tv Washington Journal Maria Sacchetti CSPAN August 28, 2019 2:09am-2:54am EDT
using original interviews, c-span's video archives, and unique access to the senate chamber, we'll look at the history, traditions, and roles of the u.s. senate. >> please raise your right hand. >> sunday at 9:00 p.m. eastern and pacific on c-span. >> in the wake of the recent shootings in el paso, texas, and dayton, ohio, the house judiciary committee will return early from the summer recess to am -- mark up three gun violence prevention bills, which include banning high-capacity ammunition magazines, restricting firearms from those deemed by a court to be a risk to themselves. live coverage begins wednesday, september 4, at 10:00 a.m. eastern on c-span and c-span.org. go, listenn the using the free c-span radio app.
gallup, moreng to americans than ever before say immigration is the top issue facing this country. we will spend the rest of our program focusing on that topic as part of c-span issue series in campaign 2020. immigration reporter were rhea .ic eddie -- maria sacchetti federal detention center for immigrant families and children. why were you there and what did you see? guest: immigration and customs enforcement runs family detention. a lot of what viewers cr border patrol jails. you see little girls sleeping on the ground. they have recently crossed the border, jails where nobody is supposed to spend more than a few days. the family detention centers are
hold very few people right now. they could hold more and the trump administration wants to expand them. they opened their doors to the media, they have never had this many cameras before and they let us take our own photos. they want to show people how they want to expand family detention and how comprehensive they think it is and how they should hold people until they can order them deported or release them in the united states. host: where is this facility? guest: this is in dili, texas. you can hold more people in a family detention area than probably the entire town. it is hard to get to. ac.e. has said it is not secure facility, not a jail, but advocates disagree. even if you left, it would be easy for someone to be apprehended. host: what is life like on a daily basis?
guest: it was compared to a summer camp. on the surface, you can see it has a lot of camp like qualities. it has an infirmity -- infirmary, trailers divided into neighborhoods with names like yellow frogmore brown bear. ice did not allow us to interview the women. it is women and children right now at this facility and they did not allow us to do this, so we arrived early and went to a greyhound bus station. they told us the detention was much better than border patrol, but they still felt family detention was a jail and that is a place where it can be hard to prepare your asylum claims. you are under constant fear of being taken away, so it is a challenging environment. host: there are people you talk to that had been released, how long did they spend in that
facility? host: some had spent 10 days. i met a mother of three who had been there -- she was still breast-feeding and had been there 20 days and she was released without a tracking device. it is hard to understand exactly how they make all their decisions. -- go to a public building and pull the record and explain why people are released of the way they are. i cannot do that with immigration. the settlement agreement began in the 1980's as a federal lawsuit against the trump administration and there were deep concerns about the way the government was treating unaccompanied minors. mostly teenagers who had crossed the border by themselves and you cannot just release them into the united states, you have to find them a sponsor and someone to care for them and they are middle-aged.
long-running lawsuit and an agreement between the government and the plaintiff representing minors that set basic standards about how you should treat children, that you should move them from a secure facility like a jail into a non- -- there is no timeframe, but in 2015, a federal judge said based on the government's recommendation that you cannot hold people in a facility that has not been licensed by a state for more than 20 days. host: your latest story talks about the legal battles over this rule change. guest: right. it is a little bit of a tangle to understand because the trump administration and past governments, the obama administration also had been critical of this 20 day rule. they say detaining families works, that fewer people came
after they expanded family detention because they understood they would enforce the rules. the reason a lot of families are coming right now, according to the trump administration and obama administration is that it are tellingers migrants in central america it is easy to get into the united states if you travel with a child and most families have been released. they have been released because -- the initial interview that -- questions about weather you have to be here and why and weather that person -- whether that person is credible. they are finding these folks .ave a credible fear this is a real challenge because the trump administration saying people are being released and
that is why so many people are coming. there are families across the border in 2016 and you have more than 400,000 this fiscal year. host: california leading the effort, as you note, to block this new trump rule to detain children and immigrant families longer. when will that have its day in court? guest: they have just filed it, but one thing i am watching closely is the actual floor as lawsuit. the settlement led to the basic standards in 1997 and there is another anti-trafficking law that protects unaccompanied minors. for children and families, the florez settlement is extremely important.
i am very interested in the the trumps -- after administration released the rule on friday, each side had about a week to submit their briefs to the court about why it should or should not stand, why this should become the law of the land and a federal judge will have to decide. host: can you sum up briefly how many cases and court challenges the trump administration is facing when it comes to immigration policies and how many are expected to be decided ahead of the 2020 election? guest: that is an excellent question and five years ago i think i would have been able to answer it, but there are so many lawsuits now, it can be dizzying. there is many we are tracking. host: what are the key ones? guest: for me, i am interested in the asylum lawsuits. as the asylumally bands, the trump administration tried to block people seeking
asylum if they cross the border illegally. it is challenging because it is legal to seek asylum when you cross the border. right now we have two different roles depending on where you cross the border. if you cross in texas and new mexico, you can be sent back to your homeland to seek asylum in a third country. if you cross in arizona and california, you can try to seek asylum here. trackingwsuits, i am daca, temporary protected status, there is a lot of things. it all boils down to who gets to come to the united states and who doesn't and what are the different ways the trump administration is trying to stop them?
there is a myriad of lawsuits. host: certainly a major issue in campaign 2020. it is why we are talking about it. maria sacchetti is here to answer your questions about some of these latest developments in the immigration debate. phone lines, republicans, 202-748-8001. democrats, 202-748-8000. independents, 202-748-8002. we will head out to guam first. bernard, republican, go ahead. caller: hello. regarding the immigration issue with the u.s. at the southern border that they are having over there, thank god we have the pacific ocean, that is our border wall and we have something similar because we come intoitizens that guam as migrants. the local government has been swamped by these migrants and
the u.s. is supposed to provide assistance to help and that is not happening. trying to see and equate our problems here with the problems over there. president trump, i cannot vote for him because we are not allowed to vote being a u.s. territory. i don't know why the americans there cannot see. host: what do you want to take from bernard's comments this morning? there are a lot of different opinions in the united states right now about immigration. i think there is a lot of differences about how to resolve them. you are a journalist and i am a journalist and it is important we listen to everyone always,
but i also understand asylum is people fleeing for their lives and it is different from someone who wants to come here and work the way youw and are supposed to decide that in this country is an individual basis. you are supposed to hear each person out and understand the dangers they are facing and if they are not credible -- their case is not legitimate, they get sent home. i have covered stories where people have been deported and murdered and that is real. that is something asylum is supposed to prevent. host: in terms of differences in opinion, is there a wide range of differences in the democratic presidential candidates and their views on various immigration topics? guest: there are often technical theirences and sometimes
policies, just like the obama administration, their policies do not always line up with what their goals are. the obama administration deported far more people on an annual basis then trump has, and yet obama consistently worked to try to legalize the roughly 11 million undocumented immigrants in this country. i am very interested to see what democrats will do with the .etention facilities under obama, they were holding maybe 33,000 people a day. these are single adults for the most part and now they are holding more than 50,000 a day. 1994, they were holding maybe 6000 a day. immigration detention. these are single adults for the most part and now they're day.ng more than 50,000 a 1994, they were holding maybe 6,000 a day. so that detention system has
bloomed and unlike and the e and courts system we understand best through law and order ajust court show -- and just hese court shows, none of that is public record. it's not easy to monitor or not you know, it's just easy to monitor this system and understand it. > as we try to find the contours of the debate on the democratic side, can you explain section 1325 of the u.s. code is and why it was written.
they can still do that at the border. maybe not a record of it necessarily. is still happening. nd so and not at the scale of the official zero tolerance policy. have i think people seized on it. a lot of people support that idea and feel people should not the iminalize for crossing border illegally especially if they're seeking alie lumbar but a lot of other folks say there are more important issues. bit closer from guam but still out west in utah bill independent. good morning. >> good morning. thank you for taking my call. i always thought
>> qualify for asylum. but to be able to get through a as dangerous as mexico killed, urnalists are migrants are killed. very high violence rates, often need protection to do that but absolutely i think there's asylum ncern that many claims are not valid, that they're false. also great re's concern that many asylum concerns are valid and the only to figure that out is to claim.ach
a lot of people who get pushed back into mexico as part of a trump administration policy, a folks go home to their country, to them that that those asylum. do -- amount of attention reporting on the immigration issue? the caravans were remarkable. of an, there were thousands people. it was an important new development. i think because it was a way for migrants who otherwise would pay ,000 to $8,000 to travel to a smuggler to travel to the border. to go for very low dos. people in mexico were helping
them. they were young people. old people. joined one of the caravans as a reporter to kind of embed and it and people were saying otherwise i never would have been able to leave my country. > how long were you in the caravan and where did it travel to? > we rode -- do you know those trucks that carry cars? so there were a lot of dangerous right?ys, so migrants including mothers ith babies piled onto this car carrier and so we were with them we rode that through mexico and so we were -- that was -- you know, it was a very because it also shows you the risk that migrants take and the dangers they face i try to be as a eful as me but it was dangerous thing to do and migrants would say, you know, take this risk. you would never risk your baby
to do this unless you really had to go. again that's up to a judge in the united states to decide. your you ever feel like life was in danger on that journey? >> well, i took precautions. have gone in a different kind of box truck but we were not adequately prepared for that took precautions and made sure we had contact with a car hat was following us, enough water, enough light and air and things like that. but, yeah. it's dangerous. know. i mean, there's -- it's dangerous for journalists in general in mexico. i think it'salists more than 100 have been killed this year. i mean, i'm sorry, more than 100 have been killed in the past few year.and 12 this so i mean it's a much more angerous for them than it is for me but yeah i think the world all over take risks. than others.
>> we're taking your questions on "washington journal." ohn in new mexico republican here next. >> good morning. i would like to discuss the hipocracy of these gigantic companies. all these laws. the drugs are flooding in. risk.alking about we have a gang problem in every states. the united we even have a gang problem here in rural america. eople dying from opoids, illegal drugs. people shot by gang members when they get in the way of a drug deal. in the way of something that just maybe the guy wants a say town your road and you no this is my property. get off my road. limited to is not the countries where these people immigrating from. we had a raid in mississippi i believe the state was a couple ago, the news made a big deal out of it.
and most of those people go back because they had not yet been adjudicated through the ourt system although they were here illegally. we're a nation of liars. hypocrites. thieves. that's john in new mexico. implications of those raids at those farms in mississippi. >> i'm actually glad he asked because i go back to it all the time. he last am necessity as it's called in 1986 was supposed to fix this problem. about 3 to 5 million immigrants here illegally. reagan signed the bill and it was supposed to hold accountable for having people here illegally and supposed to hold immigrants working here r illegally. and almost immediately and you can see this in the reporting that the nderstood bill failed. there were too many loopholes nd ways to get around it and now you have 11 million people
in the united states without apers and since president reagan, no administration has really solved this issue. so what the trump administration trying to do is enforce the or in reverse and advocates and analysts and most nonpart season folks. folks have rtisan understood behind the scenes it won't be successful and has not been. deporting 200 to $300,000 people a year. others come in. system is just not effective. >> on what the trump administration is doing, this is president trump from last week talking about his border security efforts. being very strong at the border. you see the numbers are way, way down. i want to thank mexico for that. could make tates your question could make that problem go away very easily if would meet and we
could fix the loopholes and asylum which is what you're an extent but o let me just tell you. very much i have the children on my mind. greatly.s me people make this horrible 2,000 mile journey. ne thing that will happen when they realize the borders are losing and the wall is being built, we're building tremendous miles of walls right now in locations but it all comes together like a beautiful puzzle. but one thing that's happening you can't get into the united states or when they see if they do get in the united they will be brought back to their country. it won't matter if they get in because we're doing that. they won't come and many people many women's and lives will not be destroyed and ruined. last week at nt the white house. he started there saying numbers are way down and i want to thank that. for explain. >> so after president trump hreatened to impose tariffs on mexico, mexico agreed to host
ore asylum seekers to the united states and to do more subpoena yore enforcement. their 're down at southern border with gat ma la stopping people -- guatemala. stopping people on the caravans that have been going on in the interior and they're also people to some degree at the border. they're accepting thousands of their border cities from the united states to await their asylum hearings. so you're basically turning mexico into a bit of a waiting an asylum if i have hearing pending in the united states, hi to wait in mexico -- wait in mexico for it. >> why would someone take years o complete and thousands of dollars when they can just walk in through our southern border asylum.are shouldn't people fill out the point of impactwork before getting here and is that what's mexico?g in >> well, so it's in central merica generally where -- some people have tried to fill out
the paperwork. -- they've been reflected for visas or are just that.vailable to do some people don't know how to do it. i think most people it's just too bewildering. i know a lot of people do that for sure. ut it's much, much easier to go -- there's a contact in your neighborhood. know gler who says i you're afraid or whatever the reason is, you're in debt. getting threats. extorted by gang members. border t you to the safely and if you're traveling with a child i'll give you a this nt and it becomes powerful lure. and it's powerful for people who don't qualify for acy lumbar. very -- you have to be
afraid persecution the government wouldn't protect you. to meet a ave specific criteria. challenging. > back to new mexico, albuquerque. >> i wish more people would have understanding what these people are going through. there not just leaving. not an easy decision to pick up and leave and go to a foreign place where you don't language. it's not an easy decision. i'm sure they would rather stay they could ere if but i just wish more people would think about that and i just think it's just -- the that we have now, able to he wealthy are ly i know obama did a
lot of deportations. i don't know if this is true but going to ask, i heard that he was doing this in order to get a deal. he was hoping he would -- a lot of times i thought he was working with the other side too turn imes and they would him down but i don't know if this is true or not. you can just give me some information about that. for the call. >> that's a great question. i mean, there's a lot of why that about happened. he was a new y president and the immigration machinery works on its own so beenwas something that had building and building under the bush administration and it just going. and as you probably remember, you know, there was an economic crisis. president obama wanted to move healthcare through congress. a lot of re are on -- he hings going
did enforce the law and expanded an important tool that ice uses to ind immigrants who have been arrested. it's called secure communities nationwide.hat so -- but critics of president basically went against his own goals. he ended up deporting a lot of people. back a lot of people at the border. quick removal rocedures and he expanded family detention so and kind of set the stage for what is trump.ing under president >> coming back to the democratic residential primary, you mentioned ice there for a minute. which candidates want to abolish ice? which don't? big of a part of the
immigration debate on the topic?tic side is that >> so that's an important question. i mean, i think if people talk a ut abolishing ice but it's big issue for the democrats. i mean, democrats have funded years. years and quandary at is a real i think. and ice, federal agents, these officers. ice often points off that that congressjobs ordered them to do. gave them money to do. do.re them to they're frustrated that no one suggesting to abolish the fbi or other things. i think people have been -- it's a hard question as you can because i to answer cover ice. work.erstand how they i think one of the biggest
ice is that they're police. they say we're cops but they don't play by those rules. who they tell you arrest. you can't go look up court who decides nd out why someone should be in jail for two years. transparency is in like with the regular police and the fbi. we know why people are in jail and where they are and why a deinside them bail. can't really explain what ice does. creates a mystery around the wherest the executive ranch has a lot of power over it. you have advocates in the agreeing partment did over their own statistics. we should be able to count how deported.e get they disagree over that. hat shows how lacking in transparency the system is.
you don't have that in the ninth and fifth circuit montgomery, alabama is next. jason, independent, good morning. >> hey, good morning. that thearia mentioned problem was not solved in like point.rs at this i think two reasons. when you look at the raids in ississippi, the affidavit to get the warrant for the raid said that the employers hired ly unlawfully illegal immigrants so they knew going in that the employers these people and yet when they got there they immediately threw the workers in cuffs but the employers still are walking through. o i think unless and until employers are held to the same standard as far as up holding fixed. it won't be second, we as americans have to come to terms with the fact that we need these people here. for instance at ag just like with the raids in
mississippi, you look at the umber of illegal immigrants that are knowingly employed because the cheap labor is needed. here in alabama in the early 010s, they were going to crack down on them and get them out of the state. well, the farmers came out on publicly and said you can't do that. we won't have workers if do you that. so it's the open secret that people are here but still they're scapegoated by this others ration and by saying that they're here to take american jobs and bring violence ut we as americans have to reconcile these people are doing jobs that provide products to us want.we >> jason in alabama. > those are really important points. but holding one, employers accountable as well as mployees, that was what the 1986 am necessity was supposed o fix and it is -- has been completely imbalanced.
far more immigrants have been employers.ntable than part of that is you have a certain number of employers at more ompany and a lot immigrants. but i think people in general that employers are till powerful -- it's really everywhere. politicians have undocumented workers. president trump's properties, my reported on that extensively in the "washington post" and i would really urge read those stories. so he's far from the only one. deal.has been a big but in a recession, there are definitely issues. the unemployment rate is low. but economists have found that workers do feel competition and do have from immigrants particularly those who are undocumented when there's enough needed like le are right now when the unemployment
one thing butat's then there's concern about if they paid higher wages and perhaps more americans would do the job but always. so it's a really tough question that economists have struggled to answer. >> about ten minutes left. in woodridge, illinois. a republican. good morning. good morning. i want to make a comment about and wasn't it obama irs he one who stopped the to -- and when reagan gave him there was money carved out for a wall. so they got the am necessity and up. wall never went so if they don't stop the problem at the border, nothing ever going to get done.
>> so the number of undocumented immigrants has actually gone down. to be primarily people from mexico but immigration mexico has gone down almost to nothing. year.ot 11 million in a 1986.11 million since so -- and that -- and, again, gone down.rs have we can absolutely see that. what's increased dramatically is family migration. and that has been a major shift what it means is that there kids and little kids so instead of sneaking across the border and trying to the they're going through desert where a lot of people
crossing. you have people surrendering at the border and seeking asylum. dramatic change. border patrol will say they used o have to chase people and now they're running up to me and it's true. but what's really important is look at those apprehension numbers because they have not changed their language. apprehended but they're surrendering. little kids.e are saw one kid in a photo with a teenage mutant ninja turtle costu costume. they're younger than ever. i think that is one of the big challenges. you're apprehending are much, much younger than they used to be. >> when and where? on the border along the border. arizona, for example, you're seeing people carrying across the babies
border. nd about half of the apprehensions in yuma have been children. and back in the day in the 1990s, you would see a lot of people coming over that were nderaged but they were mostly teenagers from mexico so almost adults. seeing a lot of people aged 12 and under. >> how much time do you ersonally spend on the border or in the border region? >> so i spend as much as i can will have ly soon omeone down there more permanently. but that's -- i just got back and i was in arizona in the past few months. go back and forth. i was in suarez recently. also go.lleagues we're a team and we go down there as much as possible. buffalo, next out of new york. democrat. good morning. >> good morning. how's you are day going? >> doing well. go ahead with your question or
comment for maria. >> thank you. want to make a few that.nts about that some but not all republicans speak against diversity claiming diversity is of history yet we could actually go back to the roman third century e here were numerous emperors of rome who were not europeans. he roman empire was inclusive of european, arabs, africans, even further on if you look at the 11th entury, century muslim scholar had a the catholic t kingdom of jerusalem which he reported there was great and friendship. >> bring us to 2019. >> okay. absolutely. if you look at the 1880s to the migration policy
reports by 1920 the united to at least me 50,000 immigrants from the main region and many of those would go on to work for companies like ford motor in fact time magazine 2008 they actually interviewed an arab gentleman emigrated from the middle motor d worked for ford company and formed many friendships with americans of descent.and african e said that he's 53 a retired assembly line worker and said the car companies were no doubt melting pot or the of the united states like other lebanese who flock to the area. running out of time here. what's your question or comment for maria? question to maria would be is there a way that we kind rhaps use history to of show americans that diversity
is a part of history and that if of these immigrants even they're illegals coming from the middle east coming from south africa that g from in fact they did work for companies like ford that they our country.e to how can we perhaps use history to show americans and all people of the world that diversity is part of history and that -- point, jack. >> i'm going to -- i have a bit and recent answer to that so just as a practical matter. the united states has had an before.risis perhaps not of this scale but we back log in asylum laims during the wars in central america, claims built up, and the nonpartisan actually policy has offered a solution and this is from a former immigration commissioner. so a former enforcer who said in that there are trained
asylum officers who can handle claims and are experts and can tell if someone is not if someone an tell is a valid applicant or not. nd what have you to do is simply hear the cases and process the cases. and that there are ways to get done. of ead of creating a lot political confusion and -- and this is widespread. targeted one person. but there's a lot of confusion and they have suggested actually just and forng asylum claims those who are legitimate asylum seekers, they should be able to and thoseding to them who are not should go. and i think there's been a lot about resting discussion how to actually get the job done in the united states. for you.all john in georgia. republican. good morning. >> good morning. i have a question for your
guest. if she's a reporter, did she about the reporter if she was a true reporter, she the facts. >> if you want to talk about your reporting background. >> i've been covering immigration for about ten years is a lot ofnk there partisan attitudes about that's ion and everyone's right. even has the right to their opinion and things like that. is listen to do everybody and all the different facts and i think that is really mportant and that's what i'm trying to convey here i think today which is this is a topic.ated ut all -- it's been going on for a long time and all the parties have been involved in in unable to come together to address it. -- and that is