tv National Space Council Meeting CSPAN August 25, 2019 2:33am-4:44am EDT
>> on news makers. steven law president of the senior leadership fund. tomorrow at 10:00 a.m. and 6:00 .m. eastern on c-span. >> vice president pence chaired the sixth public meeting of the national space council in chan tilly, virginia. he spoke about the importance of space exploration to public and private sectors. this is two hours and 10 minutes.
>> surrounded here by icons of our nation's highest, proudest achievements in space. the council is ensuring our future achievements are empowered by the past achievements. the things that you will be discussing today will one day be enshrined in this museum. don't forget about us, we need hardware. last month that our museum in washington, at the unveiling of neil armstrong's apollo 11 space suit, vice president pence spoke about the renewed commitment to human spaceflight. here at the national air and space museum, we see evidence of that commitment every day. countless children have stood in this very spot and marveled up at the space shuttle discovery, then turned to their parents, grandparents or teachers to ask how something so big could fly so high. our museum is where the country comes to understand its heritage of adventure and discovery, and to pass that torch on to new generations.
we are at the dawn of a new space age, with a challenge to return to the moon and beyond. the americans who will make those first flights, including the first woman on the moon, and the first humans on mars were not allowed to see our first steps on to another world. we must recapture the energy, scope and complexity of our first moonshot for those who were not born in time to see it, but more are called on now to repeat it. this summer the museum celebrated that bold spirit with a program we called "go for the moon." this involve projecting a full-scale 363 foot saturn five rocket onto the highest point in the nation's capital, the washington monument. it was almost 90 degrees at 9:00 in the morning on july 16, 1969 when the real apollo 11 launched in florida. it was that hot in washington, d.c. at night.
despite the heat, half a million people came out to see our rocket on the national mall. on the night of the 50th anniversary, we re-created the launch in history's most powerful rocket with full light and sound effects. the ground shook and the air glowed red with the flames from the engine. looking at the faces of the children in the crowd, you could tell that they felt the connection to that moment in 1969 when, for the first time in human history, the moon was within reach. and for the children who will stand on this spot later today and marvel at the discovery, the moon is again within their grasp. earlier this year, vice president pence noted that president kennedy called for an american on the moon at the end of the decade will before we knew how to make it happen. it will take that same bold commitment to american ideas and innovations to meet the challenge to return to the moon and on to mars.
we are grateful to vice president pence and the national space council for their leadership and support as we work to educate and inspire a new generation of innovators and explorers. it is now my great pleasure to welcome the chair of the national space council, and a vice president of the united states, the honorable mike pence. [applause] ♪ ♪
[applause] v.p. pence: thank you for that kind introduction. thank you for your tremendous stewardship and your tremendous leadership. will you join me in thanking the doctor for her outstanding -- [applause] v.p. pence: it's all the members of the national space council, to our advisory group, all of whom who very quietly came on stage. they all deserve a big round of applause. they are extraordinary americans taking a difference for american leadership and space. would you join me in thanking them. [applause] v.p. pence: to our gracious host, the smithsonian institution. although men and women here, it -- all the men and women here
at the stephen f. center. is a great honor to be with you today. thank you for your patience today. thank you for your attendance today, and welcome to the sixth meeting of the national space council. it was three years ago that a candidate for president came alongside his new running mate and he said to me, you know this thing called the national space council has laid dormant for more than 25 years and i was wondering if you would like to follow in the tradition of past vice presidents and share a renewed national space council? i looked at him and i said, what i? join me in thinking a leader who is committed to securing america's leadership on earth and in the vast expanse of space. join me in thanking the 45th president of the united states of america. president donald trump. [applause] v.p. pence: his leadership has made a difference. you will he or about that today.
it was nearly two years ago right here at the national air and space museum that we held the first meeting of the national space council. so we could think of no better place to hold our sixth meeting. we are going to reflect on the progress that we have made our administration and how the united states is on track in ur efforts to expand and her -- renew american leadership in space. and really, i can become no better time. no better time to be here and to celebrate the progress of our renewed leadership. because it was one month ago the world paid tribute to three extraordinary american astronauts, the crew of apollo 11, and the 400,000 men and women who stood behind them 50 years ago. it was one small step and one giant leap. [applause]
v.p. pence: and what a great celebration it was. so many of you were a part of it. not only at our nation's capital, but all across the country. it was deeply humbling for me to be able to spend time with many of the men and women, and heroes that made that moment possible. that they secured american leadership in space. as we gather here today we do so recognizing it has been 47 years since the last american set foot on the moon. our great shuttle program, including the space shuttle discovery behind me was grounded nearly a decade ago. the truth is, as all of you know, for too long america was content with low earth orbit and missions focused on the earth's, instead of aiming for the stars. i am proud to report that under president trump's leadership, all of that is changing. as a president said in his inaugural address, we stand at the birth of a new millennium, ready to unlock the mysteries of space.
that's exactly what we are doing. [applause] it's true. after 2 1/2 years turned president's leadership, america is leading in space once again. this president recognizes what the american people have known for half a century. that our security, our prosperity and our very way of life depend on american leadership and american leadership in space. now we acknowledge that low earth orbit is not our final destination but rather it is a training ground for the infinite frontier of space. i can assure you the american people are ready. at the president's direction, we have put an end to budget cuts and decline and renewed
america's commitment to human space education employeration. vowing to go further into space than ever before. in our first year in office, president trump inside space policy directive one making it the national policy of the united states of america to return to the moon and prioritize crude missions to the lunar surface. std one marked a watershed moment in america's space enterprise, and with it president finally gave nasa that clear direction and clear mission that it needed. as he said, we will return american astronauts to the moon for the first time since 1972. for long-term exploration to use not only to plant our flag and leave our footprint, but we will go there to establish a foundation for an eventual mission to mars. [applause] earlier this year president trump made it the policy of
this administration to return to the moon by 2024, and ensure that the next man and the first woman on the moon will be american astronauts. [applause] the artemis mission has already begun. we are well on our way to making nasa's mission to mars a reality. you will hear more about that today. to get nasa ready for this mission, the president signed into law the agency's largest budget ever, and as we speak when working with congress to add an additional $1.6 billion to support our renewed commitment to human space exploration. the space launch system known as sls, the world's most powerful rocket will launch american astronauts toward the moon, will be fully assembled by the end of this year.
last month we marked the capsule complete on the orion capsule. it is the spacecraft that we all know will sit on top of the sls and it will carry the first crewed ship designed to deep space exploration in half a century. and just last week we announced the marshall space flight center in huntsville, alabama will lead development of our new lunar lander, and working with johnson space center in houston, texas, we will ensure that a new generation of astronauts have a state-of-the-art vessel to reach the lunar surface safely and return by 2024. we are going to get it done. [applause]
in fact, administrator bridenstine told me that with strong congressional support that we have got, we can actually start bending metal on the lander in the next year. whatever that means. [applause] i'm proud to report also we've empowered our commercial partners. in recent months spacex successfully docked its automated crew dragon capsule at the international space station. blue origin tested engine for its own lunar lander, and boeing is working hard to launch its first crewed vehicle by the end of this year. and working with our industry leaders, before the year is out, the united states will once again send american astronauts into space from american rockets from american soil. [applause] so we're making great progress, but we have new ambitions in his still new century.
america's not only going to return to the moon, but we're going to return there with new objectives. because unlike a half a century ago, this time our objective will be to establish a permanent presence on the lunar surface. from there we will develop the capabilities to journey to the red planet of mars. in order for us to take the next big leap toward the martian surface, you all here know that we have to demonstrate that we can live on the moon for months and even years. we are to learn how to make use of all available resources to sustain human life and all our activities in space, including by mining the vast quantities of life-sustaining water that's frozen in ice on our lunar poles. and once we return to the moon we are going to develop the technologies to live and thrive in a multi-month expedition at its south pole. using what we learn on the moon, will bring us closer to the day as the president said that american astronauts will plant the stars and stripes on the surface of mars. [applause] in fact, within the last year, american technology touched
down once again on martian soil as all of the world witnessed the insight mission touched down and marked our eighth successful landing on mars. and even now the men and women at nasa are hard at work identifying those areas of the red planet that would be most suitable for human exploration. we are not only planning to go. we are preparing to go. much like the apollo missions when our space program relied on tools and methods that didn't exist when the mission was established, achieving our ambitious goals will depend on innovative technologies including those that our panelists are going to talk about today. but unlike during apollo, this time our efforts will not rely entirely on government action. instead we will go forward into that bright future with the strong support of our private partners and international allies. already nasa is working with industry leaders to develop plans for the lunar gateway, a critical outpost and refueling station that will help us develop the technologies, test
systems and train the astronauts for the first ever crewed journey to mars. our moon to mars mission is on track, and america is leading in human space exploration again. don't you doubt it. [applause] as we will also talk about, under the president's leadership, we've also unleashed america's commercial space industry as never before. as the president said memorably not long ago, rich guys love rockets. we have taken steps to make it possible for american entrepreneurs to invest and to help america develop the technologies that will carry american leadership into space. as secretary ross will no doubt reflect again today, we are streamlining the licensing regimes that oversee launch, reentry and new operations in space. e are removing unnecessary
regulations that have increased costs and stifled innovation. all of that's happened over the last two and half years. we've encouraged a more stable and orderly space environment by developing the world's first comprehensive space traffic management policy. and as we have restored confidence in the opportunities of space, we've helped drive incredible economic growth. just two years ago, the satellite industry alone generated some $350 billion in revenue. and studies predict that number will increase to more than $1 trillion annually in the next two decades. and more than ever, space is recognized as the industry of the future. in the first half of this year, we have seen almost as much invested in space companies as we did in the entire year before. in fact, in the last decade in the last decade, more than $22 billion has been has been invested in nearly 500 different space companies. and i'm proud to say the majority of those investments have been made in american pace businesses.
america is leading in public and private investment. [applause] but as we all know as we lead in human space exploration, as we lead an american innovation and leadership in space, we also must lead in security. for the sake of our security both are on earth and in the heavens above, president trump's direction, we are working with congress as we speak to stand up a new branch of our armed forces. and soon congress will approve and the president will sign the sixth branch of the armed forces of the united states, the united states space force. [applause] as the president has said, we all recognize, it has been frankly true for decades, in his words space is a war
fighting domain. united states space force will ensure that our nation is prepared to defend our people, to defend our interests, and to defend our values in the vast expanse of space and here on earth with the technologies that will support our common defense from the vast reaches of outer space. next week we will formally stand up a new unified combatant command. it will be known as united states space command. and i am pleased announce that we will recognize its new leader, 4-star air force general john raymond will be the first lead of the united states space command. [applause] hank you, general. and, and before i move on from general raymond, let me mention another general who is with us
here today. general joe dunford, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. he has served this nation throughout his long career in uniform with extraordinary distinction. he has played a critical role in ensuring the national defense of the united states, and he will be concluding his duties as chairman of the joint chiefs of staff in the months ahead. and would you all mind getting on your feet and just showing how much we appreciate the extraordinary life and career and leadership of general joe dunford? [applause] thank you, general. thank you for service and thank
you for your leadership. particularly on the matters pertaining to american leadership in space. it is a historic contribution, and i know the president feels as i do that we would not be at this historic moment without your leadership and your support. later this morning we are going to hear more about our administration's progress toward a new unified defense agreement to defend america's national security space assets and also ensure our collective defense. but for all that we have accomplished, the greatest triumphs of american leadership in space still lie ahead, and you will hear about those plans today. the national space council today will send new policy recommendations to the president that will help drive even greater cooperation between our government, our commercial partners, and like-minded nations across the world, nations that share our values of democracy, freedom and the rule of law. we will build on the success of the international space station international space station by
working with our friends and allies to support a moon landing in 2024, to develop sustainable long-term lunar surface operations, and to build a spacecraft that will carry us to mars. we will also continue to unleash the creative powers of america's commercial space enterprise. this council will recommend today steps that will encourage innovation and ensure american companies have a level playing field they need to compete and win in space. and we will continue to transform nasa into a leaner, more accountable and more agile organization. isn't that right, jim? >> yes, sir. mr. pence: good. we'll make it easier than ever to recruit and retain the world's brightest scientists, engineers and managers and will hit our goals, and we will make new american history in space. president trump tasked the national space council with reigniting and reinvigorating the american space program, and i'm humbled and proud at the same time to say that's exactly what this team has done. and that's what we're going to continue to do with the support
of so many of you gathered here today. as president trump said, in his words, it is america's destiny to be the leader amongst nations on our adventure into the great unknown. that's why the national space council was reconstituted, and that's what brought us here today. while the task before us involved hardship and hazard, sacrifice and perseverance, we know with the men and women of apollo 11 knew 50 years ago, and that is simply this. that americans can accomplish anything we set our minds to. and america will lead the world back into the vast expanse of space. [applause] so thank you all for being here today. we are grateful to the members of national space council, our advisory group, all the experts
and industry leaders who are joining us here today. and i look very much forward to our dialogue and our discussion, and, and the support that i see in this room, the support that i hear from not only people involved in the great space enterprise across this country, but from everyday americans from every walk of life, convinces me that we've only just begun to renew american leadership in space. so thank you all, thank you all for your support. thank you for your presence here today. let's get to work. [applause]
>> well, thank you everyone. thank you for your kind attention. we're going to get right down to business. we are joined today here at the udvar-hazy center. and let's give the smithsonian another round of applause, will you? this is a spectacular place that inspires the imagination of americans every day. [applause] in addition to all the members of the national space council, we're joined by a number of distinguished guests in the audience, and i want to thank each and every one of you for being with us today. it's hard for me to look around this room and not recognized virtually everyone in every seat, and yet this is just a small sampling, isn't it, jim, of the incredible leadership of america's public and private space enterprise. so give yourself a round of applause. we are grateful you are here. [applause]
today's meeting of the national space council will provide updates from our council members on ongoing work to help secure american leadership in space. we are going to hear from scientists and industry leaders about innovations that will drive the next era of human space exploration. we are going to discuss a new set of recommendations as i mentioned in my formal remarks. to begin with i'd like to ask dr. mary lynne dittmar, who is president of the coalition for deep space exploration, to bring us some updates on our user advisory group activities at the last meeting in march. mary lynne, we appreciate your extraordinary leadership and career. join me in thanking all of the user advisory group, many of whom are in the front row, for their contributions to the national space council. thank you, all. would you won't mind standing up? take about. bow.ke a
[applause] doctor, quick report on this group. >> mr. vice president, distinguished members of the national space council, thank you for inviting me to provide an update on the activities of the advisory group. as you will know, the objectives, scope of activities, and descriptions are defined in datedes, executive order, december 6, 2017 & by the acting nasa administrator. while we are administratively ua gered under nasa functions exclusively in an independent advisory capacity to the national space council, reporting to you. mr. vice president, you have repeatedly challenged us to function as a think tank for the national space council in addition to the advisory role spelled out in the title.
it is intended to be a conduit for new ideas and offers sometimes differing but hopefully constructive commentary on conventional wisdom which we often note is sometimes too conventional. organizationally, it is divided into six subcommittees that reflect the priorities you and the chairman discussed prior to its formation. in the months since the meeting we have gathered to review the tasks he gave us this year. the subcommittee is structuring a one-time review of the newly named artemis program, focusing on its architecture, technical planning, organizational structure, and leadership. the fact that they chair the budget council will ensure that the ua jew draws on the work of that nasa committee while offering independent advice to you where appropriate. as you know, admiral ellis is
chairman of the national security subcommittee and leads -- this isroup respective of the organizational structure and functionality of the emerging space force. review, theye received a high-level classified briefing for the department of defense in the intelligence community on the process of progress of limitation planning in anticipation of pending congressional action. , cochair ofleague the economic development and industrial subcommittee. we are first assessing how best issues,e spectrum including both process and content in this critical area. we are also considering regulatory process reforms to move beyond nasa and accelerating the economic development of low earth orbit and beyond. pam milroy leads the technology
innovation subcommittee. the committee is focused on assessing the status of the national space exploration roadmap, specifying states technology to be compared and timelines that must be met. the result of that review will determine if it is required. they chair the you ag subcommittee on outreach and education and we will say more on that in a minute. we are committed to developing reputations. she has begun to draw speakers from the national committee of state legislators and from universities with nasa involvement to gain a broader perspective on education and workforce issues. the final group of space policy and international engagement is led by dr. david wolf, astronaut, space walker, medical doctor, electrical engineer.
will include a review of the current evolving national space policy, behavioral norms, and technical standards affecting international space cooperation. we have planned a session with the department of state to ensure that we understand the administration goals and objectives in the diplomatic arena. separately, as the user advisory group enters its second year, we are reviewing the organizational chart for potential updates to better design the organizational structure and to streamline work processes. we believe and know from discussions with you that you agree, that an ongoing active role is important to the police -- to the success for a whole of government strategy. we were impaneled to represent all users of space and members
have participated in major domestic and international space conjunction with a wonderful nationwide celebration of the apollo 11 anniversary. we will continue to serve as the eyes and ears of the national scientists and engineers, students and teachers, experienced veterans at all levels, and importantly the up-and-coming new generation of space professionals. youvice president, thank for this update opportunity. wherever we go at home or abroad we see a new energy and new vitality in the space community. we appreciate the focus you in the national space council have brought to our role in space and we look forward to continuing to support your efforts and to our shared contributions to the future of the space enterprise. i will be pleased to take any questions. >> great, thank you.
i don't see him through the bright lights, but the chairman of the user advisory group -- i don't know if he is with us today, but if you could give him a big round of applause. [applause] the admiral in the whole team, anything having to do with the reports that were made. and thanks to all the members of the user advisory group for outstanding work. i am going to recognize our secretary of commerce, wilbur involved ins been working on space traffic management, regulatory reform,
almost as excited about american innovation and space as the president and me. join me in thanking the secretary of commerce for his great leadership. [applause] you, vice president pence, for the opportunity to update the national space council on space activities at the department of congress. were 114, there government and private space launches worldwide, the first time in three decades that number exceeded 100. launches,ad 31 including a record number of commercial launches. countries have now entered the space industry, often playing under different rules from what we have. these countries realize that
space is a strategic industry that creates a highly tactical workforce with spinoff technologies and economic growth. this was evident at the paris air show, which highlighted u.s. leadership but also made clear the substantial efforts of foreign government back entities to surpass us. revenuesace industry are now commercial. we intend to keep the united states as the flag of choice, as the global space industry moves from 415 billion of revenues to one trillion within the next 20 years. is commerce department actively pursuing this space traffic management goals outlined in space policy directive three.
our strong partnership with the department of defense will modernize space situational awareness capabilities. executive, the senior with experience in both defense and space commerce, leads the commerce department landing team at the 18th space control squadron. helpoint efforts will avoid the destructive impact of space debris, even as space activities grow more complex and global in nature. 2019sponse to our april, rfi, more than 50 academic and industry partners submitted creative ideas to limit the creation of new space debris,
through satellite design, improved ssa, and early mission the order. roleommerce department's is critically important, given the plans of commercial industry to launch thousands of mass-produced satellites in constellation. commerce is developing an open a repositoryto be for space debris information. this will allow us to prevent conjunction notifications to the u.s. and global commercial space industries in the near future. the new repository will incorporate private-sector innovations to track and avoid space debris, and that in turn will facilitate new commercial space services.
under space policy directive regulations,nate we are revising remote-sensing and export control rules. we have received extensive feedback from u.s. companies in the fast developing and extremely competitive global market for remote-sensing. our immediate goal is the new draft rule that encourages domestic innovation while ensuring global competitiveness in market leadership of american companies. commerce is working with the state department and other agencies to review public comments on our much proposed rule so we can issue a final rule this fall. added industry day i hosted in
need toe disgusted the maintain export controls with some countries while streamlining them for others. within the commerce department, we have reestablished the office of space commerce that had been dormant for decades. it is the only u.s. government entity charged with pursuing the unique interests of the commercial space industry. commercial industry has said repeatedly that it needs an advocate, a one-stop shop, in its dealings with both u.s. government and foreign government. we continue to work within the administration and with congress to establish a bureau of space commerce that will give commerce the resources needed to execute the space council's directives.
thank you, mr. vice president. i look forward to our discussion. >> thank you very much, mr. secretary. you can give the secretary around of applause. [applause] thank you so much for your tremendous efforts, and i want to offer my congratulations. you mentioned the work in april and the space enterprise summit cash thank you. hope that our private industry partners see the tremendous commitment to the president in to department of commerce enlivening private investment development. i will ask members of the panel to throw questions at the secretary, but a quick question -- the new commercial remote-sensing regulations are being developed at commerce.
can you speak about when those will be completed? >> we think by the end of october we should have that work completed. >> outstanding. any other questions from members of the panel for the secretary of commerce? ok, we are very grateful. thank you so very much for all of your remarks. i would like to recognize the administrator of nasa, jim bridenstine, who has become a great friend of mine. he's a great champion for american leadership in space. was given a charge by the president of the united states to return americans to the moon the firstnd make sure astronauts on mars are americans . i know i speak on behalf of the president when i appreciate the
energy you brought to this effort. we should not be terribly surprised that an f-18 pilot was ready to move out and move out quickly, but join me and thanking the administrator of nasa for his tremendous efforts. we look forward to your report. [applause] thank you so much, mr. vice president. it is an honor to serve in this position. just yesterday, i was at the white house, briefing members of the national security council on our plans to go to the moon and onto mars, and while i was there, victoria coates brought in a box of m&ms. m&ms,are president trump not just any m&ms. i said what is that all about? mars.idm and m, moon and make sure you show this to everybody and let them know, because we are going to mars.
the president has been very clear, we will put an american flag on mars. so mr. vice president, thank you for the m&ms. a couple things that are important to note. since you so importantly gave us that charge back in march, a number of things have changed, and i will go through one at a time. you mentioned low earth orbit. that's a great opportunity for us to figure out how to do things commercially. we have commercial crew on the brink of being ready. we have commercial resupply already resupplying the international space station, and recently we announced we have some objectives to achieve a more commercial neighbor, creating the demand side and the supply side. on the demand side we are looking at two lines of effort that we believe could have major
breakthroughs for activities in low earth orbit, starting with industrialized biomedicine, and advanced materials. if we can do experiment after experiment iterating one after the other i believe in the next three to seven years we could have a strong breakthrough that will result in demand for access to low earth orbit. that is going to take an effort and a change of philosophy on how we utilize the international space station. it is also true, mr. vice president, that just a few short months ago we announced we are doing things to increase supply of activities in low earth orbit. we are going to make available commercial crew seats for industry. can take space, whether it is researchers or manufacturers or even tourists, to the international space station. we also want to make the international space station itself available for more people
with additional habitation, using the port for commercial operations on the international space station, and each of these activities will increase supply while at the same time working really hard to generate demand with an eventual effort, and of course we have procurement underway that we are interested in seeing what industry can provide, but we want to have free flyers in low earth orbit that are commercial in nature. these are things you're striving for. but remember why we are commercializing and i think this is important for everybody -- why are we commercializing? we want to use the resources that the taxpayers give to us to go to the moon, following space policy directive moon, to go sustainably with commercial and international partners, to utilize the resources on the moon as life support. how do we live for months on
another planetary body so that ultimately we can take all that knowledge onto mars? what we do in low earth orbit matters because we want to go to the moon and onto mars. interestingly, just last week, i was at the assembly facility in new orleans, and i know, mr. vice president, you have been keenly focused on the rocket. i will tell you what i saw. it is 4/5 complete, i'd say it is over 90% at this point. the engine section was on the critical path. he removed the engine section, we integrated the rest of the rocket horizontally. it is a beautiful thing to see in the horizontal. this weekend next week we will be integrating the engine section into the rest of the rocket and by the end of this year we will move that rocket out of the factory and test it. [applause]
it was exciting to see that and thell tell you, not just first sls, but the hardware for the second is already being put into place and will start to be assembled very soon as well. very exciting times down at the assembly facility. month,e there just last when you announced the orion crew capsule with european service module. we are very close to shipping that to plum brook station where it will be tested with vacuum testing. all of those very exciting activities are underway. nasa/-- thee the last national space council gone toward the pilot propulsion element, solar electric propulsion in orbit around the moon.
that is a great development. and the reason i was able to go so fast is because of the charge to be ready by 2024, to land not just the next man but also the first woman on the south pole of the moon. that charge is really what change the dynamic, that acquisition element. we are movingy, as fast as we can, rapid acquisition of a small habitation module. that is not the long-term solution but it will get astronauts from the orion into olander and land on the surface of the moon. last week we announced the lander will be managed out of the marshall space flight center, and it is absolutely true that the johnson space center will be very involved, certainly when it comes to environmental control and life support systems.
there's no place better when it comes to human and machine interface. and when it comes to mission planning, there's a lot of visibility both at marshall and that johnson to get this national project underway. as you are aware, mr. vice president, in the last months since the national space council, we also named the program artemis. i think that is a significant milestone. it was you who wrote the speech yourself and you said we will put the first woman on the moon. you, that has energized so many people, my daughter included, was 11 years old, who wants to be a teacher right now but she is certainly excited about landing a woman on the moon. apollo, and we had it just so happens that in greek the fellow g apollo had a twin
sister, bernie was artemis, the goddess of the moon. this time we go with a very diverse, highly qualified astronaut corps that includes women, and it is long overdue. we are very excited about that. [applause] and i think it is important to remember the moon to morris. when we think about what we're doing next, the reason the gateway is so important is that it is absolutely a gateway to the surface of the moon and we also evil -- it is the ball. it is an opportunity for us to take humans deeper into space that we have ever gone before in human history and that is our ship to get to mars. and if we have the right investments today with advanced propulsion -- i know we will
hear about nuclear thermal propulsion and the ability to do entry dissent landing with 20 into then payloads martian atmosphere and onto the martian surface. that are investments not much more than what we are already spending and we can put together a robust mars plan. so mr. vice president, things have changed and we are moving rapidly under your direction in the direction of president trump. >> thank you. [applause] [no audio] much, thanksvery for that great report. energeticnks for your and enthusiastic leadership. the m&ms backake
to the president right after you sign it. he will know even better that you got the message. that is worth your numbering. this is the director of the science and technology, the ournistrator just mentioned efforts to update the approval process for launching space nuclear power sources. he has a report for us on that. give us some words on the progress. >> thank you very much, mr. vice president. a pleasure and honor to be here with you today. as we embark on the new generation of missions you so eloquently described in your remarks, this time we go to stay. the challenges this evening a persistent human presence on space, staying there will require the development and application of a wide range of technologies, including
lightweight and long-lasting energy sources that can support human life and exploration activities in the most austere and inhospitable environments. over many decades, as we will hear from mr. jim, nasa has relied on space nuclear systems on the moon, on mars, and in the outer solar system, and also for other missions where alternative power sources have been inadequate. some of these environments are too dark for solar power or are too far away to carry sufficient supplies of chemical fuel. in the donning era of american exploration, nuclear power sources remain critical to the full realization of our scientific and exploration objectives. for modest power needs, thermal generators can use the energy of radioactive decay to generate electricity for decades. but for higher power needs, small nuclear reactors can provide heating and electricity
and spacecraft propulsion needs. if we look forward and outward, we must ensure that america can safely develop nuclear space systems and enhance our ability for space exploration, are operational capabilities, and the potential for increased commercial space activities, as the administrator just mentioned. the office ofo, science and technology policy began reviewing space launch policy, and as i reported at the march meeting, that o stp review led to the creation of an interagency working group cochaired by our colleagues at the national space council. that working group mandate was to develop recommendations to establish risk informed processes for establishing systems that are funded or licensed by the federal government. our primary objective is to ensure we have an effective nuclear safety analysis conducted prior to the launch of
any space nuclear system. in doing that, we want to leverage past experience wherever we can. to that end, we must provide clear guidelines to launch approval authorities and ensure that launch safety is maintained. we also want to maintain a positive response and positive safety analysis and launch authorization process that is forward-looking. it allows the federal government and the private sector to effectively use space nuclear systems as we returned to the moon and venture far beyond. finally, we seek to strengthen the existing process for launching space nuclear systems in ways that will better ensure rigorous, risk informed safety assessments without expensive redundancy or wasted time and cost. so at the council's urging since last march, we've continued these reviewed activities, in close cooperation with the national security council we have finalized a set of recommendations we believe meet the objectives i just outlined.
we ask the council approve these recommendations for updating the existing process to launch the spacecraft containing space nuclear systems. in closing i would, like to reiterate a point i made last week, ensuring a rigorous launch safety process is essential to using space nuclear systems, but we can't stop there. moving forward, we must also focus on ensuring that we sustain the skills, here in america, to develop the technologies needed to provide space nuclear systems that are ready to propel and power future american spacecraft. i look forward to working with all of you in implementing this and other policy initiatives that will be necessary for sustaining and strengthening american leadership in space. thank you very much, mr. vice president, for your leadership and for your support. thank you, sir. [applause] mr. pence: we're going to move
on to national security issues in a moment. i'm going to ask of the members of the panel to submit your reports in writing, with one exception. steven bradbury is the general counsel to the department of transportation, and the president and i couldn't be more grateful to secretary elaine chao for the energetic efforts that dot has made to update regulations regarding space launch, and with our commitment that invigorating and continuing to see the private space enterprise develop. i wanted to recognize steven bradbury for a quick update on department of transportation activities. steven.
mr. bradbury: thank you, mr. vice president, members of the space council and distinguished guests. on behalf of secretary chao, i'm pleased to update the council of the department of transportation efforts to streamline the licensing of commercial space launches and re-entries, and on d.o.t.'s activities regarding satellite-based navigation. first, on april 15 of this year, in accordance with the president's space policy directive two, the department of transportation with the faa published a notice of proposed rulemaking for a major streamlining of faa's commercial space launch and reentry regulations. this proposal represents a great deal of work by many people at the faa and in the office of secretary. and it was produced in near record time. it was developed with input from experts in the faa, the commercial space industry, and other departments and agencies across the federal government. consistent with the president's instructions, the proposed rule would replace outdated prescriptive requirements with more flexible performance-based criteria. it would allow us to license different types of commercial space operations and vehicles to a single streamlined set of procedures. and it would dramatically reduce the size and complexity of the
faa's commercial space licensing regulations. dot has received comments on the rule from dozens of individuals including 15 submissions asking more than 100 clarifying questions. which the faa has endeavored to address in the public rulemaking record. it's obvious the proposed rule has generated a lot of interest and a lot of questions. to allow for greater input, the department extended the public comment to 126 days and just closed yesterday, august 19. also in response to industry requests for face to face input, the faa held a series of meetings with individual commercial space operators and their representatives. faa honored all requests and met with representatives from blue origin, spacex, virgin galactic, virgin orbit, boeing, lockheed martin, united launch alliance, and the coalition for deep space exploration. dot publish a synopsis in the
sessions in the public docket. the faa's digesting the comments and information we received and will be hard at work over the coming months to address concerns and consider potential revisions to improve the final rule. we are committed to achieving a licensing framework that enables flexibility and innovation in operations, including where appropriate by relying on advisory circulars and on methods of compliance developed operators in lieu of prescriptive rules. our goal is to publish a final rule by early fall of next year. we are confident this rulemaking will bolster america's leadership in the commercial space sector through a smarter, more efficient licensing process, one that lowers the burden and cost of regulatory compliance while ensuring protection of life, property, and national security. now let me turn briefly to
satellite-based navigation. under national security presidential directive 39, issued in december 2004, the united states is committed to developing, maintaining, and modernizing the global positioning system, or gps, and other satellite-based navigation systems, including backup capabilities in the event of a disruption to gps. a recent study funded by the department of commerce found that gps has enabled more than $1.4 trillion in economic benefits since 1983, and that a 30-day loss of gps could cause $30 billion in economic harm and have serious safety of life implications. spd 39 gives dot lead responsibility over the full range of civil uses of gps, and along with dot it makes dot coach of the national space base position navigation and timing executive committee.
through this we're working , closely with dhs and other federal departments and agencies to address policy and technical issues, including the security of resilience of gps receivers. in light of the critical importance of gps, dot has asked for submissions from technology vendors, interest in providing gps backup technologies, and we are now organizing field demonstrations of those technologies. another way to protect gps service is real-time monitoring of satellite signals to ensure they meet the necessary performance standards, and we are providing funding to the air force to support that monitoring. and working closely with the commerce department, ntia and the fcc, dot conducted a gps adjacent band study to measure levels of tolerance and interference from adjacent band radiofrequency systems. the study results show we need strong, consistent policies to ensure rf protection for satellite-based navigation. let me close by emphasizing that for the secretary and all of us at the department of
transportation, our participation in supporting the objectives of national space council is among our highest priorities. by coordinated the efforts of all the members of the space council, we can achieve tremendous benefits for the american people and our national economy. thank you. mr. pence: great, thank you very much. great report, sir. give the secretary our best. great. and i can attest to the secretary's enthusiasm, and we are very, very grateful for the efforts. one last time before we go to national security. we actually asked the deputy secretary of energy to be here. the department of energy is actually not a part of the national space council but is doing so much important work in the space.
we wanted, we wanted secretary perry and your team to be represented here, so to the deputy secretary, dan, maybe you could summarize your testimony, and then will move international security. give a round of applause for the department of energy. they have really been leaning in on this. thank you, dan. [applause] >> thank you, mr. vice president, for the invitation to share a few thoughts with the space council. it's a personal honor for me to be here with such a distinguished group of individuals who are continuing to work on america's resurgence on the next great frontier. because this is my first participation with one of your meetings, my comments at a high level. i provided with each of you a summit with the department's historical contribution to the space program. i want to be clear, mr. vice
president, that the department sees space as a very important and strategic focus for our department. d.o.e. is your partner in innovation, in exploration, and in excellence. our predecessor organization of the atomic energy commission was a key collaborator during the apollo missions, and we are eager to join you in returning americans to the moon, establishing a permanent base there, and then developing the technologies that are needed to send us to mars and far beyond. secretary perry likes to say that given the breadth of our efforts, d.o.e. stands for the department of everything. and there's a lot of truth to that. there's no question. d.o.e.'s 17 national laboratories discovered dark energy. we helped kickstart the development of the world wide web, accelerated america's ongoing energy revolution and for today's conversation powered the spacecraft that go through other planets. i would argue doe also stands for the department of exploration. we are proud to have partnered with nasa and other members of the space council and other endeavors for almost 60 years, scientists at our national
laboratories have built the rtg, the radio isotopic generator mentioned by doctor droegemeier a few minutes ago. those have powered the deep space missions like pioneer and voyager, pathfinder, the curiosity, and casino and new horizons. we have provided detectors and sensors for studying earth and space, and our user facilities engaged in a large range of space related research for modeling plasmas and testing materials for radiation hardness, to analyzing comet and asteroid samples. last year we joined nasa, an event devoted to tough challenges here on earth and in space, and we collaborated on the crusty experiment which is a strange acronym kilowatt reactor , using sterling technology, but despite the funny acronym, under this project we demonstrated heat conversion concepts that will provide the design basis for efficient power systems on the surface of mars. the effort was so successful
that in may it received the gears of government presidents award for making a profound difference in the lives of american people. today we are working with nasa on a number of major initiatives to enable nuclear power space exploration over the next decade, and these includes the mars 2020 rover and -- and these include powering the mars 2020 rover and developing the dragonfly which in the 2030's will explore saturn's moon titan. we are exploring other frontiers which may be of importance to the space exploration. those are xo scale computing and artificial intelligence. our laboratories are home to many of the world's festus supercomputers including four of the top ten and the world's fastest, and we are working on developing three exoscale machines that will launch us into the next generation of computing power. ai technologies at our national laboratories are already being used for many applications from cyber security to better treatments for cancer to traumatic brain injury.
we look forward to applying these capabilities to the many challenges that come with deep space exploration, but by working with our interagency partners, private industry and members of the space counsel, we can push the boundaries, we can overcome greater challenges, we can dream bigger and reach further. i'm confident we will see more spacecraft exploring the great frontier, and they will be enabled by the department of energy, and they will be destined for greatness. it is our sincere desire to be of service to you. in your service to our nation. thank you, mr. vice president. [applause] >> thank you so much. we have our panel forward and i encourage members of the space
counsel to take a look at the recommendations we will be certifying in the course of our meeting today. my duties will take me back to the white house with a departure in about 40 minutes. so we will work through that. if there are questions related to our recommendations we urge you to look into them. moving to national security we are honored to be joined on this fifth day on the job by general joe mcguire, the acting director of national intelligence but he brings with him an extraordinary background of military service and service to the country. join me in welcoming joe mcguire. good to have you. [applause] >> members of the council, thank you for allowing me to update you on the threats we face in
space where we are in the task you should buy the president representing the intelligence community and the department of defense to look for ways to increase our effectiveness in space operations. everyone here this morning knows the us and our allies have vital interest in space including military, commercial and scientific. however, these interests are increasingly threatened as china and russia develop to deal destructive weapons placing us and allied space systems at risk. some examples china has deployed a ground-based missile intended to target and destroy satellites in low earth orbit. russia has a similar system in development that will likely be operational in the next few years. china is pursuing weapons capable of destroying satellites up to geosynchronous earth orbit. russia has fielded a ground-based later weapon that
can blind or damage our space-based sensors. in addition china and russia have established a dedicated space force, both countries view the capability to attack space systems and services as part of a broader effort to deter or defeat an adversary in combat. in short the threat to us and allied space systems continues to grow unabated. turning to the president's task, february 19th of this year the president signed space policy director floor which established the requirement for the space force, the directors also stated the secretary of defense and the director of national intelligence shall create and enhance mechanisms for
collaboration between the department of defense and the united states intelligence community. in order to increase unity of effort and effectiveness of our space operations. in response to this presidential directive the intelligence community and the department of defense leadership created a working group consistent of representatives from 14 organizations and the part of defense and intelligence community. this team generated over 50 recommendations how dod and the ic can increase collaboration and improve our space operations posture. the best of those recommendations are being concluded, the report presented to the president which is final coordination and review. i will summarize the highlights. for years, debate about how the nro, military space organizations can work. early in this task we recognize the proposed establishment of us space command provides us with the opportunity to determine the
appropriate level of integration between the intelligence community and dod to assure effective space operations. i'm pleased to tell you after months of analysis and deliberations the intelligence community and the department of defense of agreed to align us space command and the nro into a new unified defense concept of operations with the national defense sector. as part of us space command, the national defense center is a joint dod intelligence community organization and will become the center of gravity for defending our vital interests in space. for the first time it will be a unified structure that fully integrates intelligence community and see part of defense, space defense plans, authorities, and capabilities, to ensure seamless execution of space defense systems. furthermore should conflict extend to space the nro will take direction from the commander of us space command and execute defensive operations based on a jointly developed playbook and informed by a series of exercises.
i want to commend space command and nro leadership for their thoughtful and innovative work is to develop this new approach and assure this committee and the american people that adversaries challenge us in space, they will face a truly unified national security team. thank you again, mr. vice president and members of this committee for allowing me to update you on vital reforms which will increase our joint effectiveness and assure we remain safe in space. [applause] mr. pence: great start, asked -- excellent report. next we are going to go to the acting secretary of the air force, matt donovan and then i will ask general dunford to bring closing remarks before we move on to our panel but thank you, we are accustomed to the launch of the united states space force. it will be the sixth branch of our armed forces. let me say to you and the team
at the air force how grateful we are for the tremendous partnership you and secretary wilson have had in bringing this day about. >> thank you, mr. vice president. good morning, ladies and gentlemen, and thank you, mr. vice president for chairing this meeting, your strong leadership has been a unifying voice in the national discussion on space. it is an honor to recognize the department of defense for the meeting. our nation needs the united states space force to guarantee our preeminence in the space domain. it must be a new service to unleash its full potential. of the congressional defense authorizing conference for fiscal year 2020 national defense authorization act, you need them to take the necessary steps to fully establish the united states space force as a separate and fully equal branch of the armed forces in the
department of defense. the house and senate provisions addressing the administration's proposal differ in several ways. they agree on two important points, a new organization is required to retain american dominance in space and it will reside within the department of the air force. the key component is reforming title x of the united states code. this will provide the necessary legal authority for the space force to organize, train and equip ready forces for our war fighting combatant commanders. without modifications to title x the current legislative provisions do not provide all the necessary authority to establish a separate service and sixth branch of the us armed forces. the department is fully engaged with the defense authorizing committee to ensure the final language explicitly includes the united states space force as an
armed force with necessary authorities in title x and thereby codifying it alongside its sister services in this bedrock law. this new service will reside within the department of the air force, does not mean it is solely an air force effort. each service has its own cadre of space experts with a keen sense of how space affects their unique domains and they should begin the opportunity to contribute to this important event in our history. to be truly effective the united states space force must integrate with larger national security space efforts collaborating across the whole of government. we will do this by consolidating the dod's finest space professional and uniting, the common service with a common mission. as part of this effort last
spring the department of defense established space developed and agency using streamlined acquisition authority and focus on rapid development, space developed agency is poised to synchronize the development and fielding of new military space capabilities. the space developed agency recently held its first industry day as it seeks public-private partnerships to incorporate commercial innovation and technology into the future of national defense space architecture. this agility and responsiveness will be hallmarks of the united states space force which is white is critical to transition space developed agency into the new service after it is established. the administration will stand up the space command, war fighting command responsible for military space operations, fully
supported by the congress who unanimously confirm general raymond, the space command will be charged with defending our critical space assets from the increasing threats posed by potential adversaries while providing crucial space operations to support military operations on land coming in the air and at sea. ladies and gentlemen, now is an exciting time for america's future in space, the space force will be a 21st-century service designed for the information age. we are committed to building a flat, agile and rapid organization that will be the pathfinder for modern military service. we will continue to work closely with congress to bring this historic establishment to reality in reasonable, responsible and most importantly effective manner. the department of defense is ready, the part of the air force
is ready, and america is ready for the united states space force. we must act now to ensure we retain our technological and military advantage in the 21st century and beyond. thank you very much, mister vice president. mr. pence: thank [applause] thank you for your leadership as acting secretary. for your tremendous collaboration on this historic endeavor. i want to amplify one point, and china and russia have established their own space forces in recent years and donald trump's vision and imperative they can have issue, grateful for your strong partnership. no one, no one to whom we are more grateful than the chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. i have asked them to reflect on this broad topic and general
dunford, thank you again for your active participation in the launch of the united states space force and for your tremendous leadership and joint chiefs, your recognize. >> thank you, the vice president, secretary donovan's book at the space force. this initiative is a positive impact on growing the capabilities we are going, like secretary donovan, the focus a single service will bring to bear has a profound difference. and and when the vice president -- as the vice president mentioned in his open remarks, when the vice president resides over the ceremony we will immediately assign 87 units under a single combatant commander. the step will put us on it have
to maintain competitive advantage on -- as the president described it in this critical war fighting domain. when general raymond assumes command, he brings together capabilities that include missile warning, satellite operations, space control, and space support. members of the council, the mr. vice president direction is , clear, we understand it and we are moving out. mr. pence: thank you very much. thank you so much. [applause] i will ask of a panel to come forward. we will move quickly through the balance of the program. members of the panel. please make your way to the stage. our first panel is rexjeveiden who will speak about the use of nuclear power in space but he is here also because he's a 17 year
veteran of nasa and served as chief operating officer, great to have you here. our second panel is doctor clive neil who will provide an overview of literary sources, -- lunar resources. he is professor of planetary geology at the university of notre dame in the great state of indiana. and -- thank you. somebody said go irish out there. he has also helped train our current class of nasa astronauts. we are grateful that you are here. dr. mark will be speaking to us as world renowned leader in women's health. and advisor to nasa, hhs, office of science and technology, as we launch the artemis mission, as
the administrator said, what is today a diverse core of astronauts we will send to the moon and mars, grateful to have doctor mark's reflections hear about the human factors in spaceflight. and finally, rounding out the panel is dr. elizabeth title, planetary scientist with johns hopkins will share space given innovation with robotic exploration efforts to participate in the galileo mission to jupiter, the casino the mission to saturn and i want to offer congratulations to you as the selection of the dragonfly mission, join me in welcoming this outstanding panel, this terrific group of americans. thank you all. [applause] mr. pence: let me start with rex javaid javaiden. we will submit your remarks in their entirety for the record,
we ask you to keep your remarks to three minutes or so so we can move through it quickly and get to some questions which is oftentimes more important at the national space council meetings. you are recognized and thank you. two. -- thank you. i am deeply honored to speak today. i am here to talk about the application of nuclear power systems in space and the confluence of advanced technologies that were unable nuclear powered system to be a key capability of the nation's robust space expiration program. as you well know, nasa has been using plutonium-based nuclear
batteries in space for decades to power such things as scientific spacecraft and autonomous rovers but my discussion today will focus on much higher power, compact nuclear reactors that can power entire spaceships, large vehicles and human space settlements. the company that i lead has a 6 decade history of supporting us-based declaration programs, designing and manufacturing nuclear reactors for military and civilian applications, we have manufactured and delivered over 300 such reactors. as it happens i also serve as vice president said for 17 years at nasa, concluding my career as associate administrator overseeing the full portfolio of projects in deep spaceflight, exploration technology, and science. what i learned at nasa and what i have seen as bw xt is america has the technological capabilities right now to push the boundaries of human exploration at the moon and further on to mars. many space expiration and -- exploration and operations problems require high density power be available at all times on call and there is a class of
such problems where power is the preferred if not the only solution. technology is rapidly evolving to make relatively low cost nuclear reactors that are not just alternatives to options but also the means to accomplish his things that were not possible before. for example, working with nasa on a nuclear thermal propulsion system that will propel spacecraft from earth orbit to mars. the system has a number of advantages over other designs and contribute to significant shorter travel times and lower exposure to cosmic radiation for astronauts. today there is no better option to send humans to mars and times to protect their health. additionally the development of compact reactors for space creates collateral benefits for us national security, nuclear energy is a compelling solution to offer secure power for remote military bases. we also envision highly compact reactors that could be used to asset protection, we are able to bring such technologies forward because of advanced manufacturing techniques progressing in the united states faster than ever. we are developing 3-d printing capabilities to manufacture
metal components that could improve the economic delivery timeline for nuclear reactors. in closing i would point out since the don of spaceflight we encounter the problems of power and propulsion, spacecraft must be propelled officially and -- efficiently and every system life-support, habitation, , rovers, require electricity. limitations in propulsion and power have curtailed mission scope scale speed and duration. if we were to fit fully objectives in donald trump's space policy directive to establish long-term presence on the moon, nuclear power is the most important technology to enable these national goals. given the technological advances and nation renewed interest in space expiration there has never been a better time to employ nuclear systems in space. thank you for your interest in this technology and i look forward to your questions. [applause]
mr. pence: that is great, thank you. great comments, but particularly provocative on nuclear power when we talk about long-term missions, not just to the moon but mars. dr. clive neil, lunar research, is recognized thank you again and thank you again for keeping to three minutes. i want to get to questions. thank you again. >> i am probably going to blow this, but mr. vice president, administer bridenstine, members of the space council, ladies and gentlemen, i am from the university of notre dame the vice president has only case that from my northern indian -- indiana accident. i am deeply honored to be talking to you today about in situ resource utilization. the time is right to take a giant leap by using the moon to
apollo was a monumental achievement and last month we celebrated the 50th anniversary of apollo 11. however, apollo shows how not to conduct human space exploration because such a program based upon international competition is not sustainable. this is demonstrated by the fact that 2019 also marks 47 years since the last human walked on the moon. in order to have an enduring am a sustainable, multi-decade space expiration program two things are required. and the spirit of cooperation. -- we should choose to go to the moon in the spirit of cooperation. this will allow the buildup of assets on the lunar surface, to live and work productively off planet in preparation for the expiration of mars. second, space expiration must deliver a return on taxpayer investment. and in an investment in the future of this country. the moon and the moon to mars program has been interpreted by some to be a stepping stone on the way to mars. and making the journeys to destinations beyond affordable and sustainable. this requires a permanent human
presence on the moon that will create a demand for lunar resource products. what are the resources? they can be subdivided into those that can be used in situ and those for export. in situ resources include water ice and other resources. the regolith could be used for 3-d printing of learner habitats and refined for oxygen, titanium, silicon, etc.. resources include rocket fuel, from lunar water, beaming of solar power back to earth, bringing back rare earth metals and helium-3 which is a potential fuel for nuclear fusion yielding no toxic byproducts. china is interested in this. and in that discussion the term resource used in reserve is what is meant. the resources is a geologic commodity that exists, that is a the best interest. a subgroup of a resource that is a known composition and can be extracted economically. the most immediate and vital issue is defining if resources are actually reserved and economically viable. those assets are needed to map out the area, brittle -- vertical extent and composition and concentration of any resource. prospecting is conducted in several in order to find the best places for infrastructure investment, thus geologic
prospecting on the moon needs to be a campaign that cuts through nasa's mission directives. the artemis program goes beyond camping trips focusing on increasingly longer human stays at one location leading to the establishment of a permanent lunar base, surface base of operations. a field station at the south pole by 2020 is the goal of this program. having the capability of resource extraction before them will be vital. the fuel station will require local resources to sustain or redevelop and maintain it. the resources will allow humanity to survive and thrive
on the moon and beyond. based on the initial findings from the lunar workshop in july. not knowing of the resources are reserved couple with the lack of market for products for such resources, preventing commercial mining involvement. nasa can provide me needed data and create markets for resource products. water is a resource that many localities in the solar system, water is the oil of the solar system in terms of fuel for interplanetary spacecraft using liquid oxygen and hydrogen engines. development of capabilities means no new systems are required when we go to mars. in summary, bringing the moon into our economic sphere of influence, will benefit society on earth can create a sector of the economy and reinforce united states leadership in space exploration. i look forward to questions. [applause] mr. pence: very good, thank you so very much. dr. mark is recognized. >> members of the national space council and distinguished guests, think you for the invitation to speak to you today. gender impact every aspect of our lives in space. it is more than spacesuits not fitting female astronauts.
the impact from shoes and clothing we wear, electronic devices and the medications we take. modifying appearances through gendered innovation will never work in any environment including space battle fields, and in our homes. the national academy of medicine defines gender as a person who self representation as male or female based on social interaction and sex is based on one's genes. we know the environment can modify gene expression which is called epigenetic, that is the composition, men and women adapt to space differently where even small differences significantly impact the quality and safety of life including astronaut work performance. it is imperative that nasa and commercial space partners address differences on how they plan and conduct missions, develop products, high performance clothing including liquid cooling and ventilation
garments, tools, hardware and machines and how they established extra vehicular activity for training protocols. it was recommended nasa fully evaluated the influence gender has on the physiological and psychological changes that occur during spaceflights. in response nasa launch two reviews assess the impact, and adaptation to space in 2002 and in 2012. every system in the body changes in the microcosm of space. it has been observed that some male and female astronauts experience spaceflight associated neurological or syndrome are found in which there is visual impairment and increase cranial pressure. interestingly the signs and symptoms are more severe in mail astronauts. and the inability to stand without fainting is more
prevalent upon landing in female astronauts than their female -- in their male counterparts. additionally, radiation is a major hazard for space travel. it has been recorded female subject to more susceptible to radiation-induced cancer than male subjects. and the exposure limits for radiation and then men astronauts. that will impact their ability to participate in long-duration spaceflights. this is not about who is faster, better or smarter, just different. we have the capability to develop the tools and resources to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to live and work well on earth and in space. most of us were influenced by the apollo program. and in the course is our lives. -- the program change the directions of our careers and the course of our lives. we need to ensure there will be an artemis affect. i want to believe that the next
suits on the letter surface will be worn by women, not only will it fit her but also inspire the next generation of explorers. it is time to see the world through a gender sex lens. when we achieve this goal we are taking a major leap toward mission success for every one that will enhance space exploration and daily lives. thank you for your time and attention today. [applause] mr. pence: thank you. dr. elizabeth turtle and we will go for questions for doctor -- go to questions. >> members of the council and distinguished guests. i appreciate the chance to discuss nasa's next steps in robotic planetary exploration. science, technology and very human desire to explore and charted territories have driven innovation since time immemorial. this is demonstrated by nasa's history of innovation for the purpose of exploration beyond our earth and beyond our solar system.
there are many exploration innovations we can discuss given the recent selection of the next frontier mission and role as principal investigator and limited time i will focus on the example of the dragonfly mission to saturn's moon titan. our entire team is excited to be on a path to exploring and estrous terrestrial world with lakes, mountains, clouds and the rings with the space get derived -- and even rain with the space or i've from drones that have derived been -- become ubiquitous on earth in search of building blocks of life. it is the opportunity to work on projects like this that inspired so many of us to pursue careers in science and engineering in the first place. for the johns hopkins physics laboratory dragonflies the latest chapter in the story that began shortly after world war ii when on a mission led to the defense department the first picture of the earth from space was taken from a v2 rocket. the defense department in that first milestone to highlight synergies that are possible. essential when it comes to space
innovation. the space community has benefited from the investments made not only through nasa but the national science foundation, the department of defense and innovations from the private sector. benefits go both ways. space exploration investments have further education and technologies leveraged for the economy and security. dragonfly is an example of the mission that involves multiple scientific and engineering disciplines. working across boundary lines within and between government agencies and institutions, nasa centered industry and universities. as well as across international borders. the investigations dragonfly pursues will transform understanding of the chemical reactions that may have led to life on earth. upon arrival in 2034, dragonfly is designed to take advantage of titan's thick atmosphere which combines low gravity, ideal for flight. it takes 38 times less power to fly there than here on earth.
put another way, a human being would only need to fly above the surface of titan. tanks to considerable recent development in drone technologies, dragonfly will be the first radioisotope vehicle to conduct exploration of another world. a critical point is dragonfly is a novel concept and architecture for ocean world exploration the design leverages prior technology investments and development in order to minimize cost and mitigate risk. because of this, we frequently say dragonfly demonstrates the power of innovative applications of technology. it was especially appropriate the dragonfly was selected during the 50th anniversary of apollo 11. along with this administration's public support of going to mars and back to the moon this historic commemoration has rekindled interest in space declaration across the country.
interest that will be stoked again when dragonfly landed on titan and begins transferring images and data from this alien world. dragonfly provides a crucial link between the teams the -- that designed, built, and operated previous missions and the next generation of technologists who will be ready to take the next step in space innovation as we enter the middle decade of the 21st century. in closing, the interdisciplinary missions of dragonfly, bridging diverse scientific and technical fields exemplify the innovation that has been a part of nasa's robotic exploration of the solar system and beyond and this way nasa develops technological capabilities, investigate new horizons and inspires the next generation, and a historic opportunity and i look forward to your questions. [applause]
mr. pence: thank you, dr. turtle. thanks for your leadership and we can tell that we tapped the right team for dragonfly mission. thank you very much for your insight and enthusiasm. i am going to go to several members of the panel, questions, -- with questions and we will start with administrator bridenstine. to those in attendance, before -- we will go to about 10 minutes before the hour. we will keep our questions very brief, our answers as brief as possible. i want to add if you want additional record of the meeting, that is made available publicly if you want to submit additional materials in writing, we will publish them in like manner. mr. administrator. >> thank you, mr. vice president. one thing i would like to note before i ask my question, doctor clive neil is our lunar resource expert on the panel.
also in the audience we have chris carberry, you have a moon guy and the mars guy and i will tell you a couple years ago you put those two in the same room and it was not going to be a pretty sight. now we have this new direction, moon and mars. now when they come and visit me, they come together which i'd never thought i would see, but it is a thrilling thing for our nation, the unity between these gentlemen. >> it is still not that pretty. >> i had a question for rex. we are talking something else. we are talking nuclear fission for propulsion. that is absolutely a game changer for what nasa is trying to achieve.
propulsion has not changed and you have a mass and you need to accelerate and when we use nuclear fission, you can heat hydrogen to levels that make it exceptionally fast so that mass is accelerated faster than we can otherwise accelerate it. that gives us opportunity to protect life when we talk about the radiation belts the travel -- dose when we travel between earth and mars. can you share with us how much time do you think we could save in that travel between earth and mars if we had nuclear thermal propulsion. >> thank you. the nuclear thermal engines we talk about our twice as efficient as chemical engines and simpler for a variety of reasons. with the nuclear thermal propulsion mission we anticipate getting a cruiser to mars in
three or four months about half the time and you can see those economies and efficiencies for scientific exploration as well. >> the next question is other applications, not just for reducing the radiation dose for humans flying through deep space but national security implications. how do we maneuver with in low earth orbit or -- so we can move to various spots based on threats we heard about today. there are many applications that benefit not just human exploration and national security. >> that is correct. we anticipate this technology used in a variety of national security operations, off grid power and military bases, you cannot imagine using a compact high temperature gas reactor to power a directed energy weapon using diesel fuel but that is not sustainable over a sustained battle.
>> could that be used to protect earth from an asteroid? >> i think you could envision that for planetary protection as well. it is possible to put high amounts of laser energy on an asteroid. it is a possible technology as whatever threat you are concerned about. well. >> could it be used to take debris out of orbit? >> it could be used to take debris out of orbit. people talk about using laser energy to change the trajectory of space debris and it is a possible application for that as well. >> i think, mr. vice president there is an amazing opportunity , here the united states of america should take advantage of. mr. pence: thanks. great. great comments. secretary of commerce wilbur ross for questions. >> dr. neil, what is the biggest challenge you face in training the current class of astronauts? >> the biggest challenge is
educating them in the limited time we have for going to the moon, about the moon. trying to make them understand about the environment, you don't know until you go there, i have never been, studied it a lot but i think the biggest challenge is having time with the astronauts to teach them about off world exercises and how they would maximize their time on the surface of the moon. or mars. >> what do you see as the biggest challenge going from habitation of the moon to getting to mars? >> again, it comes back to getting to mars. i think we can learn about living and working productively off planet on the moon and take those lessons to another hostile environment for human life. i think they will translate quite well. there will be nuanced differences but i still think
the journey, from what we just heard, one way to mitigate some of those risks by going faster but that journey is going to be the issue. we have a laboratory in our backyard, we need to make good use of it not only for economic benefit, but also training to go beyond their. -- beyond there. it is enough for a laboratory that will prepare humans very well for exploring destinations beyond the moon. >> thank you. mr. pence next we go to the : under secretary of state for economic growth and energy and environment, you are recognized. >> thank you. i have a question for you because you spent so much time in space diplomacy over your career and as we develop and operationalize our global economic security strategy, the space industry is a priority.
how does the united states maintain its leadership position and collaborate with our allies and their private sector partners and safeguard our ip and know how through global trusted frameworks and some things you worked on over the years? >> absolutely. there is so much to be gained from these partnerships and at the same time to balance that with sharing of information. that is an area we take very seriously in these international
partnerships and something we need to coordinate very carefully as we move forward. so many of these international missions demonstrated the potential of those collaborations is so valuable, it is something that is worth investing the effort in. >> thank you. mr. pence: thank you. let me let the chairman asked the final question. women are an indispensable part of the astronaut corps at nasa and you have been a great advisor. you spoke today about the challenges, differences among the sexes, make opportunities for one versus the other. we set the objective to have women and men leading america back in human space exploration, the first woman in the next man on the moon will be american and
we will send men and women to mars. you have spoken about the differences. are there also, can you give us some examples of benefits as well of having men and women leading in space exploration, what it means to the signs and -- the science expanding american leadership and capabilities. >> thank you, mr. vice president for your question. it comes down to inclusion. the divers to find work forces have optimal team performance. it takes a little bit of effort up front to make sure people are communicating and sharing knowledge but we see improvement at the end of the day. what we have seen is we will have a mixed crew, american women are taxpayers, they support this program and need to
be represented. the lessons we learned from the space program have extraordinary value for how we live our lives on earth. it is time for nasa as well as all agencies and organizations to ensure their programs and policies have a focus on human systems integration. using a gender-six lens. mr. pence: it is wonderfully well said. it is the reality at nasa on the advisory group, some extra nearly distinguished female astronauts, hundreds of hours in space exploration. i want to thank you for your contributions, to understanding we have opportunities to celebrate that diversity. it is imperative if i hear you right then nasa and our private sector partners continue to lean in, clear eyed, with unique differences and challenges men and women face in space exploration, we will do just that. i want to thank this panel, this is a remarkable group of
panelists. with that, time is a little scarce so i trust members of national space council reviewed the recommendations that have been presented to meet the president's objective on human space exploration and encouraging and promoting private-sector innovation and those looking on in the public will note these include specific timelines for reforms. acquisition rules, management
and industrial base issues, they create opportunities for international and commercial partnerships. i recommend the public's attention, the public record you will find that we are setting specific timelines for the administrator in the next 60 days to the designation of an office, submission of a plan for sustainable lunar surface exploration and developed of crew to do the missions to mars. the next council meeting reported on the technologies to implement sustainable lunar surface exploration, there are very specific goals for nasa. and we thank them for moving out on those directives, recommending nasa facilitate the developed of commercial and public private successors to the
international space station, set a timeline for the department of commerce on authorization of commercial space operations not currently regulated by any other federal agency. and since the international space station the staff will present the council members a moon to mars development strategy. one of my take aways today is doctor clive neil's term prospector to describe activities on the lunar surface on mars. it brings to mind deals west and -- the old west and just exactly how we are to be thinking and ensuring developing resources of space. and giving taxpayers a return on
investment. we will the calling for a moon to mars develop a strategy that will take in the technological capabilities that we have and also the director will be presenting the national space council with a plan to modernize the workforce. with that, all those in favor of endorsing these recommendations by the national space council signify by saying aye. and a post, say nay. the ayes have it. the recommendations will be forwarded by the unanimous decision of the national space council and discussing these recommendations with the president later today and looking forward to agencies at the president's direction. with that let me simply close by , saying thank you to members of the national space council and members of our user advisory group and invite the crowd in thanking all these incredible americans for american leadership in space. great job. [applause] i want to thank doctor clive
neil, doctor elizabeth turtle, for tremendous contribution to this discussion today and your testimony today and your written testimony continue to inform our work so join me for thinking the panel one more time. [applause] america is leading in space once again. thanks to the vision and leadership of donald trump, we have redoubled our commitment to lead on behalf of human exploration, nasa at the tip of the spear to engage our private sector partners to work in new and renewed ways with the american people, to advance american leadership and with the president's direction as commander-in-chief we are reorganizing our commitment to
provide for the common defense in developing united states space force, u.s. space command and develop the technologies to protect this nation going forward. i know, looking out at this crowd, those looking on, there is tremendous enthusiasm for donald trump's leadership in space but i ask only today that those of you who share this passion for renewed american leadership in space go tell the story. it is exciting to be here at the smithsonian. we have made a point, this being the sixth meeting of the national space council, to travel. our objective is to help relight the imagination of the american people for the space program. 50 years is a long time. i know what i am talking about. our determination, our determination is to capture the
imagination of the american people. of men and women and boys and girls all across this country and inspire the world. i encourage each and every one of you and maybe it will be assisted before you leave here today if you take a long stroll through this historic place. if you look at these tremendous remnants of american leadership in space. i want to challenge each and every one of you, interesting -- industry leaders that are here, looking on, and public servants, it is go tell the story. go tell the story of american leadership in space, told the story not just to those who represent you in washington dc to leaders at every level, tell
the story in your communities, your state and all across this nation. i know with your energetic support with donald trump's leadership and vision, this extraordinary team he has assembled the work of nasa and with god's help america will lead mankind into the vast expanse of space. thank you very much, god bless. [applause] ? [indistinct conversations] ? [indistinct conversations] ? [indistinct conversations]
o'hanlon discusses u.s. involvement in the afghanistan war. nypd officerer eugene o'donnell discusses policing in america today. be sure to watch c-span's atshington journal" live 7:00 eastern this morning. join the discussion. q&a, theoretical physicist author of the future of humanity talks about our destiny beyond earth and achieving digital immortality. >> digital immortality takes everything known about you on footprint,t, your your credit card records, the movies you like to see, your videos, pictures -- and creates when digitized
will last forever. when you go to the library of the future coming you will not take out a book on winston churchill, you will talk to winston churchill. >> tonight at 8:00 eastern on c-span's "q&a." >> now come at you look at the events of the latest session of australia's house and senate which lasted from july 22 until august 1. they include a variety of domestic and foreign affairs issues. including mike pompeo's visit. this is about 35 minutes.