tv Riverside California CSPAN January 4, 2019 6:35pm-8:01pm EST
killing more americans than our dying in automobile accidentings. this is something that's a form of ill list trade, tedly to our population. account have your hacked by someone who can do that, it has enormous impact on the ordnary citizen. >> louise shelley, on "after words," sunday at 9:00 p.m. eastern on book tv. next a book tv excuse i. our cities tour visits riverside, california, to learn more about its unique history and literary life. for seven years now we've traveled to u.s. cities bringing the book scene to our viewers. you can watch more of our visits at c-span.org/citiestour.
>> we're in the fox theater in downtown river sithe, keaveed. when we were kids, they should show kids movie, when i was 8, 0, 12 years old, we would come to the fox. i was born and raised here, been here my entire life. it gobacks several thousand years with the local indians here. we have a number of of groups in this area, real anyi not one too specific because we're along the river a lot of groups used the river for their own sustenance. we had serrano indian, we had what they themselves called the tongva in historical records, they were part of the san fwab real mission and others, that probably goes back in the 9,000
to 10,000 year range for here. when you start talking about nonindian settlement, that starts in the 1780's when a number of spanish explorers are coming through the area. that's later supplanted by the mexican times here which is then of course supplanted by the american annexation of california starting in 1850 when we become a state. we had kind of a perfect storm of a number of things coming together at this time. 1870's, 1880's, the railroads come through here. obviously california is on the far west end of the country and most everybody lives in the midwest and back east. so in order to get out here, we -- the government subsidizes railroads to come out. that's one big thing. because that becomes more comfortable for people to come out here. the climate is another one. we've got a very unique, what was called mediterranean type of climate out here. so it's like going to italy or
greece or what have you but you could stay here in the united states. and so the climate is doing -- or making a very big factor at a time when of course this is the industrial revolution. we have factories in our cities back east that are belching a lot of smoke, people are getting a lot of lung ailments. unfortunately, with t.b. and stuff at the time all the doctors could do is listen to your chest and say, you're sick you need to get out of here and get to a more drier, arid climate. this is drawing a lot of people out here who are hoping to get t.b. or asthma or bronchitis baked out of their lungs. so there's that factor. there's the agricultural factor. we have a lot of land available here and if you're young, you live in new england, you want to be a farmer as most people did, unfortunately they couldn't because most of the land was in landed families at the time. but you could come out here.
you could homestead for virtually free or buy fairly cheap land and set up a farm and farm it. the last batch of it -- the last factor that was coming into play was this new romance of spanish and meck can past. it was brought about by the publication of a novel called "ramona." it was supposed to be the "uncle tom's cabin" for the indians, the woman who wrote it was helen hunt jackson, she wanned to highlight the plight of the indians, just like uncle tom's cabin did with the slaves. unfortunately, what happened was that she died within just a few months of its publication and she had written such glowing accounts of what southern california was like at least in her vision, you know, it was always a sun drenched landscape, everything is either in fruit or wloom, we get images of the peaceful indians working for the padres than elike. and that's quite a dru too,
people want to come out here when they read, oh my goodness, it's always springtime out here, is that true? and they come out. between trying to rediscover our spanish past, our health concerns, our agricultural opportunities, and now we have railroads that can bring people out fairly quickly, cheaply, and easily, we start to see a huge population boom here. in the 1870's and more so in the 1880's. but by 1873, we discover a, what became the washington naval orange and this was an orange that had come from brazil through to washington, d.c. and the folks at usda didn't know what to do with it. they sent some of them to florida they didn't work well. and is we had a woman here named eliza tibbetts with connections at usda she said send them here, we'll see what they can do. almost immediately we glomed onto the fact that this was a perfect location for them and
this was a perfect type of crop. the oranges were large, they were sweet, they were seedless. and they had a very thick skin. because again, most people live back east. so if we're going to grow a bunch of these we have to be able to get them to cleveland, washington, boston, wherever. and so this was almost an immediate success and it's something that really kind of bloomed very, very quickly because being a seedless orange it has to be grafted. and so you can graft hundreds from just a couple of trees and the next year you can graft thousands, etc. so by the mid 1880's we were exporting hundreds if not thousands of boxes of valuable oranges. again, out to the midwest, chicago, boston, that area. to. and making quite a bit of money off of them. this continued to grow really through the 1930's. and with the advent of a number
of different industries with it, we were -- became a very, very wealthy community very quickly. by 1895, which is just 20 years, 25 years after riverside started we had the highest per capita income in the country and it was because of those naval oranges, a lot of people were making a ot of money off of them. after world war ii of course we saw the normal decline in that lt at this point, the citrus industry gives way to suburbanization which is happening nationwide. cities are starting to decentralize and move to the suburbs. riverside is very much part of that. tearing up some of the orange groves, planting houses instead of orange trees. and the city becomes decentralized and so downtown starts to deteriorate. we have additional shopping areas outside of downtown that are coming on. along with all these suburbs. this is really happening really
rere--wide in southern california. huge housing shortage after world war ii. guys are coming back a lot of them have been in the pacific theater in the tropics an liked the warm climate so they don't necessarily want to go back to detroit or chicago and have to deal with winters again. so they're coming out here to the seat belt and southern california with the -- to the sun belt and southern california with their v.a. loans and settling down here. we see a huge shift in land use, a shift in agricultural base, we get more industry in here as opposed to growing of the citrus. etc. and there's really just kind of a major shift going on here in population and land use. here in riverside. we really start to see it quite a bit starting in the 1970's and 1980's out here. buzz of l.a. and orange county fill up and land becomes scaretser it moves east.
it continues to move east even today. so really the bigger, much bigger boom happens in the 1980's and 1990's. when we see a lot of house a lot more houses being built out in this area. this becomes the dominant land use out here at this point. unfortunately, what we end up with ssst a system where we have most of our jobs are actually in the l.a. and orange county area but most of our homes are here in the inland area. so people necessarily have to get up early, commute in and commute back there. not that we don't have industry and jobs here but there's quite a few of them in the l.a.-orange county area so people commute in, not only from here but also from other towns in the inland area. riverside is a -- well, i guess you'd call it a medium-sized city, about 325,000 people. again, hike i said, we're in the nland empire, we've got a very
varied population. we go from the high's yo economic level down to the low, as far as demographics are concerned we run the gamut between anglo americans to hispanic which is a large part of the population, african-americans, etc. large part of the population too. so i think we kind of mirror a lot of southern california. we're becoming a denser community now, suburbanization is giving away more to urban land uses as the population continues to grow. so when we look out downtown here now, we're seeing a lot more loft and apartment type of developments that are coming in. multistoried things. which you would not have seen here very regularly back in the day. so we're seeing a lot of that. there's a younger population that's coming in too. apparently we are one of the big attractioners in millenial crowd
out here. so we're getting a lot more land uses and businesses that cater to that demographic too. we're seeing more urban land uses come into even a suburban setting. i hope to walk away with a sense of what it was like and what the people were like who came out here when this was pretty much a barren plain as it was described and were able to set up a town, set up other towns, build a railroad to bring people out here and what they had to do to do that. people back then were tough and in a lot of ways they were, they gave up their homes, wherever they were and they came on out here to an area, you know, it's described in diaries as a desolate plain. what will i eat? where will i get watt her they made it work. and they got their hose in the -- hoes in the ground, they dug
trenchers in water, subdivided the land and they brought other people out here and made it work. the major thing is that riverside was really the seat of the naval orange industry and we kind of added to not only our own growth but others. of course we exported those. so this really put us on the map. when people think of riverside today it's more thought of as a sleepy inland community but this was a hub of activity at the time and was for many, many year. people made a point to come out here. that of course has given way in a lot of degrees to other uses and other businesses and other demographics necessarily. but that's where our roots are. >> while in riverside we spoke with local author and political science professor about benjamin bishop about why politicians focus on the interests of smaller groups of citizens over those of the jerrett population.
>> tyranny oof the minority is a riff off the idea that madison espouses in federalist 10 and this concern that the framers have with creating a democrat exsystem, one of the challenges is that majorities may come to infringe on the rights and liberties of minorities. and that notion of tyranny of the majority was a central concern and a justification for the creation of a government that put a series of checks in place on the people's ability to influence the political process. tyny -- tyranny they have minority reflects an observation that i had, and thought at the time in the mid 2000's, the concern that we have small minorities who often rule over majorities. so that is politicians often follow the will of the minority instead of and in contrast to
the opposition of the majority. and in a democratic system, that shouldn't happen. that was something that madison explicitly kind of dismissed as well, the minority can be outvoted in situations when that happens but in practice we see the minority winning quite frequently. some constituency politics is the idea that politicians appeal to small subsets of the whole geographic constituency rather than the entire constituency or entire district or state as a whole. politicians face a challenge when tiing to get elected and that is how do you win support from voters who typically are not very interested in politics, not very informed about politics. so it motivates people who aren't interested. it's extraordinarily expensive and time consuming. one way to overcome this is by appealing to social identifications that voters have and citizens have.
and they do that by taking issues that resonate with these citizens. people feel more strongly and the fact that they feel strongly makes them more likely to turn out and participate and tell their fends or contribute money or to work. as a consequence, they're very likely to turn out. whereas turning -- trying to appeal to people who aren't engaged interested will be frustrated because they're not motivated to tush out. you may find if you calculate the probability of getting someone to turn out and support you, what you'll see is that you actually get more voters by appealing to a minority who is very likely to participate than you would by appealing to a majority that is unlikely to participate. there's an infinite number of these groups. we all have experiences that lead to different falks that come -- become salient under different circumstances.
opportunity, leaving a socialist country where there's not a lot of economic opportunity. they want to help support their family back on the island. so the results of this even though we have two groups who are both cuban american but because they have different experiences in cuba, they have different political attitudes today that manifest themselves in interesting ways. so what we see is the early refugee group, the political refugees, tend to be much less supportive of things like trade nd travel with cuba. whereas more recent refugees, many of whom have close family members on the island, want to be able to travel to the island and send money easily become to the island. they want to enhance trade because they think it'll make their family members better off. the identity that's become salient is the development of a
white identity that's affected american politics and affected the degree of xenophobea we're seeing. it's become salient for many americans and a very effective tool for the republican party to mobilize voters. i think there is a shared experience among some white people. it might be due to a feeling of threat as the country becomes more diverse. it could be that they've had it and it's been latent for years. and so i think what's happened is, it's been activated by a lot of policies by the trump administration, you know, the language he uses. he's gone from kind of subtle, implicit coded racial messages, you know, in republican party politics, you know, really going back to nixon and his southern strategy, to really much more explicit, you know, racist statements that, you know, it's not even clear they're designed to mobilize people but they effectively do that. we can see the results of this
in the patterns of voter turnout for instance in the 2016 election. where we saw record turn utah in many suburban and rural places among white republicans. who didn't turn out for romney and bush despite romney and bush having much more sophisticated voter mobilization efforts. i think that the emphasis of this white idebitity is one of the most compelling explanations for trump's ability to turn those voters out. one of the challenges the american -- that the public the as a whole is that elected officials aren't all that responsive to the average voter. and in part that's because the average voter isn't very engaged or knowledgeable about most issues. however, one positive -- one positive implication of this
theory is that politicians do tend to be responsive to those who know a lot and care about particular issues. so from that perspective, my theory differs from some of the more recent work on representation which suggests there's no responsiveness at all. i suggest and though that responsiveness occurs to these intense groups. however on the other side, we do have a challenge which is that on issues that the public is not very knowledgeable about, they're not getting much responsiveness from their elected officials and there can be -- there can be significant problems that arise from this when the interest of those extreme demanders diverge substantially on issues that are crucially important to the american people, you know, the middle block of voters or the center of american people. i don't think of it as good or bad. i think that politicians have always try to -- tried to play to social identifications and do so with more or less
effectiveness at various times. i don't think they always recognize that they're doing it. it's not good to the extent that the identifications that are raised are ones that divide us, right, and create serious animosity and my concern personally from my research is when identities are raised that lead to violation of fundamental democratic principles like liberty, like the idea that all people are equal before their government, like the notion that people should rule. when we see examples like we've seen in numerous states now, whether it be georgia or missouri or indiana or north dakota of voter disenfranchisement, the attempt to strip people, what we're really doing is we're saying we think those people are not equal. they're less than those of us who should be voting. so that's highly problematic. on the other hand, to the extent that these appeals engadge people and get them interested in politics, to the extent you can find group identifications
to get people excited about and speak to issues that are important in their lives that's a positive. because of those psychological process, i think assessing whether it's good or bad is beside the point. it's how things work. then the question is what are the implications for us and how do we use that to kind of make society work better or achieve our political objectives and work to make the country more democratic and to more fully extend the promise of equality and liberty to the citizenry. >> what started as a citrus research facility in 1907, the university of california-riverside has grown to a school of 20,000 students and hosts up with of the most diverse campuses. we spoke to an author here to learn more about native americans here in riverside ounty.
> he was an indian who grew up which -- ervation leadership from a family, a family of cattle people. so he grew up as a cowboy. and he attended college. he lived in the riverside area. he supported the formation of the university of california-riverside when a small committee of people here in riverside put it together, rupert was part of that he's always had this attachment to riverside. over the year he is worked for agency , which is the that deals with transportation systems throughout the state of california. in the engineering department.
and he and his wife had no children so they decided they -- when they passed that they would give their estate to the university of california-riverside to establish a rupert costo chair in american indian history to do the work i'm doing today and as well to establish a library of their materials. so their materials included a wonderful book collection that is here in the library, it's open to all students. and in addition they gave a great deal of manuscript materials and letters that they had collected over the years to the library and so the special collections here at the university of california-riverside has this collection and researchers from far and wide come here to study rupert costo, to stud the gentleman yields back the balance of his time his collection and use it, as well as students on campus are in this place every day to use this library.
it's a very rich collection he left. both he and his wife have left us but their spirit is still here. people here in southern california, there are there are many indian people. they are classified as desert --, that they had villages all over riverside county, all the way to the river you would find of the people. they are a similar people, and different as well, meaning their language family is a similar, but they are different people as well. after the north of us are serr ano people. on the colorado river is the
colorado river indian reservation. it has a number of mohave people, as well as after world hopis. navajos and the first settlers are the spanish passing through. come from southern through the colorado , crossed through the desert up through the mountains of coyote canyon. riverside and onto the same gabriel mission. early the spanish are coming through, but not settling. it is settlement for the spanish period, bringing cattle to raise
cattle. all missions had a large cattle herds. thehe riverside area and to east and north of us are great valleys. during the mexican period, the mexican government provided land claims. ranchos were established. butranchos had an imprint, there were not a lot of them. the indian people would work with and for the ranchos. they were the cowboys, moving cattle from different pastor over riverside county. arrived instates
1840's because of the war with mexico, and the troops primarily came into san diego toward san francisco. that brought in the first folks establishing settlements in the inland areas. towns like riverside and towns like banning and beaumont, all of these towns in the inland ranching farming and areas initially. there is a continued interaction with indians, because indians would serve as cowboys, their farmworkers. it is a common theme. they were being introduced to different crops that non-indians had brought here. with the enlargement of the white population and non-indian population, there is going to the conflicts, because the settlers assume all this land
belongs to them through right of discovery, right of war, the mexican war. ies, the counties are established. having a land title moves into a new way of being, and indians were not part of that. in 1870's the government decided to establish executive order treaties. different presidents created these treaties that established the various reservations. reformer nameda said many of the indian people of southern california have no legal relationship to the united states and no lands of their own. he asked for a mission indian
commission to be established. the congress in 1890 established the commission, including non-indians including smiley, went around to other areas in riverside, in san bernardino, and san diego county, to work with the tribes there and to lay out a plan for a reservation to be whatever their villages were located. this was taken to the president and overtime executive orders were given to create reservations. here in riverside county we have multiple reservations, but they are all executive order reservations. the indian people of southern california have unique belief systems about power, about how they came to be, their creation stories. their very unique and still
taught to young people, they are unique in their songs. there are birds songs that are sung virtually. ♪ >> [singing] songs arethe bird sung by the people of the colorado river. those ofsung by southern california in the san diego area, and the serranos also sing this unique song complex. in riverside county, most indian people, not all, are very fortunate to have indian gaming. in the past, indian people had
tried to sell, say, tobacco through smoke shops. they had primarily worked w. when the traditional economies fell apart because of white settlement, they could no longer go and hunt as they did before, and so they went to work. they worked on ranges and farms, they worked at cleaning houses, worked at gas stations just like everyone else working. on reservations, there were attempts to create some economy for them, but it was never really working until the 1970's and 1980's when gaining came -- gaming came in. that is not to say all indian people of riverside county have gaming and money as a result of that, but many do. industry for
riverside county, hiring numerous people on reservations today. of the positive things that have come from the tribes themselves is a great deal of sovereignty and self-determination among our tribes in southern california. they have invested in language preservation, in teaching their youth, in encouraging them to succeed in college and providing tutors, providing money for young people to go off the colleges and universities. tore has been an effort increase the capacity of the tribes, not just through gaming, but other economic development. some tribes have purchased hotels in washington dc and various cities. in washington, d.c. there is the
marriott courtyard -- is owned by several tribes. i'm not in a position to know about all their business dealings, but they have tried to use money to diversify and hire and train their own people to do multiple things. it is very important we know the history of southern california indians, and those of riverside county. at one time they lived in a very rich economy through hunting and gathering, a great deal of movement of people to and from different areas and villages. a lot of intermarrying that went on, and alliances that went on. placeite settlements took -- once the white settlements took place in the 1840's, it saw the destruction of their economy. people did not know the indian
people of southern california went to work. they became the labor force in riverside county. they worked on the farms and ranches. they did multiple things for numerous years. they were able to survive, which is a major theme on our reservations, these are people that survived and protected their native sovereignty. times have changed and things are better for some of the tribes, but for most people in our area, they think of the tribes only in terms of gaming, and there is so much more to indian people than gaming. very rich cultures that are sustained today. >> the collection at university of california-riverside dates back to 1910. andolds over 1000 arts species. we spoke to find more about the research that goes into your favorite citrus at the grocery store. >> riverside was a planned
community. mid-1800s, the people that came here weren't looking for something to grow. -- were looking for something to grow. a woman and her husband luther brought in one of the original washington trees on arlington and magnolia. it dates back to 1867. seedlwas not only ees, but it was beautiful and it was juicy. people were very excited about the washington naval. they started to grow it even more. the citrus writing collection as developed as part of citrus experiment station here in 1907. the collection started about
1910, and was established across town where the sisters experiment -- citrus experiment station was located. it was brought here because there was a burgeoning industry of growers. there were lots of things they did not know. they advocated to the university of california berkeley that they needed an experiment station to answer research questions or things they needed to know to continue their industry. were written by a number of different researchers. they wrote different chapters. these are researchers who are part of the citrus experiment station, then became part of uc riverside. when this became a university of california campus about 50 years
after it was a citrus experiment station, they expanded the number of faculty. all those faculty were involved in research, and then became involved in teaching as well. a five volume series called the citrus industry. there was an earlier version of list in 1949 that was only two volumes, but then they learned more about growing in the citrus industry, and around 1967 they published five different volumes. the one i am holding and wanted to show you, because it has a chapter on the citrus experiment station, is volume five. it is kind of cool, because it relates to the history we have been talking about. this is a picture in june of 1 907 with john henry reed, who is
the guy that actually advocated for there to be a citrus experiment station along with many other people, but he was one of the principal people standing in riverside. this was an important community. it brought all sorts of people into riverside to try to help the cause of preserving nature. ohis particular book is dear t me because this belonged to wp 46dders, the curator from 19 put these tabs in relation to the different years of citrus. oranges.eet i you open up the book -- and
am probably not going to find a section now -- he has notes. there is something underlined. there is a comment. "no." he just circled a part and said "no, cloud dragon." he has corrected it in the book. sometimes it feels like he is talking to me from beyond. it was a critical culminating knowledge about citrus. now we have other books with about neweration practices . they are smaller books. because we can look up things online -- many things are online, websites where people can go for information ther. eit all started with researchers pulling this kind of information together a long time ago. the citrus industry one it got going in -- when it got going in
riverside was huge. it was the crop that people focused on, and it allowed the industry to build around it. they had to ship it to other parts of the country. they had to figure out railroad passengers, banking systems, ways to move water. they had to have labor to harvest and care for the industry. it actually helped build a whole movement in this area. point this was one of the wealthiest communities west of the mississippi. the citrus industry is still huge. california and florida are the largest producers of citrus in the united states. the citrus variety collection, it is a collection of many
different kinds of citrus, but also things that are closely related to citrus. this collection is one of the world's most diverse collections. of the 33 general in a subfamily that citrus is in. most people think of citrus as lemons, limes, oranges, maybe citrons. this collection has much more than that. differentout 850 cultivation, and beyond many citrus relatives. they are things you may have not seen before. when yous important
are studying this citrus disease affecting the united states now, things like having a citrus diversity collection becomes very important. withesearch i am involved is involved with breeding and calultivars.w onrently our focus is breeding new cultivars that will be tolerant to this new citrus disease. this disease is caused by a bacteria, but it is actually insect that visits the young leaves of the citrus
trees to actually complete its lifecycle. in the process of visiting those young leaves, it transfers bacteria to the tree. once that bacteria is in the tree, it will go down the roots and expand to the tree and eventually kill that tree. in the process, it will make the fruit not taste good, it will make them unattractive. it will basically make it not a fresh as a crop, as fruit crop in california, but also in florida it has a huge effect on the juice industry, because they have been devastated by the spread of this insect carrying the bacteria throughout florida. fact that they had hurricanes as well did not help them.
the fact that they did not know much about this disease also did not help florida. they ended up moving this disease around florida inadvertently on some citrus relative trees they didn't even know what carry the disease. it has been really hard for florida. we are trying to avoid that in california now. there are many researchers at the university of california-riverside working on very different aspects of this disease. one of those in the collection. the reason i am showing you is most people think of citrus as being orange. or you may have blood oranges that are a little red on the inside, but this one is pure red. our curator a long time ago said we would have things as small as
a green pea, things bigger than your head, red citrus, blue citrus, orange citrus, green citrus. this one does not look like citrus either. one of the things that is not so great is it is grown as an ornamental in florida, and they did not know it was related to citrus. it actually carried the bacteria that causes citrus greening, and moved it through nursery centers throughout florida without knowing they were moving the disease as well. ornamental, soan they did not think of it as a citrus crop at all. they are called australian finger lime. cutcool thing is -- when i it in half with my knife and you open it up -- the juice vesicles
come out like little bubbles. you can see the seeds as well. they look like caviar. the common name for this is citrus caviar. vesicleseat the juice -- and there are a number of shifts using them on our doors hors d'oeuvres, but when you eat them, they taste like lime. these are called citrons. citrons lookmost like on the outside. some are bigger, rounder, smaller. this is another citron called
buddha's hand. citron wasnd probably a small genetic change that actually generated it thousands of years ago. each part of the section is separate. ports toese fingerlike it, so it looks like a hand. when i cut it open, it has no flesh inside of it. this is mainly used for ornamental purposes and flour decorations, because it smells really strong. the peel iscitron, used for candied citron. if you've ever had a fruitcake at christmas time, you know there are squares of various
different colors. the squares are actually the peel, the inside of the peel, the white part. i usually cut this on the ground, because it is really tough. you can see that. [laughter] okay. this peel, this white part, is cut into squares. some have much thicker peels. that peel is candied and sweetened. right now the inside is super one ofecause citrons are the parents of the lemons and limes and acid fruit we eat. lemons and limes are not an original species, they are actually a hybrid between a
citron and another type of citrus. lemon. a it does not look like a lemon because it has these stripes on it. it is called peaflesh eureka lemon. most lemons are yellow, and please will turn all yellow. at an earlier stage, these have these green stripes. one,ool thing about this although this is not so distinctive, is that the lemons are pink inside. it has a pigment that gives it this pink tinge. some are a little pinker than others, but it tastes like a normal 11 lemon -- normal meon. what do i want people to know that are not in california or
ucr? a number of important things. if you are growing citrus, you'd certainly don't want to bring in citrus from other parts of the world that may have the bacteria that causes citrus greening. you don't want to bring in seeds. you also don't want to bring those in because they may have a disease we don't yet have. there are diseases in other parts of the world that people could inadvertently bring in and not know about. you also don't want to share branches to propagate new varieties from other parts of the state of california, or in florida. you also need to know as much as we take this crop for granted, diseases can have a huge effect on the ability to have citrus in california and florida. it is important to be aware of
this research is important and you should do things that help protect the citrus industry. >> the science fiction collection here at university of california-riverside homes more than 300,000 -- holds more than 300,000 novels, comic books, and more. we spoke to discover the role science fiction plays in our very non-science fiction society. >> a science fiction fan, a doctor in berkeley. science fiction was popping in the bay area the time he was there. his collection came to ucr in 1969. we bought from him his volumes ofof 8,000
science fiction. aboutllection now holds 300,000 items. nor that -- not that quantitative measures are what are relevant to what is great about a science fiction collection. what is great is what research can be done with it, and by any measure it is magnificent in terms of the research that can be done here, both breadth and depth. this is the oldest book in our collection. it is "utopia" by sir thomas more. more was a churchman. with henry viii about who was head of the english church, and was beheaded by henry viii in 1535.
before that he wrote the book "utopia," which gave us the word utopia. utopia is actually a pun, it means nowhere or no place. since his book, it has come to mean either the perfect or ideal society. more really was writing just about a better society. in more's "utopia," things are not perfect, but better than they were in the world he saw around them. this is not the first book about a better society, but this is the one that is considered foundational for utopia narrative. utopia" has been very influential in speculative fiction. there is another genre big in science fiction called dystopia,
which is a worse society than the one we live in. "utopia" really founded two major genres for us. now we will jump forward 80 years to 5096. it is the english renaissance. -- to 1596. elizabeth has been on the throne since 1588. she defeated spain's armada and english culture is fluorescing -- flourishing. a poet really wanted to catch elizabeth's eye, so he wrote a six book poem called "the fairy queen." it is one of the great english language at the columns. -- epic poems. it follows the adventures of six different knights, each of
whom exemplifies a particular virtue. it is not just a knightly adventure. you don't just see the knight beingg dragons and perfect, you see the knight learn to be virtuous. spencer had an educational idea in mind. he wanted this book to be a lovely decorative pleasant to read poetic part of the education of the christian gentleman. why this booksons is important for science fiction and fantasy is that it imagines as the not as it is, but author would like it to be, and also because that world is fairyland.
you look over the genre of modern fantasy, vast swaths of it take place in a somewhat imaginary european middle ages where there is magic. there are some works of science fiction and fantasy that directly reference or draw on "the fairy queen," but "the fairy queen" got that genre of imaginative fiction off to a roaring kind of start. "frankenstein," when it was published in 1818 was the three volume novel. it was written by mary wollstonecraft shelley. the story of "frankenstein" is that a young doctor, vincent
dankenstein, the he wants -- ecides he wants to create life. this was a time when electricity was not perfectly understood, thought to be a fluid that animated every living being. victor frankenstein gets a corpse, animates it with electricity, and then runs out on it when it is just opening its eyes because he thinks it is ugly. his own waye makes in the world and eventually gets very very angry at victor, comes back to confront him, is rejected again because he is a reanimated corpse. really pretty much no one will talk to him. everyone runs away in fear. he becomes very bitter, very
angry, pleads with victor to make him a mate. victor says yes, victor says no. the creature becomes a monster. because victor ruined his life, murdered several people close to victor. it is a story about science, because what it talked about was pretty much cutting edge speculative science for 1818. endured thes idea of a creature created by science and what goes wrong. there were certainly created creatures in myth and legend before 1818, but this is the beginning of the 19th century novel in the way we recognize it. of of the first reviews "frankenstein" was written by
sir walter scott. you will see the author's name is not mentioned. mary'ster scott assumed husband, the poet percy bysshe shelley, wrote it. scott spends a good part of this review from 1818 trying to enunciate what kind of book this is, because he feels he has never seen it before. it really was a sensation. that is why it is considered by some scholars to be the beginning of science fiction, the first work of science fiction. it is also a gothic. it is also tremendously influential in the genres of fantasy and horror. ," firsty "flatland published in 1884, a romance of
many dimensions by a square, the story of the two dimensional being encountering the third dimension. imagine you are a two-dimensional drawing. you live on a page, you can move these ways, and suddenly someone ons the tip of a pencil that page -- there is another dimension out there. that is "flatland." it is not the most thrilling read, but for this year density density of sheer density of ideas, it is marvelous. what science fiction does is hand you ideas that make your brain go -- 100 years after "flat
, thiswas published edition of "flatland" was created. it is not a codex. it is not a book with pages bound to its side, it is an accordion book. so you can read "flatland" in two dimensions. 1997is the april 18 cosmopolitan magazine, not our modern cosmo. in it appeared the first installment of a story by hg wells called "the war of the worlds." it was much loved in pro to-science fiction, adventure science fiction. the biggest impact came in 1938, where on halloween there was a
radio drama of "war of the worlds" in which orson welles was involved. >> ladies and gentlemen, from here i get a sweep of the whole scene. something is happening. theape is rising out of pit. i can make out a small beam of light against the mirror. are spreading. the men strike at them head on. [screaming] >> it was so realistic that there was panic across the u.s. thinking that this wasn't a radio drama, this was a live news report of martians invading earth. it spread the idea of other planets, aliens, martians, far
beyond the science fiction readers of 1938. not that people did not know the planet mars was out there, not that no one had not imagined beings from other planets, but this put a science fiction scenario in the brains of nearly every american. time -- 1938 -- thoughts of war, invasion, conquest were very much in the news. impact one really strong that this work had on the real world, the world that exists outside of speculative fiction. , "astounding1950 science fiction," cost $.25.
ft published the first story o dianetics. a new science of the mind. l ron hubbard started writing andnce fiction, "dianetics" l ron hubbard's entire worldview moved away from fiction, and became a church. this is where it started. this is a piece that definitely participated in a change in american society, the founding of "dianetics" as a religion or a theology or wherever you want to call it. things on that scale haven't fiction, rom science commonly, but this is a big one.
this is one we keep in the vault, because this issue is very sought after by collectors. this is philip k deck's -- k dick's "do androids dream of electric sheep?" which is the pretext for "blade runner." this text had a huge impact in the ideas of bringing androids, cloning, artificial intelligence to the attention of a lot of people in america who were not particularly science fiction readers. it was not new to talk about androids or part of national intelligence -- or artificial intelligence in science fiction in 1968. when "blade runner" was made, that conversation got a huge imaginative exposure.
the story of "do androids dream of electric sheep?" is not exactly the story of "blade runner," but the bones are there. what happens to an android with a shorter lifespan? what if there is an android who doesn't know they are in android? what is being a person? what is intelligence? what is consciousness? can consciousness be computational as well as biological? darkness"ft hand of fiction wave science novel, first published by ursula k. le guin in 1969. you can see the progression of styles and subject matter, but the main thing the book is about is gender.
the people of a particular planet are observed by a traveler who goes there, not book --utopia," the they are no gender in particular unless they are reproducing. this reflected the world. there was lots of talk about gender in 1969. and it also changed the world because gender -- gender had not been used in science fiction in quite this way, at quite le guin 's depth. one of the famous sentences in this book is about the king being pregnant. was -- i mean, that was
the social construct that ursula going -- ursula le guin set out to disrupt by the imaginative work in her series. you look at this run of novels, and you don't see much about gender. what is significant here is what isn't really happening on the book covers. -- i am reminded science fiction authors don't have a lot of influence on what goes on the covers of their book. but this tells the story of how science fiction publishing chose to deal with this extremely explosive look in 1969. you've got 200 scientists who
read science fiction together reading has your influenced you as a scientist? there enters would be somewhere between "heck yeah" and "why are you even asking?" a biologist, got his biology degree here in 1998. develop any number cancer.hts about one of the things we have on display in a case that is mostly about him rather than his collection is his dissertation, which is signed to him by ray bradberry. ray bradberry was one of the greats of the 20th century science fiction. his was always extremely
imaginative about science. one of his great works is "the martian chronicles," which is a series of connected stories about human colonists on mars and what they encounter and what they don't encounter. -- got any of his ideas from ray bradberry, but he is an example of the engagement between the scientific mind and the scientific -- the science fiction appreciating reader. the conversation about ideas, the idea of how you do or don't extrapolate from current circumstances or technology to what might happen or what might huge part ofs a
where science fiction and science come together. anything that asks tough questions or poses tough scenarios, pansy situations -- hands you situations that make you think is important because not becoming complacent is important, not losing your imagination is important. to exercise your imagination, including, what if this thing that is really important to you isn't essential to who you are? ursula le guin did a lot of that. so did philip k dick, so did a whole new ways of science fiction. science fiction has always done that, and in their own ways, the fantasy, horror utopian
narrative has always poked you -- what if this was so? there are people who read science fiction for that, for that what if. there are people who read the science fiction, fantasy, horror utopian narrative for different things. genres, whattive is important to them when they ask the hard questions is they don't let us get complacent, they don't let us get stuck. the thing about science fiction is it keeps you working intellectually, imaginatively. and that is a really important part of being human. we took an riverside, driving tour of the city with a
historical consultant and former director of the riverside metropolitan museum. inthe riverside was founded 1870 shortly after the civil war by a judge who was a radical abolitionist for the war, who was on the nominating committee for abraham lincoln to be the republican candidate for president in 1860. he in fact ran lincoln's ohio campaign in the 1860 presidential election. that colony he founded with like-minded individuals, thei contentr -- their intent was to create a civilized high-level cooperative commonwealth on the edge of the california desert. it lasted for a while. riverside is the result of his work. by 1875, he had wanderlust again and found it only under and --
founded fresno. a citruse developed as town. treesnavel orange introduced here in 197873, and t made the country a prosperous place. we are going to drive up passed california citrus state historic park. i am proud to have been part of the planning for this state park. often we think about real estate, the movies, or oil is what made southern california. really it is citrus first. this state park has over 200 acres of bearing navel orange and late navel orange grows. as far asfully built
the historical structures go, but we are working on that too. interesting how significant the industry was to the state of california, but how it influenced the culture -- the creation of banks, companies, railroads. --is known as sunkist now that was their trademark. grows for the state on contract. this is what old riverside would have looked like when we had acres of navel oranges surrounding the city. it would have been incredible. >> with the orchards growing, how does that -- with the water situation, can you tell us how that may affect the growth of agriculture here? >> yes, i can.
this was a semi-desert here, a semi-arid region. citrus required irrigation. this is not rain-based agriculture. citrus trees, navel oranges especially require what are called 40 minor inches of water per year distributed throughout the year to grow and to reduce a crop. so early on, riversiders and other citrus communities had to develop irrigation systems. this was all watered by the famous gauge canal, which was built beginning in the 1880's and completed at the end of the 1890's by a british syndicate of the waterhouse family, who purchased his 3500 acres of gross and -- of groves and
developed citrus. we are going through the immediate riverside area. you can see this is some suburbanized-- now, but this would have been navel orange. this is the last remaining treat, thel orange one that is covered. university of california-riverside covered in along with the city to protect microscopicny, insect vector that carries a bacteria called the greening disease. it has threatened citrus from all over the world. it is from china. it devastated the florida citrus crop. now we know it is in california. that tree planted in 1873 and now moved to this site is
threatened. if it gets bit by a bacteria bearing insect, it is gone. the university has protected it with mesh. this is the last remaining parent navel orange tree which created the vast citrus industry of california. now,e on mission m avenue originally 7th street. this is an historic district in two ways, it is a national registered district and it overlaps with the mission inn historic district that spreads out away from 7th. of course now we are going fast the historic landmark mission inn, frank miller's own contribution to the city of riverside. it is the largest mission revival structure in california,
maybe the united states. the mission inn has been visited by several presidents who stayed there. ronald and nancy reagan spent their honeymoon night there. theodore roosevelt spent the night in the so-called presidential suite one the mission inn opened. thenext date presided over replanting of one of the two navel orange trees in front of the new glenwood mission inn. it has been the scene of early peace conferences before world war i. international visitors from all over, including asia and europe. quite a significant role played in southern california as their regional hub and national winter resort.
this theft -- is sherman institute? this is sherman institute, one of the last remaining two boarding schools for native americans. that mission style building is the sherman indian museum. in the late 1800s, thanks to helen hunt jackson and others, there was a real move to try to americanize, bring them up to status," that is the native american population who had been residing on reservations. to do that, government reformers felt they had to bring them into boarding schools in the country and teach them english, teaching them skills that could use in society, teach girls what are now stereotypical female skills. the young men, the male skills like carpentry and mechanics,
that sort of thing. not assuming they would ever go to a university. sherman institute was originally established to the southeast of us in the 1890's. frank miller -- because he was a real advocate of the arts and crafts movement, and his hotel redesigned based on the california mission style -- he wanted to get a real mission, or real indian, he thought, to riverside. that is not to denigrate its intent. he was a progressive of his time. he convinced them they should move the sherman institute to riverside. riverside lost its status as an elite city in the early 1970's, but has gained it back again.
it is taking on a more 21st in with thek mixed historic district buildings. now we are reestablishing and refocusing, like a lot of cities are, toward the digital future and clean energy. that building sat vacant for a ang time, and now my friend, chinese entrepreneur, purchased this building. now she manufactures solar panels in this building. >> and it is distributed nationwide? >> distributed nationwide. she even brought a chinese manufacturing line to the u.s. so that these are bona fide u.s. manufactured solar panels. i see riverside as regaining its status as one of the elite cities in southern california. it had been a competitor with
even los angeles before world war ii because of the navel orange culture. while it lost its step for a while, we are regaining status because of the level of our university capacity and clean energy programs and the fact that we own our utility and have our own water and electric generating capacity. averside is now attracting large population of the new generation of millennials. geared to the 21st century and everything about it in its digital capacity and ability to do online trade and online business. i see us headed that way. >> our visit to california is able to the exclusive and we showed it today to introduce you
to the cities tour. for seven years, we have traveled to u.s. cities bringing the boxing to our viewers. our visitsch more of on the span.org/cities tour. next, president trump talking about the government shutdown and butter will -- border while funding. then, chuck shumer on their meeting with the president. then live, your calls on the government shutdown. after meeting with congressional leaders at the white house to discuss border wall funding and the government shutdown, president trump spoke to reporters about the negotiations and a number of other issues. this is just over an hour. announcer: ladies and gentlemen, the president of the united states, accompanied by vice president pence.