Skip to main content

tv   Lubbock Texas  CSPAN  July 20, 2018 6:30pm-8:02pm EDT

6:30 pm or on twitter. >> c-span, where history unfolds daily. in 1970 nine, c-span was created as a public service by america's cable television companies. today, we continue to bring you unfiltered coverage of congress, the white house, the supreme court, and public policy events in washington, d.c., and around the country. c-span is brought to you by your cable or satellite provider. a book tv exclusive. our cities tour visits lubbock, texas, to learn more about its unique history and literary life. for seven years, we have traveled to u.s. cities bringing the book seen to our viewers.
6:31 pm
>> welcome to lubbock, texas. for the next 90 minutes, we will explore the literary life of this west texas city. a hub of the agricultural and cotton industries, it has a population of about 350,000. we will visit with local authors. >> lubbock is the center of a huge cotton industry. we grow more cotton in this area than anywhere in the united states. -- cotton really fuels lubbock. midland inil fuels west texas. cotton isence is,
6:32 pm
more stable. oil has a book and bust culture to act. those cities have an up and down population and rising and falling economy. >> we begin at the texas tech alumni center with professor sean cunningham as he talks about his book on the rise of conservatism in the sun belt following world war ii. belt is onecan sun of those late girls -- one of those labels that scholars and journalists have created over the years to try and understand this post-world war ii merger between the south and the southwest. a short answer is that it is kind of this merger of those two regions into something that is more understandable in a modern sense. the less satisfying answer is probably that the sun belt doesn't exist. it is an imagined creation to try to understand this movement
6:33 pm
away of the american south past the world war ii period, moving into more of a modern industrial ,ge with sprawling metropolises connecting in some major ways to major cities in the american southwest, and drawing some commonality that previously had existed, where you have a girlfriend tatian -- have a rural plantation heritage south and the west. those two areas of the country begin to develop economically in some interesting ways along the way. you end up with kind of a connection of major american cities from san diego, california, los angeles, especially suburban los angeles, through places like phoenix, albuquerque, dallas, austin, san antonio, moving through major
6:34 pm
cities like atlanta, smaller cities like tampa, orlando, , andonville, charlotte many places in between, where the personality of these cities is suburban, very college-educated, middle-class, sprawling, and really kind of takes these two regions and morse them into something we have tried to understand as the sun belt. one of the things we have seen as a result of world war ii and the technologies produced as a result of the world war ii era, and very critically, not just world war ii, but almost the seamless transition from world war ii to the potential of world war iii and war with the soviet union. --had traditionally been the then, in the united states, to go to war, mobilize, then demobilized and try, although
6:35 pm
the united states has never been fully isolationist, to attempt some neutrality. world war ii was a game changer. the united states, in perceiving the potential threat of especially a nuclear war with the soviet union after world war ii, the government needs to make sure it is ready to win that fight. the 60demobilizing million people who are brought into the service to fight world war ii, then not really demobilizing that and filling -- and feeling the need to maintain a much larger presence, it means new defense bases that are larger, new developments such as the manhattan project, based in los alamos, which has a presence here in west texas. ,nd the aerospace engineering the employment that is necessary to staff these new training
6:36 pm
grounds stretching all the way from texas across the southwestern desert, into new mexico, arizona, naval bases, shipbuilding. all of these jobs that require , especiallyation education, this is radically transforming the landscape of what the south and southwest exists to provide the american people. but it is radically transforming the need for colleges, research universities, and relocating people from other parts of the country into the american sun belt. you see this in the american south in florida, georgia, north carolina, all the way across through texas, california, nevada. you will see a lot of weapons testing in the nevada desert,
6:37 pm
for instance, and a lot of development. as those states are growing the population is growing. this means new housing construction, new highway construction. billions and billions of dollars of federal resources are being poured in to the south and this new to create development defense oriented society that is both fighting communism abroad and pursuing free market dreams at home. youreates this kind of mill in the -- this kind of milieu in the american southwest that reinforces ideas of american work, and hard
6:38 pm
commitment to fighting. conservatism in the sun belt has always been lingering in the background. as i mentioned, with the concept of the sun belt is this fusion of the south and the west, and the southwest in some ways. if you look at the political history of the american south, certainly you can't escape race, you can't escape the legacy of slavery, of secession, of the civil war. you certainly have lingering in the solidly conservative democratic south a sense of , a sense that state is manynd local control times advanced in the cause of racial segregation. is a useful rhetoric that can be employed in a variety of different ways when it comes to low taxes and the freedom of businesses to pursue their own interests and opposition to labor unions and right to work
6:39 pm
laws that develop in places like texas in the early 1940's and then become national after 1947, or optional with the taft-hartley bill. you have this anti--state-ism that is already existing in the ismth -- this anti-stat already existing in the south, and then you have the myth of the frontier, of pioneering americans that will pull themselves up by their bootstraps and make a way for themselves. when something is not working at home, they can kind of just take their family and get away from the long arm of the federal government, moving to the west, and establish a home for themselves. they kind of the quake this with freedom. all of this gets reinforced in hollywood and the ideas of rugged individualism and freedom and the ability to control the
6:40 pm
road destiny. >> major moments for conservatism and particularly republican conservatism. sean: we still have a lingering democratic conservatism in the south, and that is going to be something that, in various ways, sunbelt politicians like jimmy carter and bill clinton, will be able to tap into and drawbacks some constituencies. in terms of major moments where we see a developing conservatism, certainly reagan's ,lection in 1966 in california kind of fast forwarding to one of these other elements that kind of pushes a kind of traditionalist conservatism that blends together with the anti-s tatist libertarianism, in the
6:41 pm
1970's, added to these cultures of renewal of family inues after roe v. wade 1973, which is a case that originates out of texas. there's another case called doe olton, i believe, that is out of georgia. the supreme court's sanction of abortion after 1973, mixed with decisions on school prayer, on tax-exempt status for private schools, which have developed in the sun belt, especially after brown v. board of education and you have the phenomenon of white flight, which adds to suburban development in the sun belt. i would say the development in the 1970's of a religious mobilization and the development of what jerry falwell will be a
6:42 pm
part of with the moral majority and the christian right, through 1976 when jimmy carter, out of georgia, is the first national really embrace the label of born-again christian. 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, and 1980, politicians are trying to attract a new demographic vote, the evangelical vote, which is also bringing in anti-communist catholics out of the solidly democratic column into more of a reagan democrat by 1980, an opportunity for the republican party to kind of remake the political landscape by fusing evangelicals with traditional democratic voters in other parts of the country. disaffectedics, union leaders who are struggling in the world of a postindustrial
6:43 pm
commonly -- postindustrial economy. all of these things. it is not so much about major moments, although you could point to a few. i might add bill clemens election to the governorship of texas in 1978, the first republican to win the governorship in texas since reconstruction. there are these moments that you can see republican breakthroughs. reagan's republican to the presidency in 1980, as a goldwater conservative, wins a landslide election after there goldwater had been annihilated in the 1964 campaign. you see a radical transformation in a short period of time. it's a perfect storm of social ,onservatism and evangelicalism religious motivation, and the idea that scandal, corruption, watergate, all of these things where the message of, "i trust
6:44 pm
my government and my government is competent and my government is not going to waste my money" gets transformed i 1982 ronald "government is not the solution to your problems. reagan: in this present crisis, government is not the solution to the problem. government is the problem. sean: what i hope people get from this book is that historians and political scientists and journalists have been trying to study and understand political change, especially -- what really has driven my field is this idea that barry goldwater gets crushed in the 1964 presidential election, losing to a liberal
6:45 pm
texan who is running on a new society platform, we trust our government, government is good. who980, ronald reagan, begins his career as a goldwater conservative, is winning just about as big of a landslide election as johnson wins in 1964. how do we get from point a to point b. historians, for 30 years, have been trying to figure out the locations, the issues. what i wanted to do with this book is take a step back and say , a lot of these historians are right, and they are looking at different facets of political change since world war ii. they are all right, but they are not exclusively right. the story is about all these things together. what i really hope is that people will be able to step back
6:46 pm
and see a big narrative of change over time. i also really hope that what people see in this book is not an uninterrupted linear progression of conservative medical growth. the sun grant -- the sun belt really is a battleground region. contestation, a really purple place. it is becoming more purple as the years go by. it is most famous for the conservatives that come from the region, but there is a liberal persistence in the sun belt. the postindustrial metropolises, as other scholars have said, are really changing the demographics florida, georgia, especially in these big cities. you are going to see, increasingly, i think, the red sunbelt becoming the battleground purple sunbelt, and in some places, maybe even in texas next 10, 15 years, in becoming a blue state.
6:47 pm
it is a battleground region. we're not looking at a linear progression of conservatism so much as we are seeing change, .ynamism, competition the sun belt is a microcosm of america in many ways, or it is america. you battle for these different constituencies across the sun belt states, but you are really battling for the heart and soul of the american future. wille who read this book see that this is contestation for a long period of time and it is not preordained that this will be a bastion of red conservatism forever, nor has it been that way. >> our look at the local literary community in lubbock continues as we visit the patterson library to learn about the history of african americans in texas. >> this is the tj patterson
6:48 pm
library. it is named for patterson and his wife. councilman,s a city a long-term city councilman, the first one in lubbock. very important. a communitye for that haven't had a voice on the city council before. they were supportive -- this was in desegregation. they were supportive of black colleges. hadchurch we went to women's groups that were very much in favor of improving education. black, white, whoever. she actually ended up, she was one of the leaders in this women's group for kind of the
6:49 pm
southwest, and she ended up being put on the board of houston college, which is a methodist black college. i was a little kid, but i remember her taking me out there with her. friends who never saw anybody except the yard man, african-american, in the neighborhood where we lived and most of west austin for that matter, here were all these well-dressed african-americans in suits and nice dresses, going to school and professors. i knew something that my friends didn't know. i would tell them about it every once in a while. they would kind of shake their heads. people have to learn about reality. that was, i guess, one thing that may be more interested --
6:50 pm
made me more interested as i matured to want to write a book like this. texans: aed "black history of african americans in texas." texas was going to be a spanish colony at first, an extension of mexico, which was a spanish colony. inumber of african-americans texas is limited. there was slavery in mexico, but there were also people who had gained their freedom, so there were some slaves but also some free blacks during the spanish period in texas. the colonies were not very large. they may be a couple of thousand settlers and, among them, people who are primarily free blacks, some of them of mixed ancestry.
6:51 pm
maybe 20% of that couple of thousand. it's a relatively small group. it is, again, the beginning point of any kind of african-american presence in texas. that continues up until the early 1800s when mexico then revolts for its independence from spain. mexico, along with most of the latin american countries that revolted against spain, during that period of revolution, begin to take the first steps toward emancipating their slaves, innging an end to slavery what were now becoming independent countries. anglo slaveholders moving and don't want that to happen, because it would affect them. so this becomes one, maybe not the only, but an important part
6:52 pm
of the tension that is developing between the mexican government and these anglo settlers. all of this becomes the texas revolution. it is interesting to note that there are at least a few african-americans with the texas army in almost every battle. is oneamed henrik arnold of the guys when the texans attack and capture san antonio, which is the only battle they won until --- so african-americans did play some role in the texas revolution. the interesting thing, even had served inen revolution on the texas side, the anglo texans who wanted to control slavery are not too happy with the idea of free
6:53 pm
blacks. free blacks represent a role model that they don't want slaves to see. they pass a lot of laws once the republic of texas is set up that limit free blacks. vote incks can't elections, can't serve on juries, additional free blacks are discouraged from even coming in. at one point, there is even an attempt to force the ones that are there out. it doesn't take place. ironically, sam houston puts off what was a piece of legislation so it doesn't happen. but there are some real limitations on free blacks. then, of course, texas joined -- the unitedtes. states in the 1840's.
6:54 pm
, of course,he way for people to bring in even more slaves because it is now not from one country to another but from one state to another. so slavery is growing. at the time of the texas revolution, there are about 5000 slaves in texas. i know this is carrying over from one chapter to another in the book, but there are only about 5000 slaves by that time. by the time of the civil war -- -- the 1836 to 1860 number of slaves in texas has grown to 180,000. texas is part of the confederacy. soldiers for the confederate army in significant numbers, some of whom guard the coasts or the frontiers, but many of whom are off on battlefields.
6:55 pm
one brigade of white texas soldiers fights with robert e lee all the way in virginia. even larger groups serve in the confederate army's up and down the mississippi that are starting to stop -- that are trying to stop the union advance there. texans are overwhelmingly areederate -- white texans overwhelmingly confederate while slaves are hoping the union wins. some of them try to escape. even before the civil war, slaves from texas were trying and, in some cases, successfully escaping into mexico across the rio grande because that was freedom from slavery for them. that is going to continue through the civil war. at the union armies get close enough, which doesn't happen too but if they come close
6:56 pm
enough, slaves would try to escape to the union army, which is mainly in arkansas or in what is now oklahoma, what then was an indian territory. the emancipation proclamation goes into effect all through the confederate states. so you have new opportunities for african-americans. obviously, lingering opposition, the ku klux klan is going to appear within a short period of time, and other kinds of violent opposition to freedom is still going to linger across the state. at first, even though freedom has been granted, there is not a clear-cut set of rights coming
6:57 pm
with it. the emancipation proclamation says people are free but it doesn't say what else they can do. past segregation laws. schools can exist but they have to be separate, black and white schools. ant that means is that increasingly reluctant state government is probably going to provide and, in fact, does provide less money for the black schools as it does for the white schools. local county or city governments are going to take the same approach. they are going to do kind of the bare minimum to keep from getting in trouble. the overall trend is real difference between how whites and blacks are being treated in schools in terms of society.
6:58 pm
segregated places to eat, hotels , as well as schools, and even participation in some activities. the most significant changes actually come with the great depression. up to that time, african-americans were either tenant farmers where they didn't own the land, they had to rent the land and their farms were very small, or they simply worked for some white farmer as farmhands. of texas begins to be settled, and it is settled mainly after the civil war, there are black cowboys, black cooks who work on the ranches. some of those cowboys would
6:59 pm
become fairly well-known. john's a man named a.d. wallace, who starts out as a cowboy and is eventually able to buy some cattle, buy some land, and eventually becomes a small-scale rancher in his own right. doesis not common, but it happen in a few cases. there were others who established themselves as important figures. there is one man named hooks. ct, breaks from being wild wild horses, so they can be used in ranching. the real problem, in terms of change, comes with the great depression of the 1930's. it literally drives thousands of tenant farmers off the land.
7:00 pm
so there's a lot of unemployment. it is another one of those patterns or discrimination plays a role. but it is a. of change and as the media programs call the economy and start to bring it back, the second world war comes along and a lot of unemployed men are transferred to the army, which gives them jobs. so the depression comes to an end. one statistic that sticks in my of soldiers 20-25% from texas in the first world war were african-american. the same thing as true in the second world war. the percentage might not be as
7:01 pm
high, but there are significant numbers. the percentage was not , there areong others still problems. war, you second world growing concern being expressed about continuation of the discrimination. more -- the wars in the 1940's, there are organizations like the naacp which has mid-,rs in texas by the so there are groups trying to fight through the courts to bring down some of these
7:02 pm
barriers and that will be more common in ultimately, by the 60's, you have some serious challenges. of the political problems was a white primary. primary is the first election were parties choose candidates and then they run in the fall. that theem was democratic party had come to dominate the republicans but because they had supported breaking down some barriers, and so, democrats dominate texas politics from the. after reconstruction well into the 20th century. they tend to want to maintain discrimination. is used byrimary
7:03 pm
democratic party to keep african-americans from voting. whoever wins the democratic primary during that long span of to any a must guarantee general election in the fall. being able to vote in the democratic primary is important. eventually, an african-american dentist goes to court to challenge the last aversion of the white primary and the federal courts rule in his favor. and so the white primary is finally put to bed. you not only have the end of the white primary but of course, you have the brown decision on public schools. that had to be followed up.
7:04 pm
you think the united states supreme court has ruled against school desegregation. you would be surprised what kind play,es school boards can where they claim they are integrating but they draw on lines and do odd things to keep people apart. spokesman, leaders of the african-american community had to go to court over and over again to break down these barriers. the brown decision in the 50's, they had a major case that was important. texas, but even had a larger impact. court, claims that he wants to enter -- he had tried, he had gone through the
7:05 pm
process of trying to apply to the university of texas law school, which is considered the leading law school in the state, and they turned him down. there is no question about why. he has the educational background. was that he had support from the naacp, which had calculated all of the factors that might be used against him. they were looking for someone who would qualify to apply and they found him, he had the background. but notns the case before the university of texas tries to create a black law school and it was ironic because their first black law school was to white professors from the faculty in an office downtown.
7:06 pm
that was the whole black law school. it was clear that was not going to meet a decent challenge in so they took what had been an african-american community college in houston and turned it into what is now texas tech university which was initially a black university. they created a law department down there. the case went all the way to the supreme court and the supreme court said, you have a much smaller faculty, you do not have a law library that is anywhere near the university of texas law library which was 100 years old said, youe and they are not even trying, you're not
7:07 pm
coming close to creating an equivalent education. favor, they ruled in his and that becomes a major case in terms of beginning the process of breaking down college sex geisha and in texas and much of the southwest. in the present, some, and i will be mentioning anyone by name, do not have a good grasp of history and that hurts their ability to understand where they are and where our ideals have gone us to this point and why we do not want to back up on them. because of what it would create. inequality. what african-americans went
7:08 pm
where they were controlled and discriminated against and what a struggle it has been over long periods of library.ave a paterson it is a great step forward. as we continue to explore the lubbock literary scene, dr. catherine shares her answers to questions that people of the christian faith have about climate change. >> i am a climate scientist. i study with climate change means to us. so often when we think about climate change or global warming, we think it is about polar bears or people living on islands far away. the reality is, climate change is affecting us right here where we live and that is why it matters. our book came out of our personal experiences.
7:09 pm
my husband pastors in evangelical church in texas and as soon as people figure out what his wife did, they started to ask questions. most people as can the questions as they did not want to come to the pastor's wife and say how can you believe in this climate change anyway? instead they want to my husband and asked questions like how do we know it is not natural or if god is in control, why would we care or aren't as scientists just making it up? he would come to me and say i got a good question today and i would say i don't have it but let's look for it together then he would go back and give the answer to people. we got so many questions that we felt like we needed to get people resources. there were a lot of great books about climate change but they did not start where the people that we are surrounded with our. this books started with the idea that yes we agree the science israel and now we will explain why this important. many of the people we talked to
7:10 pm
were not sure the science was real. we wanted to write a book that would answer people's questions starting where they are these they are good questions. they are questions we should be answering. how do we know this is real, why do we think it is humans for the first time in set of natural factors, why do we think the impacts are serious and most important like, what can we do about it? we know climate has changed in the past for natural factors, changes in the earth's orbit around the sun, uncanny directions, changes in energy from the sun and even natural cycles like el niño. they affect our temperature, rainfall and more. but we know that today, according to natural factors, we should be getting cooler, not warmer. instead, we're getting warmer faster and faster and the only reason why the planet could possibly be warming today is not natural cycles, is not the sun, it is the fact that every time we burn coal and oil and gas, we
7:11 pm
are producing carbon dioxide. that heat trapping gas is building up in the atmosphere, effectively wrapping an extra blanket around the earth. a blanket that we did not need. it is like if you are sleeping and somebody sleeps into her room and put a blanket on you and you wake up sweating, saying i did not need this blanket. isthe same way, the earth heating up because of this extra blanket where wrapping around it and that's what recall who he -- human induced climate change. when we look at whether people agree that climate is changing and humans are responsible, when we ask people if they are concerned about a changing climate, there are two groups of people at the bottom of the list in those two groups are white evangelicals and white catholics. cluegives us our first that it is not were someone sits day sunday or a different or not at all that determines their perspective on climate
7:12 pm
change. the most concerned people in the united states are hispanic catholics. they readsay, don't the same bible, took have the same pope, didn't that pope prayed about how climate change matters and it isn't addressed of poverty and care? yes. it is not theology getting in the way. if you look at the number one predictor of whether somebody agrees that climate is changing and humans are responsible, is not whether they go to church, it is not how much science education they have, it is one thing. it is where they fall on the political spectrum. the sad reality is that for many people, the statement of faith is being written by political ideology. and second by their faith. this shift goes back decades. it involves issues like abortion, right to life, same-sex marriage, even further,
7:13 pm
back to racism and civil rights. there has been an unholy alliance between religion and politics that is now bearing fruit. part of that fruit, one of the casualties of the association between right-wing politics and christianity is the fact that if right-wing politics says climate is not changing and humans are not responsible, a large number of christians who agree with their other values politically will go along with other saying about climate change. the reality is that a thermometer decided us a different number depending on if we are democrat or republican. climate is changing whether you believe it or not. i believe that if you take the bible seriously, caring about what is happening to our planet which is a gift to us from god and caring about what is happening to our brothers and sisters around the world, especially the poorest and most vulnerable of them, that is exactly what we are called to do.
7:14 pm
we have a topic called global we're doing,, change, politics and religion. we have these videos that you can find if you google global we're doing. we have these videos to serve as conversation starters because i believe through thousands of conversations i have had that we can have positive conversations about climate, politics, and even about religion. how? with one simple secret. instead of starting the conversation from the place that most divides us, instead start from what we have in common and what most unites us. dowe live in the same place? we both enjoy hunting or fishing or birding or skiing or hiking? about parents concerned her kids? we concerned about national
7:15 pm
security? every business people invested in a healthy economy? christians, catholics, presbyterians, evangelicals? what most unites us? start a conversation from that place and because of this thing we both have in common here what we are concerned about a changing climate. i am concerned about a changing climate as a birder because as climate changes, the baltimore oriole may not be native to baltimore anymore. i am concerned if i were a hunter's here in texas, the quail population goes up and down with drought cycles and drought cycles are getting more intense. i am concerned as a homeowner because i have family along the coast and they are at risk in their property is at risk from rising sea levels. i am concerned as someone with family in the military because military calls hanna change a
7:16 pm
threat multiplier. it is contribute into instability abroad that the u.s. is pulled into and asked to help with. i want local jobs, i want our students to be able to get great jobs where they want in this state. the wind energy industry and increasingly the solar energy are some of the fastest industries that supply so many jobs, not just to technicians. jobs in law, business, finance, energy policy. if we start from where we agree on and share from the heart we are concerned about and talk about a solution that is a , the fact that fort hood went with the wind and the solar energy last year because it would save taxpayers over $150 million compared to natural gas. there are entire towns going green here in texas.
7:17 pm
in the case of georgetown, because three business students ran the numbers and saw they could save you a lot of money, went to city council and said, would you like to go green? and they said, sure why not. there are so many good things we can talk about. so many positive ways we can act and if we keep those in mind, focusing on what we have in common rather than what divides us, we can move the conversation forward. i hope people realize that we know climate is changing. if we look around in nature, we 26,500 indicators that they are changing. all we have to do is look in our own backyard to see hauch trees are blooming earlier, insects and birds and animals are moving forward. the weather is getting weirder. we can see this in places we live. the second thing i hope people go away with is we take this very seriously.
7:18 pm
bandwagonjump on the and say it has to be humans the first time we see climate changing. we looking very seriously at the other reasons, has changed. could it be the sun? now, suns energy has been going down. could be on canada's? volcanoes?e thought th no. those cycles cannot create heat. all they can do is move it from the ocean to the atmosphere and back again. if the atmosphere were getting warmer and the ocean were getting cooler, then we would know it was a natural cycle but, the atmosphere is warming and the ocean is warming even more. lastly, people say could abuse be getting warmer after the last ice age. the warming after the last ice agopeaked about 8000 years
7:19 pm
and since then, we had been in a slideradual long, slow into the next ice age. the next event on our geologic calendar in the next thousand years or so would have been another ice age. the third thing i hope people recognizes the impacts are serious and they matter. it is not just about the polar bear, it is not just about future generations. we're seeing changes here today where we live. whether it is sunny day flooding along the eastern seaboard, stronger hurricanes like hurricane harvey, where 40% of rainfall fell is a warming planet. 100 years ago, we still have had a harvey but it would not have been as big or as strong and rumor not have had as much rainfall associated with it. in the west, we're seeing larger areas burned by wildfires.
7:20 pm
wildfires are occurring at the same rate they used to but when it is higher and dryer, they can burn more area. values ining property high, especially along the coast, drop 7%. in california, a friend of mine called her insurance company is her insurance went up 30% and she said i've never made a claim. the insurance company said it is because your insurance is subsidizing the risks that other people are confronting around the country. in some places in minnesota, their flood insurance and home insurance has gone up over 100%. sometimes 200%. farmers insurance sued the city of chicago for failing to adequately prepare for the effects of the climate. we're seeing impacts everywhere we live today in that is why we care about a changing climate. the last thing i hope people will leave with is that there
7:21 pm
are solutions. there are solutions that are entirely compatible with who we are, with our values and our priorities. involvetions not destroying the economy or turning the brother -- the government into big brother. they involve letting us create our own electricity, providing for our poor brothers and sisters around the world. there are people living around the world know energy security and they do not have a lot of coal or gas or oil to use but they have sun and wind. there are things we can do personally. had a student here he graduated from the business school and get a degree in missions and ethics at the seminary. after he graduated, he thought, what can i do? i will open a company that does energy auditing for churches and seminaries and christian colleges. i will help them save energy in their -- help them save money
7:22 pm
and energy bill so they can have money to spend on other important things like helping people. there are solutions for us to matter where we spend on the spectrum. there are free market solutions. there are bipartisan solutions like putting a price on carbon, supported by a bipartisan climate caucus. you are only led to join if you join the somebody from the other party. 50/50 democrat and republican. there are even libertarian solutions. libertarian than to be offended when some one else's actions affect your property? as the things i hope people will leave this book with. it israel, it is us, the impacts matter, and there are solutions and we can fix this together. withxt we will speak
7:23 pm
author miguel to learn about the history of military action along the texas-mexico border. we are in him and his bakery and restaurant in downtown lubbock. andll-known restaurant bakery that has been here for a long time. it is also a meeting place for people in the south plains to enjoy traditional food and they make a good. do you need anything else? >> i think i'm good. the border has been a part of the creation of texas, whether the department in mexico or the state in the union. border,why i think the
7:24 pm
you cannot talk about texas without talking about the border because it was born out of that contention. he have the rain that lasts from the late 19 century up to 1910, he is challenged in 1910 by the son of a wealthy landowner in northern mexico. as he is competing and trying to contend for the presidency, he is imprisoned. madero escapes prison to san antonio texas. i start with that because it impacthe transnational of the revolution to the united states, specifically texas, is texas becomes the center in a lot of ways. manifesto, that essentially began the next revolution of 1910.
7:25 pm
the call goes out, nothing really happens until about 1911. have the first major battle in the revolution. , they pick orant rez becausepick jua of its commercial significance. they are basically one city. you're not miles away from each other, your steps away from each other. they share a downtown in their downtowns are connected by the international bridge. paso thatparts of el you can walk to the other side. -- you can throw a rock to the other side. i emphasize that because this is where people understand the impact of the battle happening in warez, it really impacts them. many people want to look at what is going on over there.
7:26 pm
around, bullets flying they can easily hit somebody on the u.s. side and that becomes a diplomatic problem. you have shots fired on a so-called neutral country. the governor of texas at the time sends a letter, sends another message to u.s. president william howard taft saying please bring troops to secure the border, because we acrossttles breaking out -- we have ranches that are up against the border test essentially-- taft rejected that and labeled it as a local problem. the next major issue that comes sendsh the border, wilson marines. and get into a skirmish with mexican forces and
7:27 pm
they are captured. this as a potential issue and says we could start a war with mexico. the texas side, i've done the research. , peoplepiles of letters wanting to join the state militia and join up with the rangers to send to mexico. they're even looking remember the alamo. latentatent feelings, anti-mexico feelings start getting amped up when you have this situation. wilson is now having this standoff and he demands that releaseddiers being and wilson says no, you are
7:28 pm
violating sovereignty, where you even here. you read the exchanges between these two leaders. it is like seeing kindergartners having a contest. eventually, they release the marines but wilson does not let it die. his removed from office and arrested. leaders one of madero's has developed a group called the constitutionalists. there is a rival of francisco diaz who is trying to assume the presidency. he does not have the support of diaz or others. gains thelly diplomatic recognition from
7:29 pm
woodrow wilson. in october of 1915. in january 1916, a group of engineers from the mining company headquartered in chicago have a silver might. they organized in broad engineers and staff and workers back into the mine in july law. chihuahua. mine in , they raid the train the train, it is a segregated train because there is an american car and a worker car, they are mexican and in a different car. lopez's men enter the car, they s.rass the mexican
7:30 pm
they get into the american car he and force them to disembark. they are forced to disrobe. not completely, but into their underwear. at that point, pablo lopez orders his men to execute everyone there. and he does. with the exception of one survivor, his men are flying and running, one man survives and made it from there to el paso. he gives the account of what happens. have other mexican accounts that cooperate with this gentleman had mentioned. happens, newscre gets to el paso as the bodies of the victims are brought to el paso so they can be shipped off to their respective hometowns for burial. soldiers from fort bliss are downtown at the bars and they
7:31 pm
are getting liquored up and they andt going on a rampage this is what i identify in my book as the el paso race riot. starteave the bars and attacking every mexican they see. elderly,dren, women, they go on a rampage. they leave the acidity, saying we cannot handle it, they get a call from fort bliss, ordering bliss, ordering the men to come to downtown where this happening to and in an enclave. ano there are 10,000 people or so in this riot. it goes on for most of the day. or not any reported killings but there are a lot of people injured. mostly mexicans were arrested. none of the soldiers were arrested.
7:32 pm
as in theto wear soldiers start hearing that the americans are attacking mexicans and el paso so they start marching toward the bridge and coming to protect their brethren. soldiersmexican heading towards the bridge, you have another neighborhood that gets word of what is happening and they start arming themselves with whatever they can. areastart coming into that where there are soldiers attacking mexicans in that area. you have an all-out battle. american soldiers meet the mexican soldiers at the bridge and halt their advance because most of them don't have orders. engage, thisthey potentially leads to war.
7:33 pm
finally, the institute martial law in el paso which lasts about one year. downtown and does not allow people to leave the area or to go in. he shuts down the international bridge, which is the only one at the time that was the main bridge. march 2, you have the next biggest incident. that is the jailhouse holocaust. in downtown el paso, two men are admitted to the county jail. they are both admitted for something very petty. by the time they are admitted, the prisoners were lined up because they were getting ready for their daily bath. this is not a bath of what seven be hygienic or clean. it is the delousing bath. it is a vinegar bath.
7:34 pm
as you imagine, one fights up a cigarette and there was very little ventilation so, the whole thing blows up. it is just catastrophic. you have men who are trying to get to the concrete walls, he had one individual who ran to the courthouse during a trial on fire, leaving bloody footprints as he was burning to death. one gentleman makes it to the river and starts yelling out, they are killing us. uproar as tos an what is going on. news gets to dia and he is chihuahua and he supposedly vows, we need to show the americans what it means to light up. so, a week later, he invades
7:35 pm
columbus, new mexico. ofinvades in the morning march 9, 1916 and is very successful. he goes in and all hell breaks loose. the soldiers are woken by what is happening. to get theirmbling close on, civilians are doing the same thing. because the armory guys are not there, they have a hard time getting into their weapons and they finally break it open and you eventually have several people, soldiers and civilians killed. dozens killed through machine guns. dia narrowly escapes with his life back to paloma's. this prompts what is known as the punitive expedition. by 1920, dia surrenders.
7:36 pm
he is given -- he is meant to retire peacefully, just go away. he lives up last few years of lot ofe but we do have a what we call today spillover violence along the border, especially in texas, between 1910 and 1920, this. impacts relationships between , that mexicans and anglos is what my book argues, that it complicates and creates conflict and tension between the two groups. when you have tensions between the two countries, it does filter down. as a mentioned with the occupation of veracruz, anglos are saying, remember the alamo.
7:37 pm
that was a must 100 years ago. we also need to understand that the tensions between the and the migrants coming from mexico can also be learned from the early 20th astury when you had refugees well as recruited labor coming in and being personified as an invasion, as a national security to the contributed violent outbreaks that we saw. we see that today, in the early 2000, you had when there was the fear of mexicans coming over, you had a gentleman in pennsylvania beat to death because he was a mexican immigrant. you had a number of cases like that. today, you still see the framing of that discussion.
7:38 pm
these caravans are heading for the border, it is the rhetoric, the tone that these migrants are here to do harm, not to contribute, which historically, if they are from mexico or italy or china, we have what we have because of the labor of migrants. thomas jefferson was not going to pick up a shovel. henry ford was not going to go on an assembly line. are --e these guys that immigrants are very much a part aspect,abric in every economic, social and political. the cattle ranching industry played a large role settling in west texas. they still have a permanent part in the economy today. it is here in the national heritage center in lubbock, texas that we spoke to learn more about the people, places and history of west texas. is, westtle of my book
7:39 pm
giant a history of the side of the state. historians were experts in the field. west texas is hard to define. geographically, it is hard to define because the definition has shifted over the years. traditionally, it was west of fort worth after the civil war. worthu can't include fort harley in west texas anymore. it is too sophisticated, to cosmopolitan for west texas. but anyway, geographically, it shifts and now it runs somewhere west of fort worth to the new mexico border. include fardoesn't west texas, el paso region.
7:40 pm
we included that in our book. the environment in west texas print much dominates the region. areas,ght be true of all but certainly the environment of west texas dominates it. in our book, the theme of environment appears in most chapters. the environment is arid or as china -- as chambers of commerce would say, sub humid. and dustegion of wind in our area. there's not much dust everywhere because they do not farm cotton. here we farm cotton so the environment has a lot of dust and wind. the environment is semiarid. it lacks rainfall. it suffers from extensive periods of drought. we have these periods of a few years of wet and then several
7:41 pm
years of dry. when we talk about average yearly rainfall of about 18 inches in lubbock, we have got plenty of years of 13 or nine and other years of 25. some of the first settlers who cannot hear came in one of those wet cycles, where the rainfall was 25 inches. well, this is a wonderful place. they wrote home and people came out and then came age rise cycle and people were hurt. environment of the is the oil. the whole idea of oil. west texas is permeated with oil , that we have taken most out of the ground i suspect. oil boom in the city of lubbock. we have oil wells. then the permian basin south of , that is a huge oil region.
7:42 pm
texas are of west culturally diverse. is culturally diverse. people were living in west texas and there is evidence in the big bend country. they were hunters and gatherers for the most part. clovis people because them. they dominated the region for a long time, but eventually, they merged into other groups, their societies changed and they shifted. of course, time passed. arrived withst francisco coronado, who came into mexico and this way looking cities, and the seven which were cities of gold.
7:43 pm
his reports of the west texas plains talked about the deep grass and water and how cattle could be raised. he talked about buffalo and called them callous and that toracted plenty of people the west texas area. hispanics to not settle here in those days after francisco coronado because he did not find gold and then, comanches came into the area, apache first been comanches. to settle long war who would dominate the region. comanches finally brushed the apaches aside. there are some apaches in the mountains and some in northern mexico. it became the home of the comanches, then anglos started settling. now came a long war, a comanches trying
7:44 pm
to hold onto their territory. trying to usurp some of that territory. that struggle impacted the indiansr of both the and the anglos. the -- it was a bitter struggle. people were kidnapped on both sides. a lot of people killed on both sides. not end until the 1870's. then anglos came in and they came in different waves. cottonated earlier that agriculture came west from east texas in the old south. , firsts in the panhandle settlers there came in the midwest. they brought different traditions with them. the were plenty of hispanics around who worked on
7:45 pm
the ranches. there are plenty of african americans who worked on the ranches, especially after the civil war. some people say as many as 40% of the western cowboys who went up the trail from texas to dodge city were made up of african-american cowboys. who, with efforts to escape the old south, came west. on as cowboys and some became successful ranchers. during the civil war, texas ignored and the city expanded. naturally expanded. there are huge numbers of them. it was quickly found by some entrepreneurs, they could buy cattle in texas for four dollars and sell them in chicago, st. louis, kansas city, cincinnati, meatpacking towns for $25 or
7:46 pm
more. it does not take a genius to figure out that if you can get those cattle north to markets, you can make money and so the long drives were held. eventually, farmers pushed into farmers would and raise a few acres of corn or wheat or cotton and raise cattle, they came in. eventually, it became a diversified farm. a little bit of irrigation, it became a monoculture with cotton. all that developed slowly from 1865 up into the turn of the -- 1915,nd by 1815 cotton was dominating this part of the country. cattle still dominates the panhandle. and those people
7:47 pm
who raised a few cattle and some crops, they attracted townspeople. wetownspeople came in, needed doctors and lawyers and newspaper people and others and so small towns began. in 2018, a lot of those towns in west texas are disappearing. with,of that had to do well, we raised larger and larger farms, which but people up in small towns and rural areas. lubbock is the center of a huge cotton industry. thisise more cotton in general area than any place in the united states. cotton really fuels lubbock. just as oil fuels the life of myth and and odesza and west texas.
7:48 pm
the difference is our cotton is pretty stable. the price may fluctuate but we continue to raise cotton. sa, oil has ades boom and bust culture to it. people who have lived there a longtime understand that during the boom, the better save some money for the bust. people came in during the bust -- came in during the boom, when the bus came, they had to leave. cities had an up and down population and economy, unlike lubbock. i suspect another thing that keeps us going is the military presence. we have several airbases in west texas that are big ones. that impact us in many ways. there is also military presence in the sense of el paso having huge fort bliss.
7:49 pm
so we have got that kind of thing. it was military presence that boomed ft. worth. in some ways, it boomed lubbock. 19 --he airport came in well during world war i. -- airporty out port that is. those factors dominate the economy but west texas has a lot of colleges. we have a huge one here at texas tech, 30,000 students. that impacts us a lot, too. medical facilities in west texas , especially in lubbock, it dominates our city. we have people coming from oliver west texas to receive treatment. the society and culture of west texas is pretty diverse. it is dominated cody miller uses
7:50 pm
suppose inminated, i the larger cities, by politics. it is dominated in some cities by churches. if the society is conservative, they have a lot of nra members in the area. as might be expected. if you got to the country, you will see a lot of pickups with rifles in the back by the window. not everyone of course. i drive a pickup myself. there is no gun in my house. or in my car. society is pretty conservative. we had laws until recently that would not allow for liquor to be purchased within many of the cities.
7:51 pm
that suggests how conservative society and really the culture is around here. liberalism there is, it is associated with the universities of west texas. reasons whylot of one should know they're in history. you get a sense of your own place, your own time, you run background by knowing your history. not only is there a certain sort of importance in knowing this kind of things, there is also a joy in knowing about your past. genealogy is very popular in this country and it seems to be more and more popular. history is sort of genealogy. it is interesting as well is important to know that passed. you get a sense of yourself as i said. a sense of place. from a conference
7:52 pm
of west texas historical association. a number of historians were there and one of the panels during that conference was on the history in west texas. in west why has history texas been ignored and what can we do about it? book, andt grew our so we gathered a number of our friends and colleagues to write it. all of them are west texans, all are familiar with the history. largely, west texas has been ignored because historians in the state live in the eastern part of the state and not out here. besides, in the history departments, where the real intellectual history is to be done, most of that is done in the history departments and a lot of those members write about europe. their european or asian historians. they did not care about west texas history so that reduced
7:53 pm
the number as well. but anyway, we have a number of west texas historians who are interested not only in writing about u.s. history but about texas history. we got them to write about west texas history. if i say so myself, they did a pretty darn good job. this is a part of the world were smalltime values -- a small town values are still en bogvog. where you go to church. you move into a new neighborhood and people bring you a pie or a plate of cookies. >> while in lubbock, we took a driving tour with mayor pope. >> thank you for joining us as we tour the city of lubbock. what are some of the places we will see today? >> wheel drive through downtown lubbock, through the arts
7:54 pm
district, by buddy holly hall which is being built with private dollars. west texas tech. >> are you ready to go? >> we first settled this area in the 1880's. there were two communities and both were on the east side of the town along the canyon. merged, neither one was named lubbock and they took lubbock as their name. they merged and picked up some of the buildings because they were wood buildings built so that you could pick them up and move them onto to what is now downtown. this is called the depot district. this is the entertainment district, live music, there is a texas theater here on the right which was a movie theater at one time that has been saved.
7:55 pm
as got life music. -- it has got live music. house, what will be buddy holly hall. $150is a privately funded million performing arts center. credited withs all this presley and a few --ers but with inventing buddy holly was credited along with elvis presley and a few others with inventing rock and roll. you can't kick a rock around here without hitting some good is a shins. especially rock and roll, a lot of people talk about what buddy holly means to them. acres, they do the sculpture at the feet not the
7:56 pm
we're driving towards the campus, texas tech was created in 1923 at the state legislature when they decided they needed a university in west texas and they did not have one. lubbock was only 6600 people at that time. in marilla was much larger. plainview, just north of us was 25,000 citizens today. plainview was larger than lubbock at this time. there was an influential state who maderom lubbock certain that the legislature chose what they call texas technological college to be in lubbock. 100 -- it is not even 100 years old yet.
7:57 pm
this is the administration building. it is the first building built on campus. you can see a statue of preston smith, a texas governor who hailed from lubbock. there is an elementary school named for him. he was a big part of our history. you can see to our right, these are cotton fields. you're in the middle of the largest continuous cosan patch in the world. patch in the world. we have warm days in the summer but cool nights. gloves -- cotton loves this weather. we would not be here without windmills. surfacet have any lines.
7:58 pm
this flat plateau, we had to bring water from the aquifer from underneath the surface. that is how weird it cotton. -- that is how we irrigate cotton. it is how we irrigate whatever we grow. we would not be here without wind power. debbie: how many windmills are utilized here to help run lubbock? mayor pope: somewhere around 15% of our power is being generated. texas is a little below that as a state. there is a lot of wind energy being brought along. debbie: as we wrap up, but would you like folks to know about lubbock? ,ayor pope: it is a community
7:59 pm
our efforts to become more attractive to millennials are starting to pay off. our downtown, it is hard to see the progress but if you come back in five years, you will see a completely different downtown. pleasure to be here. debbie: thank you very much for your time, we appreciate it. announcer: our visit to lubbock, texas was a book tv exclusive. we wanted to introduce you to c-span cities tour's. for several years now, we have traveled to u.s. cities to bring them to our viewers. you can watch more at tour. >> c-span, where history unfolds daily. in 1979, c-span was created as a public service by america's public television companies -- cable television companies.
8:00 pm
bring youe to unfiltered coverage of congress, the white house, the supreme court and public policy events in washington dc and around the country. c-span is brought to you by your cable or satellite provider. the national governors association is hosting its in santaeeting fe, new mexico this week. afterward, secretary of state mike pompeo talks about north korea and the recent summit between president trump and russian president vladimir putin while visiting the u.n. city.arters in new york at 10:00 on a newsmakers, vermont's secretary of state talks about election security ahead of the 2018 elections. and later, the communicators takes a look at telecommunications and health care innovation an in
8:01 pm
alaska. at the national governors association summary meeting, montana governor steve bullock sat down with the head of the wk kellogg foundation to discuss racial equity. other topics included job-training, early childhood education and transportation services for the urban and rural areas. this is 35 minutes. >> good morning, again. i would like to welcome everyone back. my name is steve bullock, governor of montana. thank you all for joining us for what i think is a really important discussion. really work to achieve racial equity -- i will try to call him the conversations down now. very much. governor snyder, thank you very much for that effort. working to


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on