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tv   Public Affairs Events  CSPAN  November 28, 2016 3:30pm-6:31pm EST

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certainly see we don't. it is impossible to have a conversation -- michael: we do watch you. [laughter] andrew: up the back, please. states of africa, task force. i'm 73 years old. when i hear people talk about what was created after world war leadership in the world, international liberal order, international order. i always wondered, if you don't look like me, and people in the rest of the world don't look like you, do you get their authority, their consent? tos project is an attempt continue european domination of the world, and we're not going
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to have it, you better stop the. ok? andrew: thank you for that view. time for one more question. >> thank you. reporter from voice of america. i have 2 related questions and i wonder if the panelists would like to comment on president-elect trump's peace through strength strategy, and also the rebalance to asia. thank you. andrew: could you repeat the second part of the question? >> yes come of the -- yes, the pivot asia. michael: so i can't resist the earlier question, which is a fair question.
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is of the strengths we have that this system of rules and embraced iny is now my part of the world basically the south asian continent to hawaii. it is contested, it is debated. is there anti-americanism in places? definitely. do we make mistakes? definitely. i hear about it all the time. this may have been as the british and anglo-american and nato-centered, but it is a model that many parts of the world, certainly my part of the will, asia, people prefer, and we see that in opinion polls. we need to reflect the diversity of alliances and actors and players who have a stake in the system and listen to them.
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on peace through strength, great line -- reagan used it, eisenhower, probably john quincy adams -- look, the odds a very high that the defense budget supplemental will go up $50 million from $60 million. one of my criticisms of the gods, the right strategy, is it wasn't resource enough -- of the balance, the right strategy, is it wasn't resource enough. "pivot"think the name or "rebalance" will not get much play, but the impulse for it was not a purely democratic or obama administration impulse. it was during the bush years and george herbert walker years and it reflects the fact that over half of americans say that issues the most important region to us, fastest, most growing region of the world. governors care, state legislators care, small and
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medium-sized enterprises care. this thing just has momentum. the question is, as heather said, how quickly will the new administrative without the strategies and the framing? every administration since the cold war has declared its number one threat and priority and none of them have followed through on it could push was geopolitics, and we had to do with 9/11. obama was climate change and they were confronted with geopolitics. however it is framed in the campaign, the grand strategy that involves six months or a year will be based around a different reality. asia, i'm quite confident, and i think our alliances will be part of that. but we have fundamental addressinghat merit but also how we make our alliances more effective. andrew: thanks, mike.
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that has really brought us. go, and i think -- that has brought us full circle, and i thank everyone for coming today. if you will like to follow the project, you can do it on the website. i would like you to join me for thinking admiral roughead and the panel. [applause] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2016] [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit]
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>> coming up later this afternoon, a discussion on domestic security in the age of isis. former homeland security secretary michael chertoff is among the speakers. you can see that at 6:30 eastern on c-span. congress is back this week. the senate gavel been at the clock eastern for general speeches. house is back tomorrow. it is time for the annual congressional christmas tree to make its way to the capital. -footyear it is an 80 spruce tree from the payette national forest in idaho.
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the capital christmas tree arrived earlier today, and the tree lighting ceremony will be held tuesday, december 6, 5:00 p.m., west lawn of the captiol. you can watch c-span's coverage of the event. from washington, we go back to new york city again as we looking the lobby of trump tower. officials come and go as
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potential cabinet and administration members visit. we watched former cia chief david pretorius -- david pretorius make his way up the elevator. conway was there a short time ago. you can watch this live and any time on some news from the recent presidential campaign. "no walkie sentinel-journal" reporter tweeting out that green party presidential candidate jill stein will suit to require a recount to be done by hand. hill" reporting a filing in pennsylvania today. on friday she filed for a recount in wisconsin and plans to trigger a recount in michigan, which has a one state deadline. campaign saysn's it will participate in the wisconsin recount and the other states should joel stein follow
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through-- jill stein follow through. >> tonight on "the communicators" -- >> i hope it will come with a requirement or some kind of framework for putting it into a central repository where people cannot access any can be searched not only on an individual item by item basis but scale basis. we run 2.5 million songs and we get more and more everyday. pandora's general counsel on issues facing congress and the music industry on digital services, copyright laws, ticket price inflation, and the competition between humans and bots for concert tickets. he is interviewed by a technology reporter for politico. >> bots buy tickets. what they did is they keep other fans out of the market. what we're finding is that some fans really want to go see a
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concert, and they can mash buttons on the computer all day long, but you cannot beat a bot. they are not able to get tickets in their first run at the list price. they're left with only opportunity applying those on the secondary market after the and raisedotten them prices. >> watch "the communicators" tonight at 8:00 eastern on c-span2. >> follow the transition of government on c-span as donald trump becomes the 45th president of the united states and republicans maintain control of the u.s. house and senate. we will take you to key events as they happen without interruption. watch live on c-span. watch on-demand at or listen on our free c-span radio app. >> thank you very much, welcome to congress. >> for the next 55 minutes,
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american history tv exclusive -- our citiestour visits tucson, arizona come up to learn more about its unique history. for five years we have traveled across the u.s. to learn about historical sites. you can watch more on /citiestour. >> the titan mission was peace through deterrence. our job was to project a credible threat, to be here every day demonstrating to the soviet union that even if they launched a surprise for strike
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against us, we would be able to out and retaliate quickly and with enough force that we would devastate the soviet union, even if they had launched their missiles first. we are at the titan missile miles south of downtown tucson, and we are in the launch control center of the missile site. that is essentially the nerve center of the missile site itself. from here, using all of this has a birdshe crew eye view of the condition of the then it is also from here that the crew would launch the missile if they were ordered to do so. so, in order to launch one, the crew needs a number of things. first of all, they have to receive a launch order that
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would tell them to execute their missile and what time they are going to do that. in order for them to do that, they will need two keys. two launch keys. one for the crew commander, one for the deputy crew commander. the launch keys are secured in the emergency war order safe. the iwo safe is secured by two padlocks. these are combination padlocks. each lock belongs to a specific officer on the crew. this is the deputy crew commander lock. only the officer who owns the lock knows the combination to the lock. we received those locks when we qualified for crew duty. we set the combination.
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that combination classified top secret because it is guarding top-secret equipment. and information. the 2 offices, after they received the launch order, they would remove their locks, retrieved the launch keys. crew commander's launch key is inserted here. the deputy crew commander's launch key is inserted here. the placement of these keys is intentional and it serves a very important purpose. it guarantees that both of the officers will have to act together in order to launch the missile. in order to launch the missile, both of these keys have to be turned and held in the on position for five seconds. and they have to be turned at the exact same moment in time.
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the key switches are spring-loaded so that if you let go of the key switch, it automatically falls back to the off position. the keys are also too far apart for one person to be able to turn those keys. both officers have to agree that they are going to launch the missile and then they have to cooperate in order to do that. once they turn their keys, it takes 58 seconds from key turned to off -- to lift off. it will launch from the underground launch dock, where it has been sitting with the propellant already on board. and then it will take about 30 target, andeach its when it reaches its target, the target is going to cease to exist. so, this small elevator is what
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the crew and maintenance teams would use to access the other levels. so, we're going to head another 100 feet underground. we will be on level seven, where we can actually walk into the launch dock and stand underneath the missiles. so, we are going to be entering the launch dock here. we need to watch our head as we go in. when we enter, we will be standing directly underneath the missile. when the missile was operational, the stage one engine would have been mounted right here. the thrust chambers, it would , wouldthrust chambers
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have been extending below these cutouts. if you look to your left, you will see a large water spray nozzle. there's a ring of them that encircle the launch dock. when the launch sequence is initiated, we start pumping. 160 gallons, roughly, per second, of water, into the concrete dispenser. so when the stage one engine fires, the heat interacts with the water. it creates steam. withteam works together the sound attenuation panels that are behind this that line the walls. those things work together to
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dampen and absorb enough of the noise and vibration created. the missile will be able to safely launch. from right here. , the staget do that one engine, which generates 430,000 pounds of thrust at having twoat is like 747's in the launch dock. if we don't do something to absorb all that noise and that vibration, basically, it is just going to fire grate the missile to pieces, and explode in the launch dock. that is one of the challenges that the engineers overcame. it enabled the titan 2 to launch from within the launch dock. so, this is level two of the
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launch dock. we are 35 feet underground. feet or sother 120 that is beneath us. we are looking at the upper section. stage two of the titan 2 intercontinental ballistic missile. the nose cone at the top of the missile, that is the rancheria vehicle. -- reentry vehicle. the reentry vehicle is what carried the warhead. it's the only part of the missile that's actually going to reach its target. the yield of the titan 2 was nine megatons. that is the explosive equivalent of 9 million tons of tnt. that's enough destructive capability to decimate an area 900 square miles.
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if you were to drop the equivalent on the city of tucson, the city of tucson would cease to exist. there were 52 altogether, 18 of them were based around tucson, arizona. another 18 were based around wichita, kansas. the final set were based around little rock, arkansas. that was just part of the nuclear triad that the united states was using during the cold war. there are also another thousand minuteman intercontinental ballistic missiles on alert at the same time as the titan 2 was operational.
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well, in 1978 the air force opened the titan 2 career field to women. what had previously been closed, two women, because it had been a combat position, when the air force transitioned to the all volunteer force, they realized they were not going to be able to man all of the titan 2 sites. they were not going to have enough people. the decision was made to open the career field to women. i was in college at the university of virginia at the time, in reserve officer training, rotc. so, i was actually recruited in the very early days of the career field being open to women. i was actually a crew commander. d a four-person missile combat crew at the site when it was operational. i was stationed here from 1980 to 1984. when i first came back here
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after they open a museum, it was 1998. the museum had been open for about 12 years. the site had been off alert since 1982. i happened to come back here to live after i got out of the air force. an uncle visited me. he really wanted to come here. i remember, when we came to the access portal into the entrapment area, the smell of the missile site was the same. it hit me with the impact that i had not expected. i think there is something to be said for the fact that a sense of smell can trigger some of your more intense memories and i think that was really true. looking back on it now, with the benefit of hindsight, i think i
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probably started my adult career. the first job i ever had as an adult, the most important i will ever have in my career. and so i kind of started my career at the apex. everything that came after that is at least one level below. because i will never have as much responsibility in my lifetime again as i had when i was a crew commander here. we have a twofold mission here. our first mission is to preserve and interpret the national historic landmark sites. the titan missile national historic landmark site. and to provide stewardship for the site. the second part of our mission is to provide a framework for the public and the discussion that the public is having about the future of nuclear weapons in
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the world. the generation that's coming up now, the young people that are in their 20's and 30's, they are the people who are going to have to confront what the future of nuclear weapons is going to be around the world. you can't do that just by reading about it. people really have no concept about nuclear weapons and how they work, about how expensive they are to maintain and the destructive capabilities that they have. so, what we do here is we provide a framework for people to think about. those kinds of questions, to get those kinds of answers so that they can make their own decisions about how they want to influence the future of nuclear weapons in the world.
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so, i think that as a national historic landmark site, this facility is performing an important role now, as important as it did during the cold war, when it was part of our front-line defense. >> this air force base is located in tucson. we visited the base to learn about its history and current mission. >> i've been here a little over two years, primarily since i got here flying the warthog. the earliest ones we see around 1978, 1979, the tail has the euro of it. slow, built to go low and
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to stop tanks coming over the fold. since adapted to the current times, it has moved into a day and night, all-weather, medium to low altitude fighter. the big a-10's came in in desert storm. where their tank capabilities were most widely seen. we have 18 assigned aircraft ready to go. and you are the nation asks us, in a very short period of time. it was built to be survivable. if you look at the jet and high mounted engine to keep things from getting out, if you notice it is separated from the fuselage. if it goes on fire, you just burn and falls off. big wings, a lot of lift. what's unique about it is that
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the nose here, these main gear don't ever actually go fully into the jet when we fly. the tires are still visible. we could land and still break gearircraft, even without being down. each of these can carry a variety of bombs and missiles. gps-guided bonds, targeting pod, underground missiles, a full complement of weapons. the gun takes up the entire length of the aircraft. the nose gear -- if you look down the front of the jet, notice it is offset. that is probably the only plane like that. the gun stays perfectly in the center of the plane. when i taxi, i don't taxi with
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my nose gear between my legs, like you'd expect. it is offset from the jet. a big bubble canopy. everything about it is meant for survivability. two hydraulic systems. two electrical systems. we try to get as far away from each other as possible. once it exits the hydraulic area, one goes this way, one goes this way, so that if we take a bullet it doesn't hit both systems at once. that way if we do get hit by a bullet, it doesn't cause a fire. there is no liquid for gas vapors to explode. can bemy fuel cells separated from each other so if i lose part of a wing in the fuel is jumping out, i can separate the system. the jet has come back with missing parts of its engine and parts its tail. it's meant to take a beating.
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>> this is our equipment room. it's like an nfl player locker room. the story come after we are done with the flight brief. everyone is briefed up and knows what we are going to do today. i'm an instructor to her highlight with the 357 squadron. .y role is to train the pilots they used to fly a tens and now they are coming back for a refresher course. the cool thing about the 357th is we are a training unit for the less experienced guys. all of the instructors, most of them have two or three the claimant. now, they are coming back with all of that experience and that is what is great about it -- you get a wide birth of experience
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and a lot of lessons learned to pass on to these young guys to make them hopefully better than they were. helmet mounted cueing system. the venture ip's here known as the monocle. it projects a lot of information on to the monocle. the targets are and maybe where other aircraft are. everything is projected right there. of ourmore efficient use systems on board and what kind of neat about it is with our visor that comes down, there's a tractor that tells the aircraft so we can take the systems and project directly toward where they are looking on the ground as well. cablell tied in to this
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that is plugged into the jet as well. all set through these fiber wires and the big thing about ans newer technology to older aircraft, that's really bringing us into the game and helping us acquire targets and fix them efficiently and effectively, making it a viable option and making us better than we were. our workload can get pretty , newsive and these updates and special ways of doing things make us alone more fast and efficient. >> we are in the 612 air operations center. our mission is to provide command and control for the air force in the southern command responsibility. anyone flying an air force air the border, we are
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going to watch them and make sure the aircraft takeoff and land on time. these screens are appear to provide awareness to the commander. you could have decision level information available and we have everything projected there from the weather, the weather is turbulent and so we are trying and keep ations constant watch of what is going on in that area. we have other tracking capabilities through the radar sites that show the line in our area to make sure we know whether they should be there or not end here on the right side is the federal aviation administration need that shows the aircraft routine so you can monitor what is going on with the aircraft. a lot of information we try to supply so the commander has that decision level information.
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part is to help with the counter drug missions, counteracting terrorism, etc.. the criminal activities and entities can get drugs and a terrorist can get some kind of weapon. is new to our organization, they go through a weeklong course that covers everything from the history of the area to political considerations, economic, diplomatic and all kinds of different aspects of our area so they go through that weeklong course and we have other formal courses so they can learn how to operate these systems. we have certain qualifications each position has to hold and experience that they have to maintain. >> the electronic combat group is made up of five squadrons -- two operational squadrons.
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what they do is divide airborne toctronic capabilities combatant commanders across the globe. this has a jamming capability and what we do is interrupt indications and stop the enemy from receiving information. that is basically the mission. we work as a group with coalition forces to support different types of missions, whether it be strike missions, aircraft weapons or special forces on the ground to coordinate with planners that request our capabilities when we get airborne and we talked to the personnel we are supposed to check in with and then limit the enemy in the ability to give them effects and
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a window of freedom of movement in the air or on the ground. copilote a pilot, navigator and flights engineer. there are four language specialists and a senior in malicious -- enlisted member and two officers responsible for the mission portion. that can be tailored to whatever the missions are. we have as few as eight or nine on board. usone thing that separates from the normal once flying around is on the back of our aircraft, we keep our low band antennas that provide us with our jamming capabilities against the targets in the low band range and frequency range. looking up at the tail, you'll close to thenas
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middle of the antenna and other transmit antennas located in the tail as well. the big booster pod looks similar to ours our different the ability to transmit high range capability. self-defense systems, we are equipped with the engines that you see on the h model c-130s. one difference is we do not carry external fuel in between the number one, number three and four cells. with additional transmit capabilities against frequency targets. here, step around
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underneath the aircraft, use the more antennas and this separates us from the slicks. the different radios require us to complete our missions downrange. picture, the model of the original is off the assembly line. we are upgraded to the specifications and that is what we ended up with. the aircraft are from 1973 and 1964 models. they have been in service for the last 50 or 60 years. >> there is more to the uss arizona them being bombed at pearl harbor. this ship existed for 25 years and thousands of men served on
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her. at any given time, there were 1500 men on the ship. i just wanted to show the ships history as well as what daily life and culture was like. this is a photograph of the launching of the uss arizona and the new york navy yard. there were supposedly between 50000 and 70,000 people present and this is a ticket to the launching of the uss arizona, so if you are one of those fortunate people, you have one of these tickets. this is the champagne bottle used to christen the arizona. this was donated by the woman .ho christened the ship she was 16 at the time and considered the most beautiful girl in arizona. turns out her dad was a dignitary who is friends with the then governor and he
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petitioned the governor to let his daughter christen the ship and that is how she got the right to do that. latecase documents the teens of the history of the arizona. is a reference for historical data documenting weapons systems on board and shows where the ship was and talks about where it was from 1917 through 1918. primarily, at that point, the arizona was part of the atlantic fleet. maryland in mid-1918. france.down to in the late 20's, the uss arizona join the pacific fleet and traveled to hawaii numerous times.
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people don't realize the uss arizona was at pearl harbor before and they would do wargames or maneuvers to get them ready in case of an attack for any type of war. in this last case, we have a schedule -- this is an interesting document that lists various offenses a sailor could engage in and the punishment they would receive. so if you are late for interning after duty, you got extra duty. if you assaulted another person in the navy. shows what the culture was like on board. each sailor would endure and talk about what it was like.
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warner bros. filmed the movie here comes the navy. here, we have a photograph of james cagney and the stars of the film on board the ship. the number of sailors that served on board the ship, warner bros. had a special screening of the film on board the ship as a thank you for the sailors who lend their time. documents the bombing at pearl harbor. is the planocument of the day for the uss helena. this is from december 7, the day of the bombing.
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,ou can see from this document it was a total surprise. any other day going about daily duty, it shows how everyone is completely taken offguard and it was totally unexpected. in the center here, we have various pieces of shrapnel taken from pearl harbor. we have a 50 caliber machine gun and an antiaircraft time fuse. is a piece of aluminum from a downed japanese zero. ofe, we have a photograph one of the japanese midget submarines that was in pearl harbor that was rammed by a destroyer and sunk. pride from the
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submarine. next to that, we have a bulletin, the star talking about the bombing that just occurred on pearl harbor. number of newspapers in our collection from various states documenting the bombing that took place but this is the only newspaper that we have. commemorates sailors at the bombing and sailors who passed on the attack at pearl harbor. this is a firsthand account of the bombing by william diaz born. he is on board the ship. totally about how it is unexpected and he's going about his daily duties and chaos in sued.
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here, we have a volume listing the rank-and-file members for men on board the uss arizona in 1941. below that, we have a piece of the actual quarterdeck from the uss arizona that was pride up off of the ship after it was sunk. here, we have a photograph of the uss arizona. ony performed a competition ,ecember 6, 1941 and the band legend has it, came in second in the competition and all the men in the photograph died that next day. working on this project, it makes me wonder what it would be like for me to be in my late teens and made the decision to go into the navy and how my life would be the front.
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wanting to cut loose and be with your friends and thinking about the hardship they must've gone through being alone on the ship and even being on the ship at pearl harbor, i try to put myself into that and make the .onnection the tucson presidio and this is where metropolitan tucson springs from. the presidio itself looks darn close to what was here to begin with. the soul of the percy oh is in each of these recs, even if they are made from concrete, they contain dirt from the original per city of. effective lace. what is wonderful about this museum is the fact that it is built on the spot where the
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actual percent he is stood. theave an outline of where wall was an due to modern construction standards, the new wallace offset. help her mother is marked and you can actually take a walk downtown and see exactly where it was. the design goes back to roman times. the spanish to a certain way and follow -- follow it that way all the way up. pile after pile of adobe bricks and they are not worried about the native peoples attacking them, they are worried about the british in the prussians invading. everyone thinks of the west as being a place where there's a lot of fighting and what we have learned is there's a lot more cooperation among the different peoples and opposition. is the quarters were the people would live in this is to exhibits. this is a family exhibit over here. anita is making chocolate for the afternoon drink.
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and we a fun exhibit actually took this from a painting. what we do with this display is change out the vegetables and people did not have much at this time. if there was a chair, it was probably a stump to sit on and save for the priest mostly. white ande she has she is not going to have much to her. something she is wearing -- women would have a wool shawl and have a cotton shawl for summertime and spend whatever it takes to get a good silk shawl. they dress very similar to women back east in the colony, so it's
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not too different out here for that. we have a few other things on display. we have wheat hanging, a know in wheel and we do one of the places, there was a corner fireplace found so they did some inside cooking. side, we have so few single shoulder -- single soldiers, they are in a baric situation. the clothing would be hung up and there's not much that they have. they would have cups and everything and they would eat on the floor on pillows. prettying would be primitive, wooden bowls and all of that. we do see glassware but that would be very precious.
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religious plays a very important part to these people. we have the blessed mother here in this, you would see a lot of this and women spend a lot of money on masses and the church off thelot of money women in the presidio. >> when the first europeans arrived in this part of the world in the 16 90's, there was thetive american village in area where downtown tucson is today. in the native language, the name means base of the black hills. tucson gets its name. archaeologists have investigated the area called tucson's birthplace. remains ofncovered
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habitation, cultivation and irrigation going back thousands of years. the evidence of continuous habitation goes back 4000 years and the evidence of cultivation goes back that far. the evidence of canal irrigation goes back 400 years. tucson is currently the longest continuously inhabited place in the united states and documented archaeologically. when the first europeans arrived in this area in the 16 90's, they found native american strong along the santa cruz river and there is a village right here where downtown tucson is today. they established a christian location of the
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native american village and directly across the river, on the east side, they established a fort to guard this northern frontier. 1950's, there was an here inogical dig tucson and they found a remnant wallation of the presidio and directly beneath that, they found the remains of a 1000 year old native american house. since the 1950's, we have known the per city of and the native american occupation that proceeded it were preserved here beneath the parking lot and the streets of downtown tucson.
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>> it seems these days that we tend to forget our history and america is a vast place with lots of the front aspects of history and i think the tucson presidio represents the fact that as americans, we are capable of sharing everybody's history and recognizing everybody's contribution. is good atpresidio looking at all the different cultures and aspects that make tucson a wonderful place. >> the desert landscape, the amount of wildlife that you see, amazing sunsets, the variation in the terrain that goes from the sonoran desert ecosystem to a mixed conifer ecosystem which get close to 9000 feet. anddiversity is amazing that's one thing that makes this
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park special is the diversity of the vegetation and the wildlife and the landscape. this monument was established in 1933 and one of the primary reasons was for the protection of this cactus forest. 1930's, it was fast and very dense. with repeat photography of this site, it was shown the saguaro cactus forests was disappearing from the mature ones that were dying. not many new ones were being recruited. we have since learned that impacts from grazing and a widespread harvest impacted
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this. they depend on a nurse tree early in their growth for being protected from the extreme heat and the temperatures during the winter. if a seed falls and it is able to be established under that tree, it helps to ensure it's going to grow. the really large one can be a couple of centuries old. usually, by the time they are 50 years old, they are starting to grow their first arms and even one that's a couple of feet on the ground has been there for decades. as time has progressed, you can see a healthy forest of mesquite here and they are acting as
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nurse trees. one thing that you don't really see behind me is the fact that there are a lot of young ones. we have done extensive surveys using citizennd scientists who have come out and help us walk across the mall,ape to document the what we see is even know you can't see it looking out across this valley, there are many more that will be coming up and turning into his grand, majestic cactus because they are thriving. we are monitoring and continue to do census. we have these established spots where we go out and count everyone and measure its height. nest cavitiesany
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are in them and how many arms are in the men monitor that plus the population over time and that helps test what is happening in the population. >> we are on this cactus forest loop of our east district of the park. we refer to this as the mountain district. has served as a primary tourist loop and a way to get out into the park and see the other vegetation that is here. you have an opportunity to see what his mother in most of this part, gila monsters, jack rabbits and probably over 100 bird species.
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all of this unique sonoran desert vegetation, many species and ouria cactus namesake, saguaro cactus. you have to look very close to find some of them and others are large and prominent in the landscape. people refer to the desert and they think of sparse landscapes that are hot and there's nothing this, but as you can see, place is thick with vegetation. still really green because of it is a searain and of plants and wildlife. 2015 was our highest visitation on record. we continue to see those numbers
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increase on a monthly basis this year so people are finding their park here and i think across the country, visitation has been increasing and the centennial, the advertising campaign, all of the different initiatives to get people engaged in their parks, and their community and across saidountry is -- has been -- has been extremely successful and we want to be reaching out to the diversity of our communities, improving our visitation not just in numbers but the richness of visitors we representingark what america is today. heregrew up just south of as a kid. i got my undergraduate degree here and i've been in tucson about 26 years. we have an exploding population
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and we are about 44% latino. years ande for 26 i've never been to the national parks. park recruited out of the here is the community engagement coordinator because i was the target audience of the next hundred years. experience --an almost an experiment to see what it would take to engage folks of my demographic and some folks argue that historically, the parks have not been very mighty but there has been a concerted effort to engage not just folks of color but different abilities and a lot of folks who did need accessibility. that is part and partial to what i think is keeping some folks away, that they think it is the old national park service that
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is limited. set uplks think we are for professional hikers and we are not. it is designed to be accessible to all. recently, we had funding to establish an ada accessible walkway. oldwalkway was part of the horseshoe trail and we had a horse vandalize either purposely or involuntarily, they damaged one of the trails in the community came out, including the horse men's association, and they said we are sorry about that. we want to help out and here's a contribution to repair the trail. folks take care of each other here in tucson. >> having national parks is one of those true american ideas that originated in the united
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states. the people of this country, we know they value the national parks system and all of these different resources that we have . advocacy is something that is being important and relative -- being relevant to our current parks visitors is extremely important. we want to provide an opportunity for them to get outside and learn about the outdoors and these resources wildlife is dependent on and we are also dependent on -- clean water, clean air, these things originate in the national parks. the more people that can visit and understand that, the more likely we are to have a new generation that embraces the importance of that and wants to protect it. >> our visit to tucson, arizona is an american history exclusive and we showed it to you to
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introduce you to c-span cities tour. you can watch more of our visit at tour. fromming up later, remarks former homeland security secretary michael chertoff who will be talking about the threat of terrorist attacks by isis and the u.s. preparedness to handle them. he will be at the council of foreign relations and will have that live here at x: 30 eastern on c-span. looking at our prime time schedule, starting at 8:00 eastern, former defense and state department officials hold a discussion on the future of u.s. alliances. on c-span2, it is the atmunicators with a look digital music services. then tom harkin talks about healthy eating and the rise of hildhood obesity in the u.s.
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in new york, at trump tower, donald trump is meeting with general david trias. -- david petraeus. again, mentioning that he made comments to reporters only hope to show those to you in just a bit on the schedule on c-span. the associated press reports davidn a potential petraeus nomination, he leaks investigation is being conducted relating to the sex scandal that led to the resignation of the former cia director. he could be in line for that cabinet nomination. they are trying to determine who leaked personal information about the woman whose affair toh david petraeus led criminal charges against him and his resignation. we are keeping our eye on the trump tower lobby.
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>> c-span's "washington journal" live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. budgetday morning, the committee member, jim mcdermott on the future of the affordable under president-elect trump and his opinions on trump administration appointments so far. then the president of americans for tax reform, grover norquist, talks about president elect trump's fiscal and economic proposals. he will discuss fiscal policy and the upcoming gop controlled congress. watch "washington journal" on tuesday morning and joined the discussion. -- and join the discussion. >> a discussion on the 1941 attack on the harbor on the eve
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of the 75th anniversary. author whoram, and wrote about the attack. that's followed by an interviewed that an interview with april harbor survivor. calls,taking your phone tweets and you mail questions from noon until 3:00. go to book for the complete schedule. >> this week on "q&a" edward j larson. professor larson discusses his washington,e
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nationalist. j larson, if george washington was here today, and he was able to see the full run of this campaign, no matter who the victor is, what would he say about what happened to his democracy? prof. larson: i think he would be appalled. he really did not believe in partisan politics. he had this vision the people would run hard-fought campaigns. he worked on campaigns with others, hard-fought. but once you got there you were not supposed to be part of a party caucus. you were supposed to call each one as you saw them. if you look at the
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constitutional convention and when he was a general, he tried to lead by conciliation, by listening, by cooperation. before every battle coming he brought in all of his lieutenant and listened before they talked. at the constitutional convention, he listened to everyone, he met with people at night, he worked out compromises. sure, some did not go along. there were people he broke with like george mason. but he brought enough together to work across lines. it was always shifting alliances. but this was not the dream he had. it's what we got though. brian: how much time have you spent at mount vernon to do your books the last couple of years? prof. larson: i have been fortunate enough to be the library fellow. i got to live in residence. if you do not think something is a treat, to live in the residence and get up before the tourist, and be there after the tourists leave. to sit on the portico, bring out
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my notebook, work on pages, experience, see the view that washington saw when i was riding about him, when he was talking about this thing, i could work on this thing, too. that sort of experience, it doesn't get better than that. brian: if you are in residence, do you stay on the property? prof. larson: yes, you stay right on the property. they built a new building. at first, we were in the middle quarters, where the vice regent was, but now there is a new building right next to the new presidential library, and there are facilities there -- they are very modern, and be foes get to -- and the fellows get to stay there. in fact, i get to stay there tonight. brian: in your introduction, you talk about the poplar tree. why did you mention that? prof. larson: i started out as a botanist and i wrote about botany a lot and i love trees.
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i love the grounds. but it's not just me. washington love them. that tree is still growing there. you can see it. 1785, that tree was planted the same year that i was riding about. i was writing about him in 1785 and he wrote a letter that year to one of his dear friends in france and he wrote to one of the people who helped with the revolution, and he wrote him that year saying, it's great to be back home, and i am now getting shade from the trees that i planted as a youth. and now people are getting shade from the tree he planted then, but more critically, we are getting shade from the constitution he planted and the work he did as a general and the work he did as a president. that is providing the shade. that is what makes this country
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work. we have a solid foundation as part of that. brian: there is video of you talking at mount vernon. why do we watch that before we get into the details? prof. larson: welcome to mount vernon where i have spent the last year as a library fellow. this is the view looking east from washington's mount vernon home. this is the view he loved most. this is what he dreamed about. he lived here during the period that i wrote about in my book "the return of george washington." watching remains as relevant today as in the 1790's. he was then, and remains today, the symbol of the united dates, of the united country. in my new book about george washington, i focus on the time between 1783 when he stepped down as general and 1789 when he takes up the reins of the presidency. it was that middle period that
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was pivotal, that may the revolution work and set up the presidency. brian: when did you do that? prof. larson: just before the book came out. the book came out -- you will have to help me remember this -- the 14th? brian: the small book, the lecture series? prof. larson: this little one is different. it came about because university of virginia press, which publishes the papers of george washington, all about washington, they had heard some of the lectures and they wanted a small book that could reach, they thought a broader -- well, a different audience. people could use it as a supplementary course book in college, small enough for that, but also the type you could take an airplane, read on, and it captures the essence of the thesis that washington was the key nationalist that brought the whole thing together.
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they often say -- i make this illusion at one point, they often say james madison was the architect of the constitution and i reply after doing all of this work that if james madison was the architect of the constitution, and he might the, then george washington is the general contractor. if you want to build a house or put an addition on, sometimes it is more like what the general contractor has in mind then the architect has in mind. washington is the one who makes it work. that is the time i am covering. the funny thing is, we have these great books on washington, pulitzer prize winning books, the for-part book by douglas philip freeman or six-part, i guess it is -- they sort of skip this period. they don't go into the net symbols of what he did during
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the convention and leading up to the convention. brian: let's go to the dates then. you start in what year? prof. larson: i really start in 1781 with the surrender at yorktown. that is when the critical period begins. they are not really at peace yet. the peace treaty is 1780 three. but effectively they are. i get into washington and the newport conspiracy, his incredible effort to flush the newport conspiracy. from the time you sworn in from april, may 1789, now the older book, "the return of george washington" goes a little further and carries into the beginning of the presidency. brian: what is the newburgh conspiracy? prof. larson: the new burke conspiracy was that critical moment when soldiers -- this was after yorktown -- a year and a
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half after yorktown -- the official priest -- peace treaty has consigned. they are occupying new york, savannah, charleston. washington moved his forces up. he spread around tarrytown, that whole area. but once yorktown was over, the's eight -- the states stopped paying their payments, the requisitions, their requests to congress. the troops had not been paid for a couple of years. at the resort -- there was a growing sense that the union was collapsing. they could not get a quorum at the confederation congress. the states were going their own way, planning for these, and of course, whenever you compete, you compete with whoever is closest to you.
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new york will compete with massachusetts. the states are pulling apart that way. north carolina is going to compete with virginia. it frustrated washington enormously. he sent out a letter to the states during this time, but the troops, the troops -- and this is the scary part -- probably working with the letters, certainly with the knowledge of alexander hamilton and governor morris were either going to mutiny -- they thought they were going to mutiny, some of them, led by a few of the lieutenant and majors -- anderson and a few others, armstrong and a few others -- they were either going to revolt or get paid. once the peace treaty is signed, nobody is ever going to pay us. we're going to force congress to pay us. what they wanted to do was recruit washington and as part of the coup d'etat. hamilton had already talked to washington. this democracy stuff is not going to work. washington was a true
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republican. he believed in republican government. brian: small are question mark prof. larson: -- brian: small r? prof. larson: small r. it was a new experience, a continental republican. -- continental republic. something new under the sun. he believed in those enlightenment virtues. for could be the future mankind and he wanted america could be a model. he wanted the troops to rise up and force congress to pay or threaten to go home and leave the country defenseless to be british. brian: we read all the time about the troops not being paid -- if they had not been paid for two years, how do they live? prof. larson: not very well. they would take loans from their friends. they would write home for money to be sent to them. of course, they got their basic
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rations so they could eat. that and many cases they were losing their farms back home. they could not send money back to their families to keep their farms. you can read accounts. they were in a very embarrassed position. brian: why didn't they give it up? prof. larson: they believed in the same cause. and if they left they knew they were never going to get the money. they were torn between believing in the cause and believing in washington. brian: the government of the colonies was what? prof. larson: there was an articles of confederation government. if you read it, it says it is a league of friendship. it would probably be comparable to the united nations today in the sense that every state joined it, and every state could send delegates to congress. they could send as many delegates as they wanted, and the majority of the delegates voted however they wanted to, except the states could instruct
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them how to vote, the governor could instruct them. the states pay them. they are sort of like ambassadors of the u.n. they do what they are told to by the administration. it was a leak of friendship -- a league of friendship. brian: did they call them prof. larson: prof. larson: states at the time? yes -- brian: did they call them states of the time? prof. larson: yes. only the state could raise taxes. confederation congress could not tell the states to do anything. they could not tell people to do anything. they could not raise taxes at all. some of the disasters -- they could not put a protective tariff. when we became independent we were no longer under the protection of britain. all of these countries, france, you name it, imposed tariffs. we could not export our goods there. we could not impose a tariff. goods with low-end through rhode island from money that you get
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from running a harbor. we could not force them to lower their tariffs. the result is that was causing a recession, probably even worse -- a depression that all of our gold, all of our hard currency was flowing overseas. and we could not export anything. and that helps contribute to the real chaos in the country. so, these lower-level majors, captains were going to rise up, possibly with horatio gates led been the second ranking general who won the battle of saratoga earlier, he was also a newburgh. and so they called for a meeting. we know they were in some sort
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of allegiance with hamilton and the two morrises, because they wanted to force the states to allow at least a protective tariff, which would raise money for the central government. brian: was there a national president of any kind? prof. larson: no. brian: was there a judiciary of any kind? prof. larson: no. it was just like this. there's a congress. they could rarely act. brian: when did the government going to affect? prof. larson: the government went into effect with the ratification of the articles of confederation, but it very similar to the second -- -- second continental congress. brian: so 1781 and then 1783 is where you start really getting into george washington?
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prof. larson: well, i start really -- especially in this new book, some to anyone. brian: i'll i was really getting at, we go to 1787 in may, riding the constitutional -- prof. larson: correct. brian: by the way, before we do this, let's catch everybody up on your background. where are you now? prof. larson: i am teaching full-time at pepperdine university. also holding down the darling chair in law. brian: in malibu, california. tough duty. prof. larson: tough duty. somebody's got to do it. brian: where did you go to college? prof. larson: williams college. masters and phd from the university of wisconsin-madison. law degree from harvard. brian: the last time i saw you you were here as a pulitzer prize winner for the scopes trial book. prof. larson: the best part of the prize was being with you. it was a great part of it. i mean it. brian: did you expect to win the
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pulitzer? prof. larson: no, i said i was dumbfounded. one of my teachers said, ed, you were never dumbfounded. you might have been shocked, but you were never dumbfounded. brian: in one of the books about george washington, this seems to me relevant today -- he said my fear is the people are not sufficiently misled to retract from error. prof. larson: you can apply that to today. it was a chaotic time. it was a populist division, and many people thought -- sought advantages under the articles of confederation. washington repeatedly said, there are demagogues. the problem was the states were small and they had popular democracy and some of them had no checks and balances. they had a one-house legislature that ruled everything like rhode
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island, and they would be caught up in the enthusiasm -- as he would call it, a demagogue would take over, and for short-term gain or the run value would run roughshod over liberty, and he thought the revolution was not fought for democracy. it was fought for liberty. and he saw places taking away freedom of religion. he saw like rhode island wiping out personal property. those were the things for short-term gain, and that was sort of the majority area and democracy without checks and balances. not small r republican rule, but as he would call it, jacob and rule, because of course they were beginning to make analogies to what was happening in france, the chaos of the french
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revolution. that sort of thing was what he was hoping the constitution could prevent. france had not gone quite that far, but he would be using that allusion by the time the ratification process was over. brian: what about the philosophical statement -- today, until it breaks, they are not going to fix it. meaning the $20 trillion deficit. this is george washington back in 1785 or whatever. my fear is the people are not yet sufficiently misled to retract from error. prof. larson: that letter was written and 86 when they called the constitutional convention and he was debating whether to go. he had been elected by virginia to go. and he said, i'm not going to go unless we have a plan that's going to work. and this is one of the letters. there were three very similar letters. there was one henry knox, john j
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from new york, the former -- john jay from new york, and james madison. he said, what can we do? i'm not going to go there -- i have limited political capital. if i go off to philadelphia to this constitutional convention, which had been called only to revise the articles of confederation, and that's not good enough. because the problem is all 13 states would need to ratify an amendment, and he knew, he knew 13 states would never ratify, he could never get rhode island -- he probably couldn't get new york, because of those limitations, he said we have got to go in and not do what we are told. we have got to take over the convention and come up with a whole new government, and i'm just afraid the people are not going to buy it yet because there are people, most of them state leaders, and he had most in mind our home because he was still a virginian, patrick henry, who he felt was almost the most dangerous person in the country, that for their own personal gain to gain power.
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and he thought that patrick henry was willing to split off the south. these people for their own personal gain -- and they do not care as much. they are not committed in the same way, this small r republican rule, with liberty, protecting private property. he wrote to all of those people. he wrote to j maddox anday and madison. he delivered things, that he was really an idea person. three of them sent back proposals. this is the type of government we need. three house. a two house legislature. a separate governor. a separate court system. all three of them came up with almost the same system. he took those. he ran them over, and he said, i now have a plan.
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i'm not going to go to war. he was the general. i'm not going to go to war without a plan that can work. he took those three and in his own hand he rewrote those three. it's not some secretary. he rewrote them and put them together into a single plan that became his working draft of what the constitution would be why he wanted was a central government needed to have power over interstate commerce with a one market economy. and in the pie can grow for all of us and we're not trying to cut each other's throat. he wanted to directly tax individuals so they could raise revenue, so they could tax and spend for the general welfare. that was one of the items. national power over the military. because back then you still had all these state militias, and you didn't really have a central army.
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the constitution ends up giving the president power over all the state militias, but it allows for a national military. he had written out weigh proposed earlier in his peace time war establishment. one of the problems is the british had never let them on the frontier, and the native americans were moving back in. they had reconquered half of georgia. he couldn't get to one of his frontier properties because the native americans stopped him. he needed an army to push the british out and to expand westward because he thought the future of america lie in the west because of property and because of expansion and opportunity for the common people, and for investors. so those powers, and power over international commerce. so power over commerce, power over the military, power over the ability to command individuals directly for the general good when it's a matter
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of general concern, and the power to tax and spend for the general welfare. that is what he wanted. brian: simple definitions of the following. what is a nationalist? prof. larson: nationally is the one who wanted to create a nation out of the 13 states. he was also a federalist, and he thought some things -- he came to appreciate that some things could be left to the states. brian: but what is the difference? what does it mean to be a federalist? prof. larson: well, weigh meant by nationalist, and the virginia plan offered first for the constitution used the term we are creating a national government. the idea is sovereignity lies with the government. there are compromises that went along where you can say there is some sort of split sovereignity. at he meant was not ultimate
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sovereignity. hamilton wanted to get rid of the states. but that ultimate sovereignity rests at the national level. brian: would you have called him a federalist back then? prof. larson: he would have called himself a nationalist, and he did, until after the constitution was drafted. they decided -- they adopted the word for themselves federalist because that was politically a more effective term. but it also was justifyable. when the -- the changes they made, instead of being the virginia plan, which gave power to the national government, the constitution as drafted limits it. the national government only has enumerated powers. brian: what is it that mean? prof. larson: that only had powers over the things listed. war power, international
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commerce, the postal system. all the things that washington wanted were enumerated. the original draft shifted sovereignity. it was limitless, and that is what alexander hamilton argued for, and that is what, to an extent, james wilson, who was an important drafter and governor morris. brian: did anybody walk around in those days, because we do now, saying i was an anti-federalist? prof. larson: yes. the term was originally adopted it term of derision, but was immediately accepted. during the ratification debates, by the later ratification debates, by the time that virginia was debating ratifications, certainly by new hampshire and north carolina, the two latest, but also new york, they were calling themselves anti-federalists by
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that time. brian: you write in the book there were 73 delegates to the convention in philadelphia in may of 1887. 55 attended. 39 signed, and only two, washington and madison, attended every session? prof. larson: that is correct. people would come and go. your state was only represented if you had a majority of your appointed delegates. so states would gain and lose. new york was represented for a while, but the two anti-federalists from new york left. they bolted out. they said this is going haywire. so they leave, leaving only hamilton, so he couldn't vote anymore. so new york lost representation in the end. new hampshire shows up in late july. they hadn't been there before. you had states come and go. so actually the way they worked nder the rules is that any
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resolution would pass, any provision would pass if you had a majority of the states then present. some would pass 5-4 or 6-5 because they had so few states represented. rhode island of course never showed up at all. brian: who are a couple of the anti-federalists? prof. larson: well, the lead anti-federalists in the country were not there. one of them had been elected, patrick henry, but he thought this was going to be a disaster and they can't do anything anyway. all they can do is amend the articles and not every state is going to ratify it. so he didn't even go even though he had been elected. the other leading anti-federalist, george clinton, the long-time governor of new york, very powerful and effective governor. he ends up being the anti-federalist candidate for vice president against john adams, and eventually does become vice president under both thomas jefferson and james
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madison. but he would probably be lead anti-federalist, and patrick henry would be a close second. as for at the convention, the nes that ended up -- yates from new york or luther martin from maryland. they both left in frustration, but they would both be anti-federalists. also, george mason becomes something of an anti-federalist y the end. elder before eberry was one. george mason and desmond randolf did not sign? they were there but did not sign? prof. larson: yes. brian: what was the reason they did not sign? prof. larson: it differed with each of them. they all had their own reason. the one thing they had in common was there were no bill
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of rights. they thought there should be a bill of rights. this is the one they had in common. they also had concerns that the presidency was too powerful. certainly george mason would be strong on that view. he did not think you should have this powerful a presidency. he wanted a committee of three like republican rome had, each representing a different region on of the country, though all the regions would be represented rather than one unified president. he had that problem. there were a variety of other problems. they didn't like quite how the senate what is organized. i forgot idn't -- the other big one, the necessary and proper clause. when they enumerated the powers of the central government, such as the power of interstate scommers, the war power -- interstate commerce, the war power, it wasn't the original list that randolf had proposed. he proposed the enumerated
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list. james wilson stuck in the added one and everything necessary and proper to do the above. they said well, that is everything. what cannot be included in what could be necessary and proper. we do have some court cases that have found a few things. but they anticipated a major problem. so if you went to the ratifying conventions where there was major opposition such as massachusetts, new hampshire, north carolina, virginia, of course new york where it blew apart, and they would have stopped it had it not already passed other states. the two big issues were the lack of the bill of rights and the necessary and proper close. brian: what about washington? prof. larson: he knew when not to speak. he wasn't a great public orator. he was a great public writer d a wonderful one-on-one
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confer sayingsalist. he was did not conversationalist. but he had those terrible teeth. ivory. there were different dentures and none of them quite worked. he couldn't enunciate and speak loudly, cano give a great speech. he had this way. he liked to sit back and listen and try to figure out how these pieces fit together. he knew that some people were more clever than he was. governor morris probably the most clever there. but james madison, hamilton, many others. and he would listen to their ideas. but then he had this wisdom and a sense of what would work. then he would put the pieces together and meet with them. one thing i found that was very interesting is we always have known from reading madison's notes to the cowens that there were a few key moments when a
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o mies was offered, often -- compromise was offered, often by governor morris. they agreed that the states get to pick the senate. or the compromise. governor morris hated slavery, but he helped to broker that. but we find that whenever a major pro mies that breaks a deadlock is offered, washington is the presiding officer. he calls on that person first, and in variablely he was with him the night before. so he knew what was happening. he had either helped to work out the compromise or at least knew it was there, and then he would call on the person who made the compromise to get the convention going again. because several times it was on the verge of collapse. brian: when he was in philadelphia for the
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constitutional convention, where did he live? prof. larson: he lived at robert morris' house. now robert morris had been the financier of the revolution. he had been elected a senator from pennsylvania, and he was reputedly the richest person in probably the richest merchant. there were others who were probably land wealthy but cash poor. but he was a very wealthy merchant, and he had this glorious mansion, considered the finest mansion in all the states. washington had come up thinking he was going to stay in a boarding house, probably mary house's boarding house. but morris said no, you are staying with me. here he could live in a magnificent house where he had a carriage, servants and slaves with them. they had room for all of them.
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so he stayed in the house. and he could have dined there all the time. but most of the other delegates were crowded into tight boarding houses because there wasn't enough room in the nice boarding housing for all of them. there would often be two or three to a room and eat in the common dining hall of the boarding house. whenever there was a critical moment, he would go out and have supper with them, with a group of delegates, so he could talk with them. the typical afternoon is they et six days a week, and they would go to what we would call mid afternoon. then they would go off to a tea at some society lady's house. washington always went there because he loved tea, loved dancing and loved being with the ladies. many of the delegates would and they would have
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a chance and they would have a chance to talk. we notice from the letters that they were often talking about substantive things. then he would go there and sit at a table with the other delegates and talk. then there would probably be another player or a party in the evening, and he would never miss one. brian: and what would he wear? prof. larson: he would dress fairly formally. he wore his -- he wore clothes that would inevitably be made from english lin nintendo -- -- the he buckest buckle shoes. clothes horse might be a little much, but he cared about how he looked, and he dressed carefully. he didn't have a wig, but he had long hour and it was also powdered. brian: did he ever speak in the
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convention? prof. larson: he would call on who to speak. he would call on the dirt people. when he d only speak called when he called on them. so he would organize the debate that
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but only nine. washington pushed seven, that when seven states approved, it would take effect. it was way beyond the rules, and it worked. what is amazing is it worked. this is the honor people had. even when the anti-federalists such as yates left to go back to new york, he didn't tell. he vowed that he wouldn't tell. so he didn't tell until it was over what they were doing. he kept his word. he didn't tell the press, and the press never knew. the press thinks this is the biggest thing happening. before this happens, the press is all over this. and wonderful newspapers in every time. they were the thickest themes back then. i read them all, and no one had a clue. they did have a report, and
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every report was wrong. one report that was in a newspaper and spread to everyone was the convention had decided to call in the second son of king george to come over and be the monarch. another one said they had voted to throw rhode island out of the union. it was wrong, but that is how the press was grabbing for date-krumms. grabbing en he -- for crumbs. there was an early draft of the constitution. a worker was given a copy, but they were sworn to secrecy and to be careful with it. one was outside in the room and it was brought to washington. when the people came back the next time, he scowled at them, and he took this document and says this document is one of your documents. one of you left this out front. whoever it is, you come up and
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get it, and he threw it down in the floor and marched out. there are accounts of some of the delegates, one from georgia ran back to his room to see if it was in the room. he said the most relieved moment of my life was when i found my document was is it in in my room. brian: did he ever offend out? prof. larson: nobody proclaimed it. one time after they voted to approve the documents, some small states and anti-federalists had some small concern, and he proposed an amendment after it was drafted that you could have a bigger house of representatives. that was the only other team. brian: you mention in your pack ng -- a painting by howard chandler cristie? this was 1940? >> it was commissioned during the depression, yes. brian: i found one version of it on a website that turned out
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to be very interesting, the john ash brook center. you can see it on the screen. when you move your cursor around on the individuals and click on it, you can see ho-ho they are. then when you go inside, they have background of each individual. why did you talk about this particular thing in your book? prof. larson: well, of course the session was closed. there were no reporters. there were no painters. there was nobody inside. those shutters that you see open and the curtains that you see pulled up were all closed. this was a classic ceremonial painting commissioned during the depression. it hangs in the house of representatives. brian: here in washington? prof. larson: here in washington, d.c. he takes all the people and
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composes it in a glorious celebratory ascione. i finish talking about what happened, and then i say that this painting was painted to capture how people envisioned it. it makes washington and franklin at the center. they choose to make it that way. that is how people thought it was. actually if you went back and followed it closey, washington was at the center, but it would be governor morris and areas playing major roles. but the way it was presented to the public, if you read all the newspapers after it, the two biggest heroes in america, the two people who were the only two national heroes are washington and franklin. they are presented as the people who produce it. that is how it is presented to the public. that is what the public thinks,
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that it was written by washington and franklin. he puts franklin at the center with people crowded around him, and he puts washington silent. franklin is always talking. people are coming up one by one, and is his celebratory. nobody knows what it looked like. it is obviously not an accurate pick because the pictures were open and they were actually shut. everyone looks like they have a halo. he airbrushes out everyone who didn't sign it. even though mason was there, and randolph was there and others were there, they are not in the picture. some people had gone home. the signing was actually the following week. everything got done the previous week. they painted in even though they weren't there. to it is designed to celebrate an event, to capture what people thought happened. and because it is often just as
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important of what people thought happened,, what the public thinks, than what actually happened. so i use that painting to first describe what actually happened the best we can tell from the notes we have and all the letters that went out. there were many people besides madison who took notes. but then i want to capture what the american people thought happened. to do that i use newspapers, letters that are outside, because it is what people thought. what is important about the constitution? that it was written and ratified by the people? legally what is important is that it was ratified by the people. but that painting captures what people actually thought happened. brian: i want to make sure those who were interested can get the address of that website. there are 50 documents on there from those early years plus all
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these teaches helpers. it is called teaching american john ash brook was a former zpwressman from ohio. prof. larson: i was born in his district. i would occasionally sit on his shoulders as a child watching parade go guy. my father and john were close friend. i knew him quit well. brian: and he died young? prof. larson: he did young under questionable circumstances. brian: do we not know? prof. larson: there were lots of concerns. they ended up doing an autopsy. he was running for senate at the time. brian: how did a center end up being established at the
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university? prof. larson: he had a national following. he was a major conservative leader akin to paul ryan today. he was a known conservative leader and he had many wealthy conservatives from around the country who are very loyal to him and thought very highly of him, and they wanted to celebrate him. this college is located in the city where he lived. it was ash land university. brian: we could talk about george washington forever, but the remains time i want to go back to the beginning and how this all-starred. , w did you become this fellow and what was the full title of your fellowship at mount vernon? prof. larson: i was a library fellow. they created the presidential
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library, and they decided to create resident fellows, and i was the first one. i was selected. there was a committee of scholars led by paul even hire from m.i.t., who had written a highly regarded book on ratification. what i was doing was i had previously written book about he election of 1812, which created interest. that got me into the issue of jefferson and adams. washington lives into the early part of that election. i had written that, and that aptured the establishment of partisanship. i have madison's notes edited with another professor. i edited note that could be used in classrooms. so i had done the constitution, and i had done the 1800 election. so what i wanted to do was fill out the story of the founding
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of our government and the constitution. he makes it partisan and getting the 12th amendment. by using washington as a vehicle, by moving washington to center stage -- because washington is left out of the story even in myers' book. he is not part of that story. i thought i could tell that story in a different way by moving washington to the center of the story. brian: i want to make these connections. we hear the names all the time and people who underwrite the experiences. fred smith, the man who started fedex, we have some video about him making a speech about washington. do you have an idea of how much money he gave to the live e.r.a.? >> a lot. a lot more than i have. i am sure it is all public record. brian: here is frank w. smith. frank: we are told that the president envisions a structure for his documents here on the ground of mount vernon.
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unfortunately, he was not able to complete that project before his deanthony. today, nearly 214 years after his passing, we are able to celebrate the opening of his library. if he were here today, i believe that he would be pleased with the completion of his dream. it's a testament to his legacy that all of this was accomplished without any financial help from any government entity. brian: we also have some video, as you are talking about fred w. smith or your fellowship, of the library itself. dower when the library was first opened? prof. larson: it was opened the day i moved in. that would have been august of 2013? do i have the right year? brian: and there has never been a library at mount vernon?
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prof. larson: it is a private enterprise which started in the 1850's by a group of ladies of the plantation had been owned in the family up until that time. they saw the civil war coming, d so they wanted a symbol of unity to buy mount vernon and make it a public home. they bought it, restored it, and they have kept restoring it. the lady association still operates it. there can be one vice regent from every state. it could be up to 50, but it is usually in the 30's. under the last couple of regents, they have tried to move beyond just a museum piece and home to working farms. they have rebuilt the distillery. they have built archives. they have belt the library, so it can be more than just a
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place where a person can celebrate washington, but where you can go and study. brian: there are lots of people who have made lots of money and give lots of money. have you ever talked to fred smith about why he did? prof. larson: he was a leader, and washington was a leader. he admired what washington created, and he wanted that memory preserved. brian: we have steen on this etwork -- seen on this network names gay heart gaines. she played a role. what was that? prof. larson: yes. she was a long-time vice re-jent. she served as one of these women who run the place. she was as forceful as any or more forceful than most in pushing this idea of let's make this more open. let's reach out to people.
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let's bring washington. let's not keep him in mount vernon. washington has lessons for all of us. so along with others, she pushed having educational programs that go out to the people. brian: who underwrote your fellowship then? prof. larson: the fellowship was fundraised through the library. there are a long list of people in addition to fred smith who gave to the library. there are more fellowships. gaines, in her honor, was a series of annual lecture. this was her idea, to get the ideas out. so for several years now they have been bringing in lecturers. after my book came out, i was chosen to be one of them. you give three lectures, and this book that just came out,
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george washington, nationalist, it is five lectures but includes these threes. brian: here she is so people can make these connections? >> thank you all, and congratulations to everyone on the remarkable achievement that will enable millions of visitors to discover the real george washington. [applause] prof. larson: one thing i would say about gay is not only did she contribute much of her own money, but she raised a lot of money. you have certain members. well, how do they pick people to be on the board of a great college like the university of chicago, or to be on the board of the red cross? well, they can raise money from people. she had a master ability. theability of money that is attributable to her is striking. but she also had a vision for the place. she is one of many that had this broad vision so it now has a national footprint.
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brian: in the pack it reads, the gay hart gaines distinguished lectures and then it says this book has been supported by the fred w. smith live e.r.a. and by a gift from r. and mrs. lewis lerhman. here is an interview from 10 years ago. >> throughout america, unlike most european countries or any other foreign countries, the great documents of american history are still in private hands, families. they do not exhibit these, nor do they make them available to scholars, researchers or students. so the teaching side of the building of the collection was to get all of these documents, manuscripts, treat's that formed the structure of american history from the lonial period forward out of private hand and into a place
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where they could be serving american students, american teachers and americans from all walks of life who are interested in document based study and biography in american history. brian: you ran for governor years ago in new york. did you talk to him about why he wanted to underwrite this book? prof. larson: i didn't talk to him. the head of the library talked to him about this specific book. i talked to him before, and his commitment again is ideas about leadership, get the ideas about democracy and liberty. get barblet's values out there because he is still a model for all of us. there are others like it like franklin and lincoln. brian: on the back of your small book here, it is endorsed by susan dunn, who was married to james mcgregoror burns. what did you call him? your mentor at williams college? prof. larson: he was my
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perked my and he interest in leadership studies. his book was on roosevelt. that is where he won his pulitzer prize. i was fresh out of a small town in ohio, rural ohio, and here i walked into williams college, and here was this scholar who created a whole way to study leadership. he was renowned for that. a great author, but with this broad concept of what leadership meant, and i was fortunate to take classes from him. brian: i can't resist this. she endorsed this book, and she was married to james mcgregoror burns. there was a point in the interview where i asked her how she met james mcgregoror burns. you may get a kick out of this? >> how did you meet professor
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burns? well, our mail boxes were next to each other for years, and we would say hello. then when i heard that jim was ree and divorced, i pounced. brian: why did susan dunn endorse your book? did you know here? professor i knew her to an extent. i was connected. we weren't at any of the gaines lectures together. but when jim burns passed, there were several events where they called together especially events for him. michael would be there. he was a classmate of mine and another student, and susan would be l and i would be there and maybe a few others. though i saw her repeatedly on that, she had read my 1800 election book. she also had a book on the 1800 election. very different goal and pack
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than mine. when mine came out, she loved mine, too. so she reconnected then, and we talked a little bit. then after jim died, we had these events together, and she read my return of george washington book, and she loved it. when the time came that this shorter version came down, she said i just want to back it. brian: unfortunately, we are out of time, and i can't really ask you much about this, but i wanted to ask you about hue and hazel darling, which is the underwriter of your chair at pepperdine? 10 seconds on them? prof. larson: yes. they gave the law library at ucla. they have now passed. it is run by rick stack, the director of the program. he has these resources, and it gives it out to support legal education in southern california. that is their main focus. brian: do you understand whether george washington would be impressed by awe the people
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who spend money on history. our guest has been professor edward larson at pepperdine college, and his is "george washington, nationalist." thank you. >> thank you very much. announcer: for free transcripts or to give us your comments about this program, visit us online. they are available as c-span podcasts also. >> so i decided to spend much more time on the young grant. i spent a week at west point trying to understand how this man could finish 21st out of 39 at west point, and therefore
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sometimes viewed by these biographers as an intellectual lightweight, and he said of himself, i must apologize. i spent all my time reading novels. >> sunday night on "q & a", ronald c. white talks about the life and career of the 18th u.s. president in his book, the life of ulysses grant. >> he said to them, i look forward to the day when you can ride on a railroad car, when you can eat in a restaurant, when you can do so along with every other person regardless of their race. that day must come. it took 90 years for that day to come. grant was the last american president to hold those kind of views. >> sunday night at 8:00 eastern on c-span's "q & a." > coming up at 6:30 eastern,
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former homeland security second, chertoff chertoff -- michael chertoff will host a domestic security the house and senate are returning this week from their thanksgiving recess. the house returns tomorrow. now it is time for the annual con congressional christmas tree to arrive in the capital. this is an 80 foot spruce from the national forest in idaho. it arrived on the lawn this afternoon, with the tree lighting set to take place next tuesday at 5:00 p.m. eastern.
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>> hey there. >> thank you. announcer: this is the west front of the capital, the same place where the inauguration will be held on january 20th. right now they are setting up with the capital christmas tree. the lighting is next tuesday, december 6th.
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look the at our primetime schedule on the c-span networks this evening starting at 8:00 p.m. eastern here on c-span, former defense and stapleton officials hold a discussion -- and state department officials respect with a discussion on leadership. on c-span three, former iowa senator tom harkin talks about healthy eating and the rise of childhood obesity in the u.s. we are taking a look live at the lobby of the trump tower at fifth avenue in new york city. donald trump is meeting with potential appoint's, including e ald torreyes, -- david trace. some say that many in trump's fill the him to
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position. here is what david petraeus had to say. >> right there. that is great. >> how did the meeting go, sir? >> the meeting went very well. i was with him for about an hour. he basically walked us around the world, showed a great grasp of a variety of the challenges that are out there and some of the opportunities as well. very good conversation, and we will see where it goes from here. we will see where it goes from here. i have got to teach this afternoon, and so that is all i can say. >> did you have any advice for him? are not alongedled-laugsd and
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of of of of fer -- and the president elect tweeted this. >> c-span's journal journal, live every day with news and policy issues that impact you. coming up tuesday morning, subcommittee on health ranking member and budget committee memberer, congressman jim mcdermott. his opinions on trump administration appointments so far. then president of americans for tax reform, grover norquist talks about trump's fiscal and economic proposals. he will discuss fiscal policy in the upcoming g.o.p. controls congress. washington journal journal live watch journal journal live. >> follow the transition of government on c-span as donald trump becomes the 45th president of the united states
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and republicans maintain control of the u.s. house and senate. we will take you to key events as they happen without interruption. watch live on c-span. watch on demand at or listen on our free c-span radio app. > thankou very much. >> our guest today on . ewsmakers" is vivek murthy he had a career at harvard medical school in public health and technology. he oversees approximately 6,700 uniformed health officers representing the united states in nearly 800 locations around the world. thank you for being with us. >> really good to be here. >> you have just released a 400
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page report on addiction in america. let me introduce the group of reporters who will be asking questions. lauren is medical report for the associated press. sarah covers health care for the hill. lauren you are up first. this report on open odorizzi and other forms of addition was eagerly anticipated. what is the message for the country for a country dealing with open adam: addiction for a well. r it was the first major decision i had in 2014. these reports usually take several years to produce. we did it on as quick a time line as possible. with the report i am issuing a call to action for our country to take on the public health
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crisis of addiction. and i am doing so recognizing -- are 20.million people 20.8 million people in america who have substance abuse disorder. it is about the number of people who have diabetes. despite this heavy burr deny, only one in 10 people are getting treatment. that is what we have to change. >> how will the report do that? >> the report will do that in several ways. number one it lays out clearly the scope of the problem, which is one that not everyone understands and raises it on the priority list of public health issues we have to address. number two, a also lays out the evidence for prevention and treatment strategies. when i travel the country and talk to families hard hit by addiction. many of them don't realize that we have evidence based methods to treat their family members and others impacted by adings. we have a need to expand our
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treatment facilities, but people should not think there are not treatments out there. what is remarkable about prevention and treatment, they are cost effective. for every dollar we expend, we save four dollars. in our prevan exel programs, we have some so effective, that they return $64 for every $1 invested. those are investments worth making. finally and most challenging, the report issues a call for our country to have a cultural shift on how they view addiction. they are ones that require each of us to stop and think about ow we think about addiction, to recognize that addiction isn't a moral failure but a chronic addiction of the brain. we lay out the biology of addiction. it helps people understand that addiction affects the brain circuits in specific areas that
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control decision-making and impulse control, and they help explain why it is so hard to manage addiction and so easy to slip back and to relapse. >> so after years and years of research on this, i want to talk with you about how you see the role of government in addressing this problem. a lot of -- some of the advocates involved with this who are trying to get the government to take even -- to go further, and they want mandatory training for doctors, a larger role for the federal government. i know you recently sent a letter to thousands of the nation's doctors addressing this issue. i wonder if you could talk about how far you think the government does need to go if this is the time for a mandatory policy or for any kind of stricter guidelines for working with doctors on this? >> well, one of the key points i make in the report is that the only way we are going to address addiction in america is if everyone steps up to do their part. that includes policy makers
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investing in treatment and research. but it also includes clinicians, ensuring they have the training necessary to dig nose and treatment addiction disorders. we issue a call for many other sectors as well, including law enforcement, teachers and educators, parents and families as local leaders. i believe the government is an important player here as well. we know that government many times in the past in history has played a role in sounding the alarm bell on public health crisis. the 1964 surgeon general's report on tobacco was important. in the 1980's, my predecessor it did a similar thing on h.i.v. we hope this women kick off and accelerate other work in this area. so government plays a role. and we know the government can play a powerful roll in
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investing in prevention programs. when it comes to fremont for substance abuse overall, but particularly for obama dam: abuse, we have over two i am happy to say the obama administration has taken mean steps to fund extension of treatment as well as to fund work to sharpen prescribing practices including a recent set of guidelines that the c.d.c. issued for prescribers. from my office, i did issue letter to 2.3 million health care practitioners across the country calling them to action. while we can put recommendations in place, we need the profession to step up and taking a larger role in training the current and rising generation of health care practitioners in to treat it in an effective way. >> when congress and the f.d.a. and c.d.c. are looking at
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guidelines on this issue, it is the drug companies them. what do you think the drug companies need to do in working with the government. how much scrute nissan needs to be here as we address the epidemic? >> we -- if we look back with our lends of history, what we see is there was certainly a role that pharmaceutical companies played in the development of the opioid crisis. there were a number of folks who played a roll. we didn't have enough investment in treatment. we didn't have enough clinicians that new how to treat it. they were marketing these medications heavily. if we could go back in history, that is something we should change. but looking forward, what that -- we know that every
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medicine, whether antibiotic or opioid has a benefit, and it has a risk. that is true even of tylenol, over the counter. it is important that patients and clinicians understand that risk so they weigh that when making decisions. i would love to see pharmaceutical companies step up and play more of a role in training -- not in training, but in expansion of treatment because we know we have a huge problem on our hands, and we have to expand treatment. i would like to see pharmaceutical companies in general pay much more attention to their marketing practices. we know that those messages can be very powerful when people are seeing them on advertisement. as a doctor myself who has cared for many patients over the years, i have had patients come to me and ask me about medications they have seen advertised on tv, which they are led to believe are harmless and will cure many problems, which is often not the case. this presents an added burden
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to doctors and nurses when you have advertising that is not entirely accurate or doesn't tell the full picture, isn't balanced enough, then you create additional risk as well as additional work for doctors. >> that brings up an interesting point. you have the patient coming and saying i would like this medication that i saw, but there is also right now people who are paying attention to the news about the opioid addiction and saying well, would i even want to take one regardless? while there is a lot of science on the neurobiology of addiction, there is not much on what makes people vulnerable. if you are a patient and your doctor is saying i think you need this pain medication, what do you say to help decide if this really is the right choice for you? and then what is there that you can look two to say i might be getting in trouble? >> that is a very good question. people often ask what is it
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that determines whether someone is prone to developing a substance abuse disorder or not? while we don't entirely know the answer, about 40% to 70% is genetic, and the remainder is related to your environment. what were you exposed to when you were growing up? in the case of alcohol or cigarettes, were there people drinking heavily around you or smoking around you growing up in your peer group or at home. when it comes to prescription pain medications in particular, there, there certainly is a need for public education. many people assume that because a medication is prescribed by a doctor, that it must be safe. usually, like i said, medicine could be prescribed weigh the benefits and risks. there are risks with medicine. one of the key points i have found important to share with public, is opioid medications are addictive.
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that message is one that hasn't fully penetrated. i will tell you that when i was training in medicine, many clinicians were taught that open odorizzi were not detective as long as they were given to someone who had legitimate pain. i was having dinner with an old colleague a few months ago, and i said to him can you believe we were actually taught this in medical school? he put he fork down and said do you mean it is not true? he is very bright and trained in a medical institution. there are many errors about how clinicians are trained around this. i would say to any patient out there who is in a situation where you are prescribed an opioid medication, of a discussion with your doctor or nurse practitioner about the risks and benefits. ideally they would bring it up with you. but in case they don't, i would ask them proactively. the more people in the community are able to take
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charge of their health and ask theo questions, the more you are able to safe guard yourself and ensure the right decisions are being made. >> longer term, is there any promising research being done to treat pain other than chemically? so that we may be moving away from this as a society in the long run? >> that is a great question. one of the things we call for in the report and that i have spoken about on the road a lot is about the need for us to invest more on research to alternatives to opioid medications in treating pain. emtarium limited armem . we know that physical therapy can be good. cognitive behavioral therapy
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has shown to be helpful in dealing with pain. we know the v.a. and other health care centers are increasingly using massage, acupuncture and ack pressure as methods to treat pain. the more we look, the more we are going to find that there are alternatives to using medications like opioids. but we have to do that research, and that is going to be an important part of us moving forward in being able to treat pain safely and effectivity. >> we are at the half way point. speaking of research needed on this, a lot of lawmakers have talked about $920 million they wanted to see in the recovery and addiction act earlier this year. some are hopeful of seeing that in the spending bill this year. if that doesn't happen, and i am curious if you have heard anything or that, what are you thinking about the next administration coming in? have you had any conversations with incoming president trump about what his plans are since
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he didn't release that much about this specific issue ahead of next year? >> that is a good question. i have nod had conversations with the next administration but their legislative plans. every where i lafell, i see that addiction does not discriminate. it affects all people. i have been proud and happy to work across the aisle on the issue of opioids with members of the legislature from both parties, and i plan to continue doing that. this is an issue that has come up with bipartisan support. you have seen that with other work that has been done on opioids. my hope is that will continue because it is affecting communities across america. my hope going forward is that not only will will have funding for treatment, but we can be find mul in how we think about and talk about addiction. what i have seen clearly is
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even if you have treatment centers available, you need people to want to go to them. you they need to be willing and able to step up and say i need help. i found in city after city that there were people who did not feel comfortable even coming to talk to me if there was a camera nearby. they worry if somebody found out that they were struggling with a substance abuse disorder, that they would be ostracized by friends or fired from their job, and their doctor may look at them differently. on the one hand we have to address the policy issues surrounding the presprention and treatment programs, and we have to work on the cultural shift. u can't legislate a shift in attitude. the to be modeled, from grassroots up. >> the nearly $1 billion that would go towards expanded treatment, do you have any hope that could be achieved in 2016,
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or are you looking toward 2017? >> i don't know if it will be achieved in 2016 or later. but i hope it comes as soon as possible. we can't wait. the families have waited too long, far too often in the shadows, not comfortable in coming forward about coming forward with their illness, and they are desperately in need of treatment. when we are at a people where we have treatment that works, where we know how to help people you how to reduce the incidence of relapse and overdose, it is tragic that we haven't been able to do that further. we have made progress under the obama administration, but what we have learned and what we illustrate in this report is there is much more progress for us to make. i am open to working with anyone to do what i can to make sure that we have the support, that we have the information to make the case for expanding treatment because i believe it is desperately needed.
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>> if people do seek care, they have tony kornheiser able to pay for it, and president-elect trump has campaigned on the notion of repealing the affordable care act, which did make adibblings dream an semmings health benefit. what happens if that goes away? >> you raise a good point. coverage is a key part of this equation. >> i saw what a difference hastert insurance coverage made so my payment. not having to always worry that they would not have coverage if they were to get sick. when it comes to getting substance abuse treatment services, yes. the protections and benefits that came under the affordable care act, now those services have to be included under the essential benefits package is important. as the new administration looks
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for ways to improve and build on our health care system, that we find ways to not just maintain but extend our coverage. despite the progress we have made with 20 million more enrolled through the h the affordable care act, we know there are still millions more uninsured. we have a parity law in place, which has advanced our ability to adequately reimburse for substance abuse services. we still have to do more to ensure that is fullry realized. you say to providers who are worried about the disruption and
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the uncertainty from enrolling this could be a month -- public major health problem if they don't have options. next yearur neck -- strategy for looking at this? times of change are hard for everyone. as much as some progress has been made we know there are other gaps in this time of change. are weare wondering going to go forward or backward? i don't have a crystal ball. i will wait for the next administration to come out with his policy proposals. themt to work closely with
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to see what we can do to ensure people can get the care they need. we need to make sure that our needs are being taken care of. i hope that we have a lot of good people in washington who want to provide help on the issue. they are helped by hearing from their constituents about what it is they need. unfortunately, many of the piquant best people i have -- many ofn the road the people i have spoken to on the road it is heartbreaking. they have not shared it with others. this is the time where we need more people to share with their elected leaders and with the media as well. one of the things that has tiedd to turn the toy --
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on the opioid issue is making it more acceptable for others to do so. let's talk about medical marijuana which was on the ballot this election. you brought up in the report that there are concerns about .arijuana abuse what is the public's attitude about medical marijuana? what is we know about marijuana and the other is what we don't know. .t is in fact addictive this will come as a surprise to people. marijuana is in fact addictive. we know that it has an impact on the developing brain.
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there is also what we don't know about it. at this point have high quality evidence that tells us that in fact marijuana is both safe and effective for medical purposes. is the standard that we used to approve any drug or medication from the fda. we should hold marijuana to the same standard. ,f you ask somebody right now what are the guidelines, what dose and frequency and what type of strain is acceptable to use conditions, we don't have a specific guidelines that are evidence-based. you may have people prescribing all kinds of different things based on their best judgment. that is generally not how we want to operate in a universe
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for efficacy. my belief is we need to accelerate our research on marijuana so we can understand it fully what the benefit and what the harm is. in this administration i was glad to know they were making research easier. increasing the amount of research grade of marijuana that was possible. hundreds of millions of dollars that have been put to work in research. i want to pick it to a different epidemic. you have talked about gun violence about a public health crisis. anti-gunoint to any violence or mental health
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provisions, executive actions under the obama administration that you believe will have a lasting effect under the next administration? what are the things that are working right now that you think should continue? let me ask you to assume out a little bit. it is a problem in many parts of our country. nobody that wants to see it. debate that gets very polarized very quickly. this innt to address sensea, we need a common laws in place. we need a focus on gun safety and education. we need an investment in mental what we alsoes,
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need to do is ask ourselves the deeper question is what leads to violence in the first place. not everybody who deals in violence as a diagnosable condition. i think we have to ask ourselves how can we improve emotional well-being in our community, especially in communities where there are high degrees of stress, whether that is due to existing violence or poverty. the good news is that we do have programs that are being developed and implemented in different parts of the country that are talking about emotional well-being in schools. they are having a striking impact on violence. one of them is in chicago, in one year was able to demonstrate risk reduction among at
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people. my hope is that we can focus on investing in emotional well-being programs and andrstand which ones work programs that have demonstrated to be effective. that is an area that i intend to focus on. your term is scheduled to last through the trump administration. would you like to serve? been -- my intent has been to serve as long as i can make a contribution. ideas, note a lot of just around subject -- substance abuse. that health is
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something that matters to all of us. it is not a political issue. that gives us a reason to come together to work on health. many areas of shared concern. substance abuse is one of them but others as well as my intention is to continue to work with the next administration, to do everything i can to advance public health. i believe we are to the task. >> thank you for being our guest on newsmakers this week. >> thank you. after ourers is back conversation with the surgeon general of the united states. the new report from the surgeon general on facing addiction in america which he hopes will be reportctful as the early
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. it's going through a lame-duck congress and a presidential transition. what is likely to happen? >> hopefully not a lot in congress. there are so many other things that take precedent over public health matters frequently. the doctor made a point that addiction it -- has no political persuasion. i am sure it is something they will come back to. the fact that the report is report wasafter the passed, we have an upcoming spending bill and there could be some money as a result of that. there is a chance that there still could be money before the end of night -- 2016.
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>> is money the only part of the equation? general's office is a bully pulpit. probably hasction the effect for resonating throughout the country. the congress has debated the problem. the doctor's attention and he can get -- and raises the idea of stigma and that we should not be able to be afraid of speaking out. >> this idea of a mandatory training is not seen well by the ama. we haven't seen signs from the fda and cdc in their recommendations, which are not enforceable but there are -- are
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, even in their day to day life, some go years without additional training. changes, the research comes to fruition and doctors maybe not aware of the update. we saw a video from the president elect that one of his 100 day pledges is from regulatory reform. it is an environmental question, we are in such a state of flux right now. >> incoming president trial has said he wants people with opioid disorders to seek treatment. we did not see a lot of details on this.
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it got a lot of on capitol hill. that policy. on he might see some of those carried out. you have not seen those yet. in terms of how the country approached this. addiction,ion -- they fall under the criminal justice area or is it a public policy issue? >> a public policy issue. sometimes they are the appropriate treatment. get the to know how to balance right. >> we both spent time with this report. what is the major take away, where the numbers in a surprising to you both? these numbers have been
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hammered home for several years now. the message and stigma also. thatimes the public needs bully pulpit to bring it home to them. >> i agree that we have seen the government tried to say this is a social problem and from the thatroots if people see they need addiction services, 400 pages is very extensive for any branch of government to put it out. it shows the obama administration wants to leave a .ark on this area > >> thank you both for being here on this thanksgiving weekend. >> with possible terror motivations due to today's attack at ohio state university looking at domestic security and
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isis. we will hear from michael chertoff, that is coming up in 15 minutes. live coverage when it gets under way until then a discussion on the issue from this morning's washington journal. is generalng us now townsend.hompson -- thomas taskakes up that joint force and how many u.s. test force members are there right now. sure. i commend the u.s. army 18 at four brad, north carolina. force.nd a joint task
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this coalition is made up of over 60 nations that participate at various levels. there are 19 or 20 troop contributing nations that contribute troops on the ground or air or at sea here that are facing off against isis. all told, the u.s. troops on the over 8000 here, between iraq and syria and the surrounding region and coalition troops number another 4000. host: appreciate you working with us with a bit of delay that we have as we do this interview. what are the main ways that u.s. service members are participating in this. how close are they getting to the front lines, in this fight that we see so much about in the news headlines to retake mosul?
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the first thing we do is we enable our partners with equipment to help them be successful. usually more advanced training .n their own we also assist them with for operations. we enable them with intelligence surveillance, reconnaissance, close air support, artillery and things like that. when you talk about the battle to retake mosul, artillery gets cover to use those in the battle to retake mosul. we talk about how the effort is
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going in mosul and what the main u.s. role is in the battle for that city. guest: sure. the questions about mosul and i think the operation, the security forces operation is going pretty well. if you think about where this , twowas 18 months ago years ago, it was a defeated army, barricading the gates of baghdad to keep isis out. in the last two years they have recovered their footing, liberatedtheir army, half of the iso-controlled territory and they have now mosul, the liberate
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largest city held by isis. is 300 or 400 kilometers from the capital here in baghdad. pretty remarkable turnaround. coalition forces are up there doing some of the tasks training andbed, equipping has gone on and now we are down to advising capabilities. there are coalition troops around mosul with their iraqi counterparts. they are providing intelligence and air support and on the ground some distance away andiding artillery fires, closer to mosul with iraqi headquarters and commanders making decisions. host: a special line for iraq veterans if you want to call it and talk to the general.
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202-748-8003. otherwise phone life as usual. -- phone lines as usual. in, iwers are calling want to talk to a little about theallies in the fight, in front lines going into the city of mosul. we hear mixed reviews at times, we hear about the reliability, who are our best assets over their come of best at taking this fight to isis in the city of mosul? the iraqi security forces are a broad spectrum of the type of forces and capability. army,you have the iraqi
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there are more than nine brigades of the iraqi army involved in the mosul operation. they are in various states of training and readiness. the units of the army are in various stages of training. some of the best are up there around mosul. police,e iraqi federal a combat capable police force. they are elements are in various states of readiness. parts of them are better than some army units, some army units better than the federal police. there are iraqi local police, think of them like police horses in the u.s., -- police forces in the u.s. are not really trained and equipped for that as much here ,n there are tribal forces
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securing their own villages, volunteers from the neighborhoods. forces thatlitia have responded to calls into iraq, and they have a wide range of capabilities. probably the best overall force is the iraqi counterterrorism services. until recently they were part of the armed forces. they are now a separate force. they have had a training u.s. specialwith operations forces, even since 2011 during that time. between 11 and 14. they are probably the most capable of all of the forces. all of these forces are engaged in mosul and taking the fight to isis. host: as that fight happens, we -- whatrd reports of
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are you trying to do to work with the allies to reduce cityian casualties in the and for the innocent people there? the greatest level of concern for the iraqi people comes from the iraqi government and security forces. don't want to inflict necessary casualties on their own people and at damage to their own infrastructure. of iraq,e government the coalition, we are here at the invitation of the government of iraq, we don't want to inflict unnecessary collateral damage or civilian casualties. i think we are running the most precise campaign here. we go to extraordinary lengths to try to avoid civilian casualties.
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when we hear that we may have inflicted casualties through our media,orting or the etc., we investigate each and every one of those reports to determine if a if they are credible. we want to know how we can avoid it in the future. phone lines are open for viewers to ask their questions. 748-3003. starting with kendrick, an independent from south carolina. go ahead with your question.
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the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over expecting different results. i have heard this before. , then whene soldiers it comes to the fighting they throw down their weapons and run. -- what is the end game? they will have to learn to fight their own battles. we have been there for over 10 years and nothing has changed. tv, they will never fight. on the end game and the concerns about doing the same thing over and over again in a -- in iraqi.
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have heard that definition of insanity as well. i would suggest we are not doing the same thing over and over again. 2003 -- ina rack in in 2003 and we left because the government of iraq did not want us here anymore. in 2011.ted us back so there is the first thing that we are doing differently. we are here at the get invitation of the government of iraq. you said if we work here pushing .hem they would not be fighting that is not the case at all. i was here during the previous. in those days we led the fight and we brought the iraqi armed .orces along with us that is not the case here at
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all. we are not leading this fight. there are not coalition soldiers in the front. who is doing that? the counterterrorism services, the iraqi police are the ones leading the way. them,rces are -- behind giving some help with enabling capabilities. but the iraqis have their own air force and artillery. we are just helping them. --y have their own kick capabilities. it is a different situation from operationas iraqi -- which i proceeded -- which i was in. fallujah, we in
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hok five cities, and george did not want to go any further. he did not want to destabilize the area so he pulled out. theiraqi people awarded russians with the oil drilling cruel, which was kind of from 5000 people. of crude.,000 oils then w bush went in and destabilized everything and all the fan.t after i got out of the service, i got a job on the base as a civil servant, and i used to work for the admiral.
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saidonfided in me and he that the president dismisses all the generals and admirals and appoints his generals and admirals. i would like a response. i can't imagine anything more relevant or pressing as a journalist i am very happy to say this meeting is on the record. you can use it" it. phone orve a cell personal device please turn it off if you would because the signal interferes, that would be fantastic. the format, i will guide the conversation for


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