i must patient the ted was. i know his approach was best suited to that institution. he was tactical, farsighted, and inventive. made for a passionate, outspoken advocate. that's a good lesson for all of us. as i said, i miss him. i miss his company. i miss that voice suddenly jolting us out of the term for of some debate that had jogged on for too long -- dragged on for too long. i miss fighting with him, to be honest. it is hard to find people to find people that enjoy a good fight like ted did. [laughter] i miss his storytelling, his
laugh. i miss the pride -- the sometimes solemn pride, boston enjoys pride that he took in his family's history, and the important role that they played in the history of our country. no, the place hasn't been the same without him. if we learn the right lessons from the late edward m kennedy's example, from his love for the team in the u.s. senate, we can make it better. we can make it a place where every member conserve with pride and love. thank you. [applause] >> ladies and gentlemen, please welcome congressman patrick j kennedy. [applause]
congressman kennedy: i can see my father out there in the line. he would say, i can't believe -- and exit out the door. right, kevin? i am so honored. my family is so honored. as i see this got here, i see my father. all of you are a part of his life. seeing you rings back great memories for me and my entire family. i want to take this moment before i have the honor of introducing the vice president to acknowledge my mother. [applause]
as my dad would be saying, make sure you remember your mother. [laughter] so, i did. i want to take this opportunity -- you know, the senate has a phrase, my friend. and they keep referring to "my friend. it could never be more true than when he talked about joe biden. mr. vice president, you were there for him. he was there for you. and good times and bad times. you were on the same side of the aisle, but sitting next to each other for years on the judiciary committee, fighting that battle for social justice that was in encapsulated in matthew 25.
those who were there for the least one of these, my brothers and sisters, is there for me. you, mr. vice president have carried that same faith to help bring more americans into the circle of opportunity, which was my father's great passion for this country. [applause] all of us know joe biden, just like my dad loved people, loved the fray, and love to get into it, and solve the problem. he was a happy warrior. our next speaker, vice president joe biden is also a happy warrior. please give a great round of applause to our vice president joe biden. [applause]
vice president biden: thank you very much. thank you very, very much. thank you for the introduction patrick. teddy junior, caroline, vickie -- it's a great honor to be asked here to speak today. so many others in the audience and behind me who deserve this honor more than i do. to joan and jean, the whole kennedy family, my sister valerie and i are truly honored to be here. you know, there are scores of stories that we could all tell. my guess is that everyone of you and audience has a story about ted kennedy's generosity toward you.
stories that made a difference in your lives. the truth is, patrick, it is doubtful that i would be -- that i would have won my election in the first instance were it not for the fact that your father literally with less than one week left to go, came to delaware rallied about 2000 democrat and started off by saying, you know, i'm here for joe biden, but i think he is too young to be a senator. [laughter] everyone in the audience understood it. it energized them. i was then 29. i didn't turn 30 until after election day. the next day, in the "wall street journal," in the left-hand column it said kennedy said bynum is too young for senate.
it energized my base and i won by a landslide. [laughter] on a more serious note, it is close to certain that i would have never been sworn in as a u.s. senator but for your father. your father's encouragement. literally reaching out to me and pulling me to washington. as a matter fact, i was supposed to be sworn in, i didn't want to, and i didn't show up the day i was supposed to be sworn in. it was your father. your father, along with mike mansfield, the secretary of the senate came to a hospital in delaware to swear me in with my boys. after i arrived in washington, your dad -- although it is presumptive to say this -- treated me like a little brother. at least that's how i felt.
when i arrived in washington after everyone else had been sworn in, your dad became my tutor, and my guide. he introduced me to other senators, who i had never met. i am the first united states senator of a name that i knew. it was new. i remember all these very same ascenders. he was try to get me out of my office. get me engaged. i remember walking in the senate gym, like a ymca -- the guys walk around with nothing on. and he said, i want you to meet this guy. i swear to god. i felt guilty i was fully clothed.
[laughter] true story. god, was i embarrassed. your dad also intervened and got me placed on important committees usually not available to freshman senators. he not only looked out for me, but he looked out for my sons. i don't know how many times he probably dragged you to the kennedy center and let me sit in the box next to him with my two sons, and you thought, what in the hell are you doing here. you are always reaching out to my son, and later to my daughters. something about the kennedys. you all know it. everyone in here understands it. he was an anchor to many of us in our personal lives. he is also the anchor in an
institution. we shared a lot of perspective on the world and our place in it. one that was written on our sleeves is that we both viewed serving in u.s. senate as the single greatest honor, and the greatest responsibility that we had in our lives next to being fathers and husbands. we both believed, and i still believe, that democracy would not have survived as it has over the past 226 years, but for the brilliance and foresight of our fathers. who understood that the separation of power among the three branches of government is the only guarantor of individual liberty. as u.s. senator, chairman of the judiciary committee, chairman of the foreign relations committee, and now as vice president, i have lived that wisdom from a very unique perspective.
and with teddy as my guide. in the senate, we work with presidents of both parties. i have often challenge them when i thought they were wrong, but always paying deference to the office they occupy, never demeaning it. i serve 32 years on the judiciary committee, fighting tooth and nail for justice for all. but always with a deep indispensability of the judiciary. what he really taught me was the meaning of john adams off the rations that the senate, in adam's words, was the colossus of the constitution. no republican can be for any
duration without a senate, and the senate deeply and strongly rooted, strong enough to bear up against all popular storms and passions. i think you believe that with every fiber in his being. i had a from w front row seat, which i can never repay the family four, during the 36 years of my his 50 years in the senate, watching the liberal lion of the senate. including the last time he was on the senate to cast a vote for the health care bill, before -- bill, the affordable care act. as divided as the body was on that act, everything goes senator stood with thunderous applause and tears in their eyes welcoming back the lion in the senate, knowing his passion was
to see to it that we no longer debated whether healthcare was a privilege or right. [applause] i watched him as the debate contested some of the most divisive storms of our time. the voting rights act. equal rights amendment. watergate. wars in vietnam and iraq. the supreme court nominee to serve in a body that he fully understood and told us all would have more impact and effect on the state of the nation than anything we did other than declaring war. what i observed in every instance was that as passionate
as he felt, he always paid deference and respect to the institutions that were involved, whether was the presidency, the federal judiciary, or the congress. the other observation that all those present here can attest to teddy understood that to unlock the potential of united states senate, to enable it to arrive to consensus was about more than just mastering the details of the issue of the day. and he did master them. he understood that consensus was arrived at from an accumulative affect. the little things that you did for the other. build over time. that's what generated the trust and mutual respect that only teddy was able to do.
forgive me for saying in a city of tip o'neill, by thinking was wrong to all politics is local. all politics is personal. all politics is personal. no one in my life understood that better than ted kennedy. i remember vividly -- we still had a lot of the south when i arrived. teddy was a nemesis. i remember him debating senator eastman of the judiciary committee, powerful anti-civil rights member. or barry goldwater and the war in vietnam. or john on issues of foreign
policy and others. three very different men with very different perspectives. when the debate was over, as john reference, teddy what an utterly -- inevitably walk across the aisle to his colleague's desk, shake his hand, and more often than not, go down to the senate dining room and have a cup of coffee together. he reached out to everyone. always building and maintaining personal relationships and trust, even those with people of profound disagreements. teddy didn't have to be taught the lesson. mike mansfield taught me once when i criticize a senator in his office, he looked at me and said, joe, it is always appropriate to challenge and other senators judgment. it is never appropriate to challenge their motive.
because you don't know what their motive is. that's why teddy was able to so frequently forge compromise and generate consensus. in the process, help make the united states senate work as it was designed to work. he believes what he said. that being a united states senator changes the person. it is bigger than you. it requires you to always be willing to listen to another perspective, and be open to changing your mind without pe but training any of your principles. my dad would say, teddy was a big man. he was never small. he was always gracious. as a consequence, he raised everyone's game. it's hard to be teddy when the man or woman you are debating is
being grand. it reminds me of a quote that my sister always uses a chair be using -- i is always uses, trinity to michelangelo. he said, i saw the angel in the marble and i carved until i set him free. teddy set free a lot of folks. that was teddy. he set and really high bar for his fellow senators, like the current and former ones who are here today. when he demanded, no less be applied to himself and his staff. teddy was always optimistic, at least all the time i was with him, and that was an awful lot. always hopeful.
i believe, like too few people today, he believed in the instinct and capacities and goodness of the american people. if just given half a chance. he believes anything was possible. ultimately, from my perceptive i think that is teddy's true legacy. measured as a consequence of how we look at one another. in turn, how we look at ourselves. to establish trust and faith in an institution with the potential to make of all better. that's what i expect the edward m kennedy institute of the united states to fully convey to
the future generations of americans who go through this wonderful place. ladies and gentlemen, i'm not saying anything that you do not already know. this country hungers for a resurgence of a baseline believe in the system of self-governance, admired for his wisdom in the face of passionate differences, and for the ability to compromise over the seemingly unbridgeable divide with some dignity. i'm confident that this institute will serve and set satisfied that appetite. pundits say that we are divided today, more divided than we ever were. that's something not true. look at every major poll on every major issue. there is a consensus in america.
it is the political process that has been broken. generations of americans, from every state, will enter this institute with a chance to debate and raise real issues and develop the capacity to speak up and make their case. i hope they will learn, always with respect. hopefully they will return home and powered with the capacity to listen to different views, be able to forge a consensus that makes it possible for their community and country to function to its fullest potential. what more fitting tribute to senator edward m kennedy then that lesson to not only learn but tell to some a generations that will walk through this institute. he was an anchor for our lives and an anchor to the senate as an institution. let this place serve as a true
compass pointing to his faith of the unlimited possibilities for this great country. thank you for allowing me to be here. god bless you all. [applause] >> thank you, mr. vice president. that was beautiful. these are two songs i think beautifully captured the heart and spirit, not only of senator kennedy, but the heart and spirit of what this institution
and then we will travel on from there california or who knows where and we will ride on the wheels of a dream yes, the wheels are turning for us, girl and at times are starting to roll any man can get where he wants to if you got some fire in his soul we will see justice coming and men who will stand up and give us our due i swear that it is more than promises it must be true
a country that is a man like me own a car, raise a child, build a life with you with you beyond that road beyond the lifetime that careful of hope will always gleam with the promise of happiness and the freedom he will lift you know he'll travel with heads held high just as far as his heart can go and he will ride
greg mr. president, mrs. obama mr. vice president, governor baker, leaders, senators mccain, worn, ed markey, maher walsh dr. jean mccormick, bob correct keith motley, cardinal o'malley to all of the senators, members and elected officials who have joined us today to the boston pops, the children's choir stokes mitchell, friends. on behalf of ted's sister, ted
junior t andiki, patrick and amy, curran and caroline and the entire kennedy family standing beside me literally and in spirit, we are honored and grateful you all could he here. 36 years ago, my husband came here to dedicate the presidential library next to him. speaking about the older brother he loved and admired deeply, teddy called the moment a culmination, a happy rendezvous with history that makes his memory come alive. today, the same is true for all of us who love aggregate m kennedy. it seems like only yesterday that i was standing with teddy
on a window of the seventh floor of the jfk library, looking down on the plot of land where this institute now stands. it was an empty, low-lying fields, but at had a vision that something extraordinary could rise from it. and as he looked out that window, teddy pointed to a little pine tree and said to me, "that is where the institute is going to be," and we stood there for a moment, imagining what it would be like, and institute with a full scale recreation of the senate right here in boston, the city of his birth that he loved so much. now, thanks to the heroic efforts of so many incredible people, that chamber and this
institute stand exactly where he wanted to. but this institute is not about one man. it is about the nearly 2000 men and women who have served in the united state senate in first convened, and it is about those who might be inspired to serve in it in the future if they are laying new more about the important role of the senate in our democracy. teddy used to say everyone knows about the presidency. we have presidential libraries but they do not know so much about the senate and the legislative process. then he went a smile that famous smile of his with a little bit of mischief, after all, we are in article one of the constitution. [laughter]
10 he loved the senate and the great senators of the past, and he loved great senators served with. he loved the building. he loved the senate chamber. most of all, he loved the difference senate could make securing americans rights, helping them get health care or jobs, strengthening america's leadership in the world. sure, the senate has seen its share of disagreements. sometimes sharp once, but as teddy understood, that was part of the process. our founders never intended legislating to be easy. it wires hard work, and as all of us who knew teddy understand, he worked hard at it, because he believed that the united states senate the power to change lives, to live in this country
the live around the world. he served in the united states senate for nearly 47 years, and he noticed something during that time. when he became a senator something changed inside you. maybe not first year or the second year, maybe not even in the third year, but at some point, almost always, something happened. you started to think about more than yourself. you started to think about the country, and teddy wanted to build a place where everyone could feel the same way, a place where all of us could start thinking about our country. institute see today is a realization of that dream, and just as teddy approached politics differently he wanted
to approach the institute and a completely fresh and unique way. so we have a totally hands-on, interactive visitor experience, and it is an experience. visitors interact not only with the, but with each other. we are using the best of technology while encouraging face-to-face interaction and negotiation. it is an entirely new model of civic engagement, and at the center of it all is that magnificent, full-scale recreation of the senate chamber. that recreation was so important to teddy. he believed in the majesty of the place and its power to inspire, and without felt that no experience as a senator would be complete without understanding the awe you felt
walking into that chamber. at student groups visited in the last month, we have seen that in action. there is a buzz in the hallways, talking about exhibits, but as soon as they walk through those double doors, a hush comes over them. they seem to know extensively they are in a very special place. in that space, they will try to pass the coppermine for the 1850 or hash out immigration reform -- the compromise of 1850 or hash out immigration reform. we hope they will also learn that despite our disagreements if we sit down and talk to each other and listen to each other perhaps then we can find common ground. perhaps then together, we can make incredible progress.
teddy hoped that everyone who came to this institute would realize that politics, and he called in politics, is a noble profession. even if it is messy. even if it is hard. teddy wanted people, young people in particular, to rise above and move beyond reports of gridlock and poll numbers and become active participants in our democracy. whether that means serving in the senate or on the school board or just voting without fail, because as far as teddy was can there and, if we all did our part, there was nothing we could not accomplish. we are americans, he said. this is what we do. we reached the man. we scale the height. i know it. i have seen it. i have lived it, and we can do it again.
the edward m kennedy institute is going to inspire us to do it again. teddy actually spoke those words in 2008 at the democratic national convention. despite his own illness, he was looking to the future, and he was looking forward to speaking on behalf of a dear friend, he then junior senator from illinois, a legislator teddy had recruited to his senate committee, and there was no higher compliment than that, so it is my great honor to introduce the man my husband loved and admired though much, he gave him a puppy. [applause] a man who understands the power and promise of our democracy, a man who stood up and fought for and at long last signed a bill enshrining in law what teddy called the cause of his life, health care for all americans. [applause]
and a man, and a man who was also a united states senator. ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states, barack obama. [applause] president obama: thank you. thank you so much. thank you. thank you very much. please, have a seat. thank you. thank you so much. to vicki ted patrick caroline members of the kennedy family, thank you so much for inviting me to be today.
governor o'malley, vice president biden, governor baker maher walsh, members of congress passed and present and pretty much every elected official in massachusetts -- [laughter] it is an honor to mark this occasion with you. boston, know that michelle and i have joined our prayers with yours for the former police officer and ranger who was shot in the line of duty friday night. i mention it because last year at the white house, the vice president and i had a chance to honor officer moynahan as one of america must be a top cop for bravery in the line of duty, risking his life to save another officer, and thanks to the
miracles of the medical center we hear that officer moynahan is awake, and we wish him a full and speedy recovery. also, i want to single out someone and very much wanted to be here, just as he was every day for nearly 25 years as he represented the commonwealth of alongside ted in the senate, and that is secretary of state john kerry. as you know, john is in europe with our allies and partners leading the negotiations with iran and the community standing up for principle that ted and his brother president kennedy believed in so strongly. let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate, and finally -- finally, the first years in the senate ted dispatched a young a to assemble a team of talent without rival.
it was simple. common help ted kennedy make history. -- come and help ted kennedy make history, so i want to get a shout out to his staff 50 years later, more than 1000 strong. this is your day, as well. we are proud of you. of course, many of you now work with me, so enjoy today, because we have got to get back to work. distinguished guests, fellow citizens, in 1958, ted kennedy was a young man working to reelect his brother jack to the united states senate. on election night, the two toasted one another. here is to 1960, mr. president,
ted said, if you can make it. with his quick irish wit, jack returned the test. here is to 1962, senator kennedy, if you can make it. they both made at. today, they are together again in eternal rest at arlington but their legacies are as alive as ever, right here in boston. the john f. kennedy library next door, the symbol of our american idealism, the edward and kennedy institute for the united states senate as a living example of the heart, frustrating never-ending but critical work required to make that idealism real. what more fitting tribute, what better testament for the life of ted kennedy than this place that
he left for a new generation of americans? a monument not to himself but to what we, the people have the power to do together. any of us who have had the privilege to serve in the senate know that it is impossible not to share ted's awe for the history swirling around you, an awe instilled in him by his brother jack. he waited years to deliver his first speech on the senate floor. that is no longer the custom. [laughter] it is good to see tom daschle. they remember what customs were like back then, and ted gave this speech only because he felt
there was a topic, the civil rights act, that demanded it. nevertheless, he spoke with humility, oh where as he put it that a freshman senator should be seen, not heard should learn and not teach. some of us, i admit, have not always heated that lesson. unfortunately, we had ted to show us the road anyway, and no one made the senate, live like ted kennedy. it was one of the great pleasures of my life to hear ted kennedy deliver one of his stemwinder's on the floor. rarely was the more animated than when he went leading the living museum that were his offices. he could, and he would tell you
everything that there was to know about all of it. [laughter] and then there were more somber moments. i still remember the first time i pulled open the drawer of my guess. each senator is assigned a desk, and there is a tradition of carving the names of those who had used it before, and those names in my death included taft and baker simon gallstone, and robert f kennedy. the senate was a place where you instinctively pulled yourself up a little bit straighter, where he tried to act a little bit better. being a senator changes a person, ted wrote in his memoirs.
as vicki said, it may take a year or two years or three years, it always happens. it fills you with a heightened sense of purpose. that is the magic of the senate. that is the essence of what it can be, and who but ted kennedy and his family would create a full-scale replica of the senate chamber and open it to everyone? we live in a time of such great cynicism about all of our institutions, and we are cynical about government and about washington most of all. it is hard for our children to see in the noisy and too often trivial pursuits of today's politics the possibilities of our democracy, our capacity together to do big things, and
this place can help change that. it can help like the fire of imagination, plant the seed of noble ambition in the mind of future generations. imagine a gaggle of schoolkids clenching tablets, turning classrooms into cloak rooms, the issues of the day and the responsibility to solve it. imagine their moral universe expanding as they hear about the momentous battle waged in that chamber and how they echo throughout today's society. great questions of war and peace , of table bargains between north and south, federal and state, and the original sins of slavery and prejudice and the unfinished battle for civil rights and opportunity and equality.
imagine the shift in their sense of what is possible the first time they see a video of senators who look like they do. men and women, blacks and whites, latinos, asian americans, this or two great wealth but also those born of incredibly modest means. imagine what a child feels the first time she steps onto that floor, before she is old enough to be cynical, before she is told what she cannot do, before she is told her she cannot talk to or work with, which he feels when she sits at one of those desks. what happens when it comes her turn to stand and speak on behalf of something she cares about and cast a vote and have a sense of purpose.
maybe just not for kids. what if we all carried ourselves that way? what about politics, our democracy was elevated as purposeful as she imagines it to be right here? towards the end of his life, ted reflected on how congress has changed over time and those who served earlier can have the same conversations. it is a more diverse and accurate reflection of america than it used me, and that is a grand thing, a great achievement , but ted grieved the loss of camaraderie and collegiality the face-to-face interaction.
i think he regretted the arguments now may 2 cameras instead of colleagues, directed at a narrow base instead of the body politic as a whole, the outside influence of money and special interest and how it all leads more american to turn away in disgust and simply choose not to exercise the right to vote. since this is a joyous occasion, it is not a time for me to suggest a slew of ideas for reform, although i do have. [laughter] maybe i will just mention one. what if we carried ourselves
more like ted kennedy? what if we worked to follow his example of little bit harder? to his harshest critics who saw him as nothing more than a partisan lightning rod, that may sound foolish, but there are republicans here today for a reason. they know who ted kennedy was. it is not because they shared ted's ideology or his position, but because they knew ted was somebody who bridged the partisan divide over and over and over again with genuine effort and affection in an era when bipartisanship has become so very rare. they knew him as somebody who kept his word.
they knew him as somebody who was willing to take half a loaf and into her the anger of his own supporters to get something done. they knew him as somebody who is not afraid and the air so permeate our politics instead of hope. people fight to get in the senate, and then they are afraid. we fight to get these positions and then they do not want to do anything with them, and ted understood the only point in running for office was to get something done. not to posture not just sit there worrying about the next election or the poll, to take risks. he understood the difference is
the party or velocity could not become barriers to corroboration or respect. -- that differences in part philosophy could not become barriers to corroboration and respect. but in his personal dealings he answered admitted randolph's call to keep the senate a place to restrain if possible the fury of democracy. i did not know ted as long as some of the speakers here today but he was my friend. i know him a lot. and as far as i could tell, it was never ideology that compelled him. except insofar as his ideology
said you should help people that you should have a life of purpose, that you should be empathetic, be able to put yourself in somebody else's shoes and see through their eyes . his tireless this, his restlessness, they were rooted in his experience. by the age of 12, he was a member of the old star family. by 36, two of his brothers were stolen from him in the most tragic, public of ways. at 41, he nearly lost a beloved child to cancer, and that made suffering something he knew, and it made him more alive to the suffering of others.
when his son was sleeping after treatment, ted would wander the halls of the hospital and meet up with parents keeping vigil over their own children. they were parents terrified of what would happen when they could not afford the next treatment, parents working out what they could sell or borrow or mortgage just to make in a few more months, and then if they had to bargain with god for the rest. there in the quiet night working people of modest means and one of the most powerful men in the world shared the same intimate, immediate sense of helplessness. he did not see them as some abstraction. he knew them. he felt them.
their pain was his. as much as they might be separated by wealth and fame and those families would be at the heart of ted's passions. just like the young immigrant he would see himself in that child. they were his cause. the sick child who could not see a doctor the young soldiers sent to battle without armor the citizen denied her rights because of what she looked like or where she came from or who she loves, and he quietly attended as many military funerals in massachusetts that he could for those who fell in iraq and afghanistan. he called and wrote each one of the 177 families in this commonwealth lost a loved one on 9/11, it he took them sailing and played with their children
not just in the days after but every year after. his life's work was not to champion those with wealth or power or connections. they already had enough representation. it was to give voice to the people who wrote and called them from every date, desperate for somebody who might listen and help. it was about he could do for others. taking them to hospitals in towns and cities and pushing people out of their comfort zones, including his colleagues, because he had pushed himself out of his comfort zone, and he tried to instill in his colleagues that same sense of empathy. even as they called him as one did, with wrong at the top of his lungs, and even if they might disagree with them 99% of the time.
because who knew what might happen with that other 1%? orrin hatch was sent to washington in part because he promised to fight ted kennedy and they fought a lot. orrin was a conservative mormon from utah, and the other one was, well, ted kennedy. [laughter] but once they got to know what another, they discovered something in common, about-face, a soft spot for health care very fine singing voices, -- about faith. orrin held the first hearing on the eighth epidemic, even hugging and a patient and incredible a very important gesture at the time. the next year, ted took over the
committee and continued what orrin started and when orrin's father passed way, ted was one of the first to call. i was over at -- it was over dinner that they try to assure that the 10 million children did not have access to health care -- that debate hit roadblocks in congress as apparently debate over health care tend to do. ted would have his chief of staff celebrate orrin to court his support. when hearings did not go ted's way, he might pop on a cigar to anoint orrin, who did not like smoking. when they did not go orrin' s way, he might threaten to call ted's sister eunice. but when there came a time to pay for the health insurance, ted pounced. offering a tobacco tax and
asking argue for joe campbell and the marlborough man or millions of children who lack adequate health care tumor it was the kind of friendship unique to the senate, calling to mind when john calvin once said of henry. i do not like clay. he is a bad man, an imposter, a creator of wicked scheme. i would not speak to him, but by god, i love him. [laughter] sure, orrin hatch wench -- once called ted one of the major dangers to the country, but he also stood up at a gathering in ted about it last month and said, i'm asking you all to pray for ted kennedy -- at a gathering in ted's last month
and said, i am asking you to pray for ted kennedy. the something can need everything to a whole lot of people. it was common ground that led ted and orrin to forge a compromise that covered millions of kids with health care. it was common ground that led ted and chuck grassley to cover kids with disabilities and life ted and peter michie to fight for americans with a mental illness, common ground, not rooted in abstractions or rigid ideologies but shared experience that led ted and john mccain to work on a patient's will of rights and to work to forge a smarter immigration system, a common desire to fix what is broken, a willingness to compromise in pursuit of a
larger goal. a personal relationship that lets you fight like that on one issue and shake hands on the next. just cajoling or horsetrading or serenade. ted about your brand of friendship and kindness and humor and grace. what binds us together across our differences in religion and politics are economic theory, ted wrote in his memoirs, is all we share as human beings, the weather we experience when we look at the night sky the gratitude that we know when we feel the heat of the sun, the sense of humor in the face of the unbearable and the persistence of suffering and one thing more, the capacity to
reach across our difference to offer a hand of doing -- healing. for all of the challenges of the changing world and all of the imperfections of our democracy the capacity to reach across our differences is something that is entirely up to us. maybe all in our own lives set an example for the kids to enter the doors and exit with higher expectations for their country. maybe all remember the times this american family has challenged us to ask what we can do, to dream and say why not, to seek a cause that endures, and sail against the wind in its pursuit and live our lives with that heightened sense of purpose. thank you. may god bless you.
may continue to bless this country that we love. thank you. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] announcer: joe biden spoke in the room created to be a replica of the actual u.s. senate chamber. [applause]
vice president biden: wow. we will come to order. the chaplain the chaplain will please come and open up with a prayer. chaplain: let us pray. eternal lord god who alone spread out the heavens and rules the raging of the sea, you have been our help in ages past. you are our hope for years to come. lord, what an amazing day this has been. we thank you for the life and legacy of a lion of the senate,
edward m kennedy. lord, you selected him from his siblings to run a legislative marathon that would bring deliverance to captives and provide hope for the lost, the lonely, and the police -- and the least. we thank you for this full-scale replica of the united states senate chamber that he loved so much. oh god, maybe inspiration we receive from this -- ourselves.
when our dreams come true simply because we have dreamed to you a little, may senator kennedy's believe that to whom much is given, much is required challenge us to feed the hungry, to give water to the thirsty, to visit the sick, to close the make it, to minister to the incarcerated, to take care of the strangers. maybe laudable footprints edward and kennedy has left in the sands of time challenge us to tear more boldly, to venture on wider sees where storms will show your mastery, where losing
sight of land we will find your stars. push back the horizons of our hopes and lead us into a future fueled by faith, focus, and fortitude. we pray in your sovereign name, amen. vice president biden: please remain seated while we pledge allegiance to the flag. i pledge allegiance to the flag of the united states of america and to the nations which it stands, one nation, under god, indivisible, for liberty and justice for all. please be seated.
thank you, and welcome to this incredible full-scale replica of the united states senate chamber . along with the rest of my colleagues here, it is good to be almost home. this replica looks like the actual senate chamber, and it feels like the real one with reverend admiral black opening us, and once again sitting in front of the senate parliamentarian who i looked to for guidance for so many years. there is a tradition in the senate. it is that the presiding officer, the senate pro tempore the most senior men near -- member, does not preside all of the time. the majority party supplies folks on an hourly basis for you
students to preside in the president's chair and having been number 100 in señor two, i remove her how i realized i would be absolutely totally lost but not for the fact this gentleman here to my right was sitting in front of me, telling exactly what to do when i presided and even then i thought some of it wrong, but i would like to dartmouth summit knowledge mints. in the spirit of bipartisanship republicans and democrats are sitting next to another on both sides of the aisle rather than the traditional way with them rather sitting to my right and democrats -- republicans to my left. as a matter of fact, i never thought i would see barbara mikulski to my left in the chamber. [applause] senator, in a great honor to see you. in the spirit of bipartisanship, i would like to ask senator
stand and remain standing when i called their name. senator markey of massachusetts senator debbie stapp and michigan, senator jim sasser of tennessee senator william cowan of massachusetts, senator barbara mikulski of maryland, senator angus king of may senator kay bailey hutchinson of texas, senator kay hagan of north carolina, senate majority leader tom daschle of south dakota, senator shelby white house of rhode island, senator amy klobuchar of minnesota senator carl levin of michigan, senator don ringle of michigan senator gordon smith of oregon mrs. irene noa, wife of the late senator daniel inouye of hawaii, senator chris dodd of
connecticut, ms. catherine states -- stevens, wife of the late senator ted stevens of alaska, senator bob graham of florida, senator paul kirk of massachusetts, ladies and gentlemen. welcome back to the senate. [applause] please be seated. i would like to ask members including the massachusetts delegation to stand as a group and be acknowledged. thank you all for being here. please seated, and i also want to knowledge the government leaders from the commonwealth and from the city of boston that joined us today, the lieutenant governor, attorney general healy, state treasurer goldberg,
state president stan rosenberg states begun of the house, and the mayor of boston, marty walsh. [applause] and especially pleased to see so many future senators in our midst, and there are 50 students here today as their badges show from every state in the nation and they will or being here, and, of course -- of course, our thanks to the kennedy family who made all of this possible. with the kennedys please stand up, all 370 of you? [laughter] [applause] thank you so much. and thank you for this honor. the united states senate chamber
in which three kennedys have nobly served. the kennedys are the only family to send three brothers, john bobby, and teddy to the united states senate. the kennedy family has a remarkable record of public service, and i would like to recognize all of those in the family who have served, ambassador jean kennedy smith connecticut senator ted kennedy junior congressman patrick kennedy, senator joe kennedy the second, senator joe kennedy the third, ambassador caroline kennedy, lieutenant governor kathleen kennedy townsend, and maryland house of delegates mark schreiber. and finally, i would like to especially thank vikki and all of the family members who are with us today. vicki, this wonderful, wonderful occasion, thank you.
you have done the nation a favor , with a tireless efforts to construct this incredible, incredible chamber, which brings me to some opening remarks i would like to make, with your permission. like my former colleagues in this chamber, i can remember vividly, vividly 41 years ago when i first stood to speak on the floor as united states senator. i was the least senior senator of not only that your but they told me the least senior senator in all of american history to be elected to the united states senate. senate seniority is based on previous offices you held. i was a county councilman. then it was still a time, and you held the same office with whomever you were elected with that year, because you are usually elected on the same date, and then it got down to
the size of your state, and i was from delaware, and it went on that, so you could not get less senior than i was, and as i'm close to speak, i was in the back row, second seat and, and as i rose to speak, a young man with a beard, i stood up, and as i did there was the death i was flanked by left and right, i found myself putting my hands on the desk, and all of a sudden i say to distinguish -- sent to the distinguished senator, there was a thunderbolt that the desk to my right was the desk of henry clay, and the desk to my left was the desk of daniel webster, and it struck me -- i remember this like yesterday --
a sense of awesome responsibility that i felt, just standing there. i felt so unprepared, having been a student of the senate and application of mine like some of my colleague. i cannot believe i was standing literally in the footsteps of the location of some of the greatest senators that had ever served and only a few seats down on the next row over here was the lion of the senate, senator edward m kennedy. i remember it -- i really do remember it like it was yesterday, having any the careers of senators who had gone before me. i had tried to keep that sense of awe and respect that i felt that day in my mind throughout my career, and to be honest with you as the senators have served
your can tell you, it wasn't hard, because every time you walked into this chamber, i remember the first time i walked in, i saw the senator from tennessee, how intimate it failed. i expected something different when i walked through those doors. i walked through six days after everyone else had been sworn in because i was sworn in late for other reasons, and i remember being ushered through that door by the sergeant at arms and thinking to myself, this is so personal. it seems so -- i don't know how to say it. it seems to be so intimate and 36 years later as i stood to make my farewell address to the united date set it i still have the same as i that the senator from michigan, mr. levin, did,
the same sense of what an incredible privilege it was to be in this chamber, but ted sent in -- said it best, when he said, and i quote, being a senator changes a person. something fundamental and profound happens to you when you arrive there. and it stays with you all of the time you have the privilege to serve there. it does change you. i suspect those of you students who are here as senators today ask any of the senators who presently serve or have served before. they can give you incredible examples of watching people change. i ran for the united states senate because i stood against everything that senator strom thurmond and senator eastland
and others stood for. yet, on the 100th birthday actually four days after the wondered birthday -- the hundredth birthday, senator strom thurmond was in the hospital dying, and i got a phone call from his wife saying, i just left the senator, and he has a favor to ask of you. mr. chairman. and i said, anything at all, and he said -- she said, he wants you to do his eulogy. the idea that 33 years later i would be asked to do the eulogy of a man with whom i had such a profound disagreement, and i watched even him change. by the time he left the senate he had a larger black staff than anyone in the united states that it. he voted for the voting rights act.
he changed in many ways. it is an enormous gift, so intimate place. people do change. i learned that women and men arrived in this chamber not only from different parts of the country but with very different perspectives and they all come no matter what their ideology because they think they want to make things better, and if you get to know them, you begin to understand that maybe your way is not the only way to fill the promise of the nation, and the interesting thing is you students who are here, and hopefully future senators, to understand that this is designed as a unique body.
we are part of the congress, but we are designed to be a different place with a different function, different obligations than any other branch of the government. this body was intended to be a place that could withstand the popular storms and passions of the moment. six terms, not two or four. 1789, it demanded civil discourse, civil behavior, and sanctions. rule 19, forbidding senators to ever refer offensively to another person's state or to personally impugn the integrity
of another senator. not the stuff of ordinary parliamentary bodies. but all of this was intuitive to senator kennedy. the causes he was committed to. he never acted in a small way. senator kirk can tell you ats his chief of staff for so many years, he was magnanimous. as a consequence of his magnanimity he elevated the discourse in this chamber. with that booming voice and big heart. he made the united states senate a better place. he helped this institution meet its responsibilities.
even in moments of great national turmoil. and there were great days of national turmoil when this senator arrived in 1973. the nation we are told, today, is divided more than it ever was. that is simply, factually, not true. it was so much more divided in the days when the lion of the senate roamed this floor. the civil rights movement had not been completed. shortly after, the march on soma. shortly after, the vicious fight to maintain the voting rights act. the nation was still divided. women's rights were just being articulated and debated.
the equal rights amendment which drew vicious and divisive separations within this body. the environmental movement challenged by business and enterprise. it's contrary to our an economic system. stifling growth. the it non-. not only -- vietnam was not only ripping the senate apart but families, the nation. my whole generation. contentious judicial nominations. the outcome of which would more likely dictate the fate of america long after the senators voted on those nominations no longer served.
every great senator out of the 315 with whom i've served comedy was arrived at. consensus was reached. great senators like mike mansfield of montana. howard baker of tennessee. hubert humphrey of minnesota. marquette field -- mark hatfield. george mitchell, democrat from maine. barry goldwater, republican from minnesota. danny elway from hawaii. bob dole from kansas. nancy kassebaum. barbara mikulski, democrat from maryland. this is a place where friendships were made. i will never forget hubert humphrey was literally on his
last leg, dying of cancer. going through intense chemotherapy. we were about to recess. he died shortly thereafter. i remember barry goldwater walking up to him in the well and them and bracing for long --e embracing. for long period, both crying. the senate rising to his feet for sustained emotional applause. barry goldwater and hubert humphrey. as a consequence, the senate functions as it was designed. the nation in the midst of that turmoil in those early years that i served arrived at consensus. and all of america was better for it. all those i mentioned including
former senators and current senators are sitting with us today. they understood and understand that no one has a corner on the truth. no one's perspective is the only perspective. each of them understood that the actions in this chamber should ultimately reflect the decency the honor, and the capacity for the american people. they were privileged to serve. thousands of young people, generations have stepped in to this chamber. the succeeding debates, they stand in those desks and understand the basic truths about what makes this institution the colossus of the
constitution as john adams said. our hope is that each of you leave understanding that the one guarantee is your active participation. understanding the role of the most deliberative body ever conceived by man. the institution in which you are sitting right now. that every former senator and present senator tell you what i told you. the greatest honor of my life, including being vice president of the united states, was to serve in this chamber. i was there at the behest of the
people of my state. they trusted me in consecutive elections to represent them. i can think of no greater honor. i think you will find the students, if they have time take an opportunity to engage the senators here now. both currently serving and have served. my guess is they will tell you something not fundamentally different from what i've said to you. this is the colossus of the constitution. i hope we got the same feeling. but it only functions and functions best when you understand that every major issue i've ever watched resolved
only got resolved because of personal trust, personal confidence and the senator on the other side of the aisle with whom you were dealing. that is the stuff that makes this bodywork. to make this senate work. that makes this country work. ladies and gentlemen, in keeping with the tradition of the united states senate, i ask you to do almost what we did every new senator -- what we did. every new senator has an opportunity to lift -- you will not be able to do this -- open the desk and literally carve their name if they so desire in the base of the desk. i had the great honor of having president john f. kennedy's desk.
and a desk that had the longest consecutive serving family members in the senate. the baird family from the state of delaware. it matters. the closest thing we can do, and it matters because it will be recorded -- i ask you now to take some pride -- there we go -- take some pride that only senator daschle pointed out today that their work 1963ere 1963 senators that signed their names and the desk. each of you have before you the ability to sign, but not on a desk. if you would take out your tablets and please sign your name on the tablet.
do they all have these tablets? you do? just actual senators? i thought you were able to get . do what you have done before. sign your tablet. and hit submit. once you have done that, thank you all very much. and now, the senate has been a place of dialogue, debate, decision surrounding the most pressing issues facing the nation. as a assume the floor, their statements will -- i am pleased
to recognize our future leaders who will be reciting our noble purpose. we will start with the first president of the united states senate. john adams. i recognize john adams. >> him more permanent than this will be necessary to defend the right, liberty, and properties of the people. and to protect the constitution of the united states of america. vice president john adams, massachusetts, 1797. >> it is true, sir, that members of the house of representatives are elected for two years. the president for four years. and the members of the senate for six years. and during the temporary
official term, these officers constitute what is called "the government or co but back of them." and when the people make their well known, the officer will obey that will. wisconsin, 1917. >> let me say, mr. president that when the women of the country come in and sit with you , though there may be but very few in the next few years, i pledge you that you will get ability. integrity of purpose. you will get exhaustive patriotism. and you will get youthfulness. senator rebecca lattimore georgia, 1922. >> we walked down the senate aisle. raise our right hands.
we took on these very grave responsibilities. painful as it can be at times we have to undertake them. with all the courage and conviction within us. senator edward brooks, massachusetts, 1970. >> it is with senators as individuals who are of fundamental importance. in the end, it is the institution of the senate. it is the senate itself as one of the foundations of the constitution. it is the senate as one of the rocks of the republic. senator mike mansfield. 1963. >> the senate is the anchor of our republic. a morning and evening star in the american constitutional constellation.
the united states senate has served our country so well because great and courageous senators have always been willing to stay the course through thick and thin. senator robert seaford, 2009. >> i got into politics fighting. in other countries, we put -- they put them in jail. in this country, they put them in the senate. senator barbara mikulski maryland, 2013. [applause] >> i still believe, as we were brought up to believe, that is a noble profession.
i am anonymously mindful every day of my life that the greatest public honor of one's life is service in the senate. it is for me. i always think the greatest contribution i would have made would be my children. but my greatest public honor would be service in the senate representing massachusetts. the state i love. it which has played such an extraordinary role in this nation. it from the revolution of this country to its members being involved in the constitutional convention. it to the strong support by the abolitionist's ending slavery. the support for the slough jets -- for the suffragettes. the people of massachusetts have a high standard for progress to be made by their representatives. and it is one that challenges all of us each day. senator edward m kennedy
massachusetts, 2015. [applause] biden: now that we have heard from the past, let's make a pledge for the future. i invite everyone in the entire chamber on the floor and in the gallery to please and and join me in making a commitment to the leadership in service this institute represents. please respond by saying i, "i do." we, the people of this hallowed chamber in order to strengthen the system of self-government make the following pledge. do you solemnly swear that you will be an active and engaged citizen of the united states?
do you pledge to show courage and compassion in your service to others? do you pledge to use your heart soul, intelligence, and imagination to make america better? do you pledge to work together with anyone regardless of differences in background or belief to solve problems and make this a more perfect union? do you pledge to always strive to uphold the values of justice equality, and opportunity. and do you affirm that you will fulfill your duties as a citizen and proud american? >> i do. biden: the senate stands adjourned. [applause]
[captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] >> up next, transportation secretary anthony foxx talks about challenges facing the federal highway trust fund. then we will hear from epa administrator mccarthy. and later, a conversation about nuclear talks with iran with lauren jakes of foreign policy magazine. with the tax filing deadline just over two weeks away, the head of the irs will be at the national press club tomorrow. we will have live coverage at 1:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span. later in the day, deputy rarity -- that the secretary of the state antony blanck and will talk about -- he will get
questions about nuclear negotiations with iran. live from the brookings institution at 3:30 a.m. eastern -- 3:30 p.m. eastern. up next, a conversation with secretary anthony foxx. topics include federal funding for a transportation program and the impact of new technologies including drones and self driving vehicles. this event was hosted by politico. secretary foxx spoke to the chief white house correspondent mike allen. [applause] mike: mr. secretary are you milking the crutch for the extra applause? foxx: you can consider it however you want. i had a little surgery. 43 years old. my knees needed a little repair
work. it's kind of like the transportation system. short-term pain for long-term gain, right? mike: what did you have done? foxx: a little with a scop at surgery. -- arthroscopic surgery. i can walk on it but i use the crutch so people will feel more sorry for me. [laughter] mike: you have played basketball with president obama. what is that like? foxx: his jump shot is very methodical. it's very much like him as a person. we didn't actually get a chance to compete. we were shooting baskets. i continued to try to urge him to get out on the court with me. we will see if that happens before it's over. mike: do you show particular mercy? foxx: not at all.
i'm sure he would love to play. mike: you made news on the politico morning transportation -- grow 2.0. this is moving from a previous incarnation that was four years to six years. and the amount is bigger. foxx: the country has been under investing in transportation for a long time. they had 32 short-term measures and we feel strongly that the country needs to pivot forward to a substantial injection of financing into transportation funding and into transportation. and to give enough certainty over a longer term so that we can actually get something done on the street. we have the grow america act. we will put out today.
it's a big bill and we are very excited about it. mike: you said the transportation system is like a merry-go-round. it you put a quarter in it and it goes around again. you say we need a different approach? foxx: the way that we have allocated funding is basically the same. and the way we pay for it is essentially the same. we really need to rethink all three of those things. grow america shows new ideas. a new way to pay for infrastructure. a new way to deliver infrastructure. $317 billion of the $478 billion is going in the highways. we increase transit investment by 76%. $115 billion over six years.
we have a growing country and growing needs. our transit systems are an escape valve for some of the traffic that will cause congestion in the future. mike: you talked about we were having the wrong conversation in washington. how do you move that? foxx: that is the question. it has vexed secretaries of transportation far before me. i don't think you can do it having an affirmative plan and i don't think you can do it without engaging both sides of the aisle. it is what we have been doing the last several months. we have been doing a lot of work helping raise the visibility of this issue. i have been on bus tours, one in the midwest and the southwest and one in the southeast just this past few weeks. you are going to continue sounding the alarm to americans.
there have been driving over the potholes paying for suspension systems getting beaten up by these potholes. the folks out there pay for it. it gets us a lot more for the dollar. mike: what is the most convincing point you can make to a normal person? what do you say to a normal person that makes them say, i get it? foxx: the biggest thing that people react to is when a project gets done. when we do these ribbon cuttings on projects that are getting done, when people see it, they say, gosh, we need to do more of that. when you have seen what i have seen in nashville tennessee, concrete -- it makes people field our --eel bad.
we need to remind people that we need to be doing more of that. mike: we have heard tons of stories of how much trouble our bridges are in. something we done in minneapolis , st. paul. does there need to be a real catastrophe before their israel action? foxx: you mean like a bridge collapsing in minneapolis? we have had catastrophes. it's unfortunate. every time something happens people say we've got to fix this and do something different. frankly, the american public has to demand action. i hope we continue to pound the pavement. connecting folks to the realization that if washington doesn't take this, -- doesn't fix this, it will roll downhill. and the congestion will increase.
mike: the 2.0 act had a reality check that said the bill would be a good talking point for foxx. it is unlikely to receive serious consideration on the hill. foxx: you can't solve this without understanding what it would look like. people kept saying, you have another bill so you're not really serious. it is right there and it is paid for. we have a great way to do that. we need to get out of this box of rooting against ourselves. every time we have a conversation about solving the trust fund can we get together and figure this out? it is one that will not be
successful if you don't have the folks pushing the affirmative case. mike: tweet us your questions. we will ask the secretary. a former mayor and younger member of the cabinet a place you have found a lot of frustration is in -- [indiscernible] foxx: we are continuing to work as a department to both manage and provide the foundation for this unmanned aircraft system industry to take root in the u.s.. it is a particular challenge in the united states because of the
most complex airspace in the world. one of the most advanced aviation system in the world not a taught a mess but remote-controlled vehicles into the air spaces is a challenge. we are taking it on very methodically and we will get there. mike: faa takes hits for drone privacy and permitting. or you surprised when you got under the hood and discovered what it took to get an experiment like this permitted? foxx: it is far better than it was years ago now that we can move through the exemption process.
the exemption process, we are working on making that work faster. mike: you've made progress in that area, people close to airports and keep it low. tell us what is now possible. secretary foxx: >> two things. one, the exemption process i just outlined. the second is that we published a notice of proposed rulemaking for small uas vehicles. these are vehicles under a certain weight that fly under a certain height. and we are trying to lay the foundation out of therefore these vehicles to be more widely used in commercial systems and frankly, most of the extensions that are not being requested probably will not be necessary once that role becomes final. mike: amazon is among the companies that has expressed a lot of frustration. what would you say to them? secretary foxx: look, i know