tv Former Secretary of State Colin Powell Joins Virtual Leadership Conference CSPAN October 18, 2021 10:44pm-11:33pm EDT
today. >> general colin powell has died at the age of 8 from covid-19 complications. in rebound years he would been receiving treatments for a form of blood cancer that affects the immune system. he was the first african-american secretary of state serving during the george w. bush administration and prior to that, the first african-american compare of the joint chiefs of statue for perspective george h.w. bush and why not and he was also national constitute advisor from if the ronald reagan. next in an stanley cup from 2020 with david rubin toone stein, he talks about his upbringing, military career and serving four perspectives. >> i'm david rubin tine and we're here apt mount vernon, george washington's home and we're here with another famous
general, colin powell. thank you very much for coming today. >> thank you very much, david. i've been here before and i've been here with you many times before. david: as we sit here today, this incredential house. it was thought over 100 years by the mounts vernon ladies association. that i have bought it and now they operate it but they have no men on their board. can you imagine how this could possibly happy? gentle powell: they have demonstrated that to us for the fast couple hundred years almost now. and they've done a great josh, kept the place looking absolutely beautiful and i think you would not be successful if you feel tried to get on the board. david: i think that's kuch. we've had 200-plus years of mental as presidents of the united states. do you ever wonder what would happen have a woman became president? do you think they would do as
swell -- well as the men we've sad? general powell: that is such a sucker question. there's no ran they can't be. we've seen them moving up and now we have a vice president of yeast to be who is in line to be the president if something happens or if she runs for it. so the analysis to your question is women are coming along in a way name never would have anticipated. we have four-star family generals all over the place. so i think we've come a long wail in the blast couple hunch years but especially in the blast 50 years when we really started pressing on this. i remember when i was a battalion commands earn at form hamilton, kentucky. we'd run every morning and we sometimes had some fauria freshman songs that we sang from the olds days and one morning
anyone brigade commander spotted me running with my fume and using some language that frappes was not appropriate with that because there was a formation behind me that had women's formation and is one day he call me aside and said don't ever use language like that anymore within the decision and -- king -- division and i never did. david: talking about mid-atlantic today's, something you know that great deal about but when you started out your career, you want to city college of new york, where there's now a college named am you have and it's operating and you were, what, 6,000 students in it? general powell: about 600 -- 67,000, yes. i'm sure you're proud that city college has named a college after you have. general powell: it's not an entirely college but it's about a thirds of the college. it was done because when imleft
the statement department and retired from government. i went up there and somebody had endowed some money to. small any tank we had. it was very interesting for a while. you were helpful at that point, david, as well. at that point i said i don't want another think tank, i want a place where young students can come and we can give them an education but the education they have to take out into the communities and using. that's why they call it global service and little and the academic part is part of that so these kids went crazy over it. they really love it and it. went from just a small any tank of 30 or 40 kids, now to about 6,000. david: the young people that go there you, are they the children of private ek tim or hedge fund people? general powell: no, like me, immigrants kids.
not all. many were born there and had very solid parents but it really is an immigrants college and all the youngsters i knew when ill went there 60, 70 years ago came from an immigrants background. a lot of jewish kids who were there. that's howe i learned how to speak a little bit of it. helped me a great great deal in mill adult lime. look at my immigrant parents. she finished high school, my father did not. i had cousins all over the place. mill sister was sent off to school in buffalo and became a teamer and nobody knew exactly what i was going to do it was causing a great deal of distress within the family and imfinally finished with a c average. beautiful c average. the undergratz, high school and all that wanted to go somewhere
and my mother said you must apply to the bronx high school of touchdown -- san antonio. i said, ok, mom, so i applied and they wouldn't self me. the counselor said you're not ready for anything like this. so imwent to morris high school where nail happened to let you in. there were no constraints on letting you in that's awful i was able to do. it was a good first time being shut down because i was not ready for that. the so i went to city college of new york. i got in there somehow with an upper c average and at the ends of the seconds semester, i saw rotc cadets marching around the scoop and ill realized that's pretty cool so i'm join amends rotc. the roty fact up tim made it chooer to me, you have to do it our way. we don't believe in c's.
you to have make a's. i got pretty high in the scoop. i became the commandant there there ever and then i went into the army in 189578. still a segregated country for the most part and they were nervous about me going there. the professor of him torrey science wants topped make sure i knew now that i was going to the south -- frontcourt bragg, places like that -- that i understood the social change i would face and i happen understood and i did fine and i happen did well as a young lue tend. i never thought i'd get far i don't understand that. neighbor promoteed to major at some point. david: and up never thoughts you'd be a four-star general or chairman of the joint statue, i assume. general powell: people come up and say well, did you go to west
points? no. did you go to one of the schools down south? the sits dell or one of those? no. where did you go? ccny. >> what's that? >> city college of new york, that's it. and you became a four star general? and that's when i have the punchline. there i was, growing up in the south, bronx and harlem and when i was in. south bronx, the seconds educational experience, there i was. i was on the corner of 163rd and kelly street one day and i said you think what? at 12 years old, you're going to grow up and become chairman of the joints chiefs of statue. everybody breaks out in laughter. i latched. segregation still existed for the whole country. it just ends ended for the
military and i did the best i could. and what my n.c.o. sergeants told me when i got there trying to adjust to it off. they made it clear -- lieutenants powell, we don't care what color you are, where your parents came from, what school you will graduated from. the only thing we care about is your performance and from your performance, we want to see what your potential is. you understand? yes, sergeant, i understand. good, get out there and do it and that's what i-did for the next 30 years. david: sometimes you were stationed in the south where on the bases you were treated like you were a white person but when you left the bases to get something to eat or something else, you weren't treated very well, is that right? general powell: yeah, it happened after i happened gone to vietnam early original. it had just started up. i came away from that year.
i'd been away for a year. now she's my wife for a year imhadn't seen and there's a ebba. a little boy named michael who i'd never met and there early in. one night as i came through columbus, georgia, which is on the other sometime of force bening, georgia. but it was part of the post. i went up to that store to orders a hamburger because i was hungry and i went right to the fronts where there's a counter, knowing i couldn't go inside and the young woman behind the counter asked what i was doing andics could i have a hot dog or a happen burker or something? she said no, i don't any so. i said i just got back from vietnam, can't i -- she said i am so sorry. i'm from new jersey, i don't uniform any of this but i cannot serve you. i'll take you around the back and get you something. i said no thanks. i went back to the post, got a
hamburger, got it anytime i-wanted and about six months later. about july 4 of 1964 the accommodations acts was signed and i went down to that place and said hot dog, please. yes, ma'am, yes, sir, you got it, no problem. had alma with me at the time and that was the beginning of the end of segregation, the beginning of the ends of accommodations restrictions. what i often said weapon just didn't release black people from the problem. we released white people from the problem this was a problem for both. i took that idea into think career. i went to vietnam again a second time. went to korea, anytime away from my family in a periods of less than 12 years and i kept moving up. david: did you ever think to yourself, you mad prepared to give the last full measure of devoice to this country and you
weren't injure inside vietnam. did you ever say to this person when you came back, i was preparedded to give any life for this country and now you won't serve me a hot dog or hamburger? general powell: i didn't want to fight with this lady. she didn't know why she was there. and i'm knew i was coming back, right after the accommodations acts was signed. it was in process then. that's the way it panned out. she tried to help me. she said are you one of the african-american students here at fort boning? no. are you a ports reeken? no. are you a -- yes. i'm black. that's it. that's it. i can't serve-up. i said i'll be back. david clinch so up rose up eventually to become a four-star general. did either of your parents live to see that event? general powell: four star, no. my only parents who saw me get
promoted to jean -- general was my mother. that was a one star. david: what did she say, i knew this was always going to happen? general powell: no, what was ausing -- amusing about it all is that the whole family wanted me to get out of the army. i said there's only one thing to do, have aunt laurice talk to them. she was the senior personal in the family. so she invited alma and me, my wife, to lunch one day and him just lecturing us something awful. you think, you've been hurt twice. every time you went over to vietnam you're hurt. you were in a helicopter crash. you felt in a muhammad home, punishment. i'm worried if up go back again, you'll be kimed. you have to arrive in now. i said you don't understand, i'm a song. this is what i do.
this is my profession. the she stood there and wasn't persuaded. david i tell you that i have gotten 20 years in and i'm about 40 years of age. i can retire and they will pail me the full requirement play for the -- pay for the rest of any life. and in tip cal immigrants fashion, she said stay. it's a great deep and imdid. david: one day you get a call from friends of yours, frank car louisvilley who said i want you to come back to be the adam tim advisor. and you said i like my job now. i'm commanding soldiers bull ultimately he said well, i really want you. and you said if president of the united states wants me, he should call me. and what happened? general powell: the bummest -- dumbest thing i ever said in my
life. i was in a beautiful headquarters twice as large as this room and i was going to be in little room this big in one of the smallest sections of the white house and i really wanted to stay with the troops. ived been pummeled out of the true before for these jocksles in pentagon or for washington. so when frank, who happened taken me out of sometimes before told them we have to have you back. i've just become the national security advisor, i need you here. i said frank, come on and then imdid one of the dumbest things i've ever done, as if i didn't know what the analysis was. i said if iu/pu-indianapolis important, why are doesn't the if the call and will and apples i walked away from the phone i said you dumb service o.b. and about 15 minutes later, the phone rings -- hello. oh, general powell, how are you? this is ronald reagan.
i stoopedal attention in my kitchen, in my underwear, johnnys and i said yes, mr. president. he said, you think, we really need you back here. yes, sir, i'm on my way. its turned out to be a turning points in my whole life, my whole career. david: you later, you went back to the military in terms of commanding troops, but then you get appointed by george herbert walker bush as chairman of the joint chiefs. did you ever think that was going to happen? mr. rubenstein: no. i was the son of immigrants in a harlem. i fell into a great relationship with not only frank, but vice president bush and especially president reagan. we were having a meeting in the situation room, and frank wasn't
there. the president wasn't there. schultz is there and the major cabinet members are there, and i am presiding over it, and suddenly frank walks in and sits down on that side of the table. right behind him is president reagan. i'm wondering, what happened? frank scribbles a note to me, and he passes it down the table, and i open up this little piece of paper, and it says, you are now the national security advisor. nobody asked me, frank. so what? that was the end of it. i did that for a total of two years. president reagan and i formed a great relationship, as i did with vice president bush, and
came to the end, frank is going back, so i can get back to the army. i stayed for a while longer, and finally, i was able to break free of the white house and go back to the army. i said, i'm not retiring from the army out of the white house. i've got to retire from the army to get out of the army. bush when he became president, he did something unusual. it was about two days after his election. we had offices right next to each other separated by a bathroom, and he called me in. he said, i want to offer you a couple of jobs, and he offered me three jobs in the highest positions of the government.
i said, thank you, let me talk to my wife about it. i didn't want any of the jobs. i wanted to go back to the army. i went and spoke to the chief of staff of the army and said, do you have anything for me if i come back? he said, you know we've got a place for you. i said, mr. president, the army wants me back. thank you very much. i'm going to go back to the army. reagan said, does that include four stars? i said, yes, mr. president. i'm going to get four stars. he said, that's good. i got my four stars, took command of a million soldiers, and that lasted maybe four months. i got a call that said we want
you to see the new secretary of defense. that was cheney, and he said the president wants you to become a chairman -- the chairman. i said, i'm the junior four-star, and i'm number 15. i've only been a four-star for about three months. what's your point? he reported that to the president. he came back and said, the president has two questions. one, can you do it? no infantry officer would say, no, i can't do it. he said, are you worried about having everybody junior to you, army, navy, air force? i said, it's not a problem, mr.
president. i said, it's not a problem. we are professionals. mr. rubenstein: the general public may be didn't know you as well as washington did, but they got to know you because saddam hussein invaded kuwait, and you were given the task of figuring out how to get the general of centcom out of kuwait. sec. powell: when we finally got the plan put together, norm and i were satisfied with it, and we briefed the leadership. we went more than we would need. i was not the least bit worried about it. i didn't know how many casualties we would take, but i went and said to president bush, i said, i'll tell you something
-- there is no question about how this war is going to turn out. don't worry about it. i don't know how many casualties we will have, but we will beat them. the iraqis have just dug themselves into a little circle. they were just asking us to knock them out, and we did. we got a lot more troops in the region then we needed, 500,000 americans and 200,000 allies. it was a given, and we didn't want to fight a war. the president said, send secretary of state jim bakker over to the iraqis to say, we don't want to do this. we don't want war. we just want you to give that land back to kuwait. by then, we couldn't avoid a war. mr. rubenstein: at the time, there were predictions when the senate was voting that we would
have 10,000 american casualties. how many did we ultimately get? sec. powell: it was about 400, and 200 of those were accidents. norm and i were thinking it would be in the neighborhood of 5000. some of the big shots in washington said it would be 15,000, 20,000. i knew it wouldn't be that large, but i couldn't be sure. norm and i talked about it often. we thought at worst it would be around 5000. it turned out to be 300 or so casualties by the enemy and another 300 killed by accidents. mr. rubenstein: there is something called the powell doctrine, which is, if you are going to go to war, have massive numbers of troops.
is it fair to call it the powell doctrine? sec. powell: it is perfect except for one thing. it was the invention of a reporter. a reporter came to see me when i was chairman. we had just won the gulf war, and he was asking how we did it. give me a simple expression of your theory, the powell theory, the powell way of doing it. i said, it's not written in any manual. he said, but i'm going to write about it. you are? he says, i'm going to call it the powell doctrine. i said here's what it is. make sure you've looked at the politics of it, the diplomacy of it, and if you can't find a diplomatic way to get out of it
and you have to go to war, go to war with overwhelming force. decisive force, meaning you will prevail. we did it in panama. we did it in several other places, and desert storm came along, and that is exactly what we did. mr. rubenstein: you published a book on your life story, which was a bestseller, but it was so popular that people said, the author of this book, maybe he should run for president himself. why did you not run for president in 1996? sec. powell: because i was not a politician and was not meant to be a politician. i thought about it for about two weeks because i was getting such pressure, and i realized, this isn't you. you are a soldier. i was not bad sorting out
political issues, but when i faced a military problem, i always had to watch both sides, and i always had to study both. i had spent over 35 years at that point being a soldier, so i gave it serious thought, and one morning, i woke up, put my feet on the floor of the bedroom, shook my head and said, this is not you. i went downstairs to see my wife in the kitchen and said, i'm not going to do it. she just looked at me and said, what took you so long? she knew i would not do it. what she also said was if i wanted to do it and she didn't want to do it, i wouldn't have done it.
sec. powell: when you are chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, you say to your wife you want to do something and she doesn't, who wins? sec. powell: it depends on what issue it is. if it's what movie we are going to see, i might win. if it was going to war or running for political office, that was not in the game for her. mr. rubenstein: another doctrine was named after you. when you became secretary of state under george w. bush, eventually, you wanted to win iraq and told him -- i don't know if this is proper -- if you go in there and you break it, you own it, like pottery barn. did the pottery barn people like that? sec. powell: another journalist got me into that one. i never said that, but one of your colleagues in the press did say it.
pottery barn, what a great line. the theory is right, but the line is not something i made up. it was made up by a reporter. i said, it's a pretty good line. i accepted it. not in any military magazine, not in any military manual, you will not find it, except among the troops. they still like it. people said, did you come up with this theory out of nowhere? i said, if you look carefully at it, you will find it goes back to the days of chinese imperialism. if you want to go to war, make sure you have tried every alternative to satisfy your political objective without going to war, and if you are faced with an enemy who is determined to fight you, make sure you have put together a
force that will win. mr. rubenstein: for much of your public career, there was a thing called bipartisanship where republicans and democrats would pass bills together, socialize together. that seems to have gone by the wayside. do you have any reasonable hopes that with the new administration bipartisanship could come back? sec. powell: on the first point, you are absolutely right. how much money do we give to nicaragua? all kinds of things. it's always the people who could argue back. right now, we don't have that kind of government. i'm not quite sure will happen in the remaining time for this government, and i have a hunch the president elect mr. biden will be more inclined towards that way of business. the current president, during
his term, he did not see it that way. he's busy getting out of agreements, i don't think it has served us well. mr. rubenstein: although you are a registered republican and announced you were a republican when thinking of running for president, you supported president obama when he was running, and you supported joe biden when he was running, and i think you supported hillary clinton she was running. have you ever thought of maybe becoming a democrat? sec. powell: i had a better idea. i live in the state of virginia where you are not registered as anything. you just decide what you want to do that term. i have also voted for lyndon johnson. i have voted for both republicans and democrats.
when my children asked me about it, i say, examine both sides. see what makes the most sense to you. that's what you vote for. i don't know any other way to do it properly. the scariest time i ever had was in alabama one time after i had gotten back from vietnam. segregation was still the system and that part of the world -- in that part of the world. i was driving a volkswagen, and a cop was waiting. a state trooper pulled me over. he looked at my license and my license plate, he came back to me and said, i noticed you've got this german car. i noticed you've got and lbj sticker on the side of it and a
new york license plate. son, you need to get out of here as fast as you can. yes, sir. that's how it was. mr. rubenstein: george washington who built this house and lived here for many years and passed away at the age of 67, can you imagine what it was like to be general in the revolutionary war with the very few troops fighting against the best army in the world? if you ever had a chance to meet with george washington, what would you have liked to ask him? sec. powell: i would have asked him, how did you decide to take a chance here? he was a remarkable soldier, and he lost quite a few battles. he kept coming back. he's been in different parts of the army and sections of the security system, but he improved with each exercise and never lost faith in himself and never
lost faith in the country he was doing it for. that was remarkable. would i be the same kind of person? i've always tried to be the same kind of person without facing the kinds of situations he faced. the president at the time george washington, if he got trapped, he could go up to new jersey or somewhere else and reassess the situation and bring the troops back and train them and get help. the french helped. the germans helped, and finally, he overwhelmed them, and the british had to give up. mr. rubenstein: as an african-american, what has been your view of the black lives matter movement, and how do you
think people should look at george washington? he was the first president, leader of the revolutionary war, but a slave owner. do you think we should honor people like george washington, and do you think the black lives matter movement will change racial relations? sec. powell: i think black lives matter is a reasonable statement of the situation we are in, but i will say to my audiences, black lives matter, but do you want to know something? all lives matter. black lives matter is resting on sound ground, but i can't just look at black lives matter. i have to look at white lives matter, too. i have to look at all sides of an issue. i think things are improving. how the devil did i ever become secretary of state or a
four-star general or commander of the largest group of soldiers in the united states army? it is because i demonstrated professionalism, and i demonstrated potential. in my talks with young people, i do a lot of that. at the city college of new york, i will tell them, you've got to be the very, very best, and you've got to make sure you are also showing potential. people say, how did you get promoted to four stars? i said, i just did the best i could, and guess what? they never promised me anything. they never promised me four stars. every night when i went home, i said to myself, did you have a good day as a soldier? when i became more senior, i would answer it this way, i've
got to be the best i can be. did i make mistakes? yes. was i criticized by my superiors? occasionally. but that is part of growing up. one school i went to in japan, a young student raised her hand and said, have you ever failed at anything, general? i said, yeah. are you ever afraid? she said, yes. you can't live without being afraid at some point or some time. you have to fail. it is part of living. i have failed. you figure out what you failed about and what to do, how to fix yourself, not to start pointing fingers at people. you may have to do that with a couple people, but what you have
to figure out is, what did you miss? and fix yourself. once you've corrected yourself and the rest of the organization, don't ever touch it again. a lot of people say, you know what happened to me in 1952? i say, i don't care what happened to you in 1952. i care about what happened to last year and if you fixed it. my first day in combat in vietnam, we were going down a trail. i was about the third person, and suddenly, fire broke out. bullets were flying everywhere, and when we got over it, the two people in front of me, a vietnamese soldier was killed, and we had to wrap him in a poncho and carry him around a few days until we could get a helicopter. when i went to bed, i said to
myself, oh my god. i think i'll do this again tomorrow. you just have to learn to deal with fear. it's a natural thing in you. you have to learn how to deal with failure and how to deal with fear, and i worked on that for a long time. my failure sometimes held me back. i was always going straight up. i had a habit of telling people what i thought. one of my bosses said to me, you spoke too much the other day. i said, i have to. i am the military advisor to the president. i cannot ignore what i felt and thought. you've got to hear what i believe in. mr. rubenstein: if the president
of the united states called you, president-elect biden, and said, i need some advice on how to bring the country together, you are a great leader, what would you tell him to do to bring the country together and get rid of some of the partisan divide? is there any one or two answers you would have? sec. powell: yes. the first answer i would have is start reaching out to the whole country, not just your buddies. get people on your staff who will argue with you. get people who are working with you who will challenge you. otherwise, you aren't going to get the best. we have so many friends and allies in this world that we've put at risk of being friends and allies of us. it's not the way we gain ascendancy as a country.
we gain ascendancy as the number one nation of democracy by talking to friends, by trusting people, by giving them what they need if it is reasonable. so many times in my career as a soldier or national security advisor, i'd faced some problem from a friend, and i would sit and listen. the stories are rather cute, but i don't have time to tell you one of them. the spanish foreign minister calls me. i've never met her. she said to me, you've got to help me. she said, what is wrong? -- i said, what is wrong? she said, we have an island, and the moroccans took it. i said, we saw that.
she said, we had to take it back. i said, what is the problem? they won't stay away. could you help us get a deal? it's not my business. haven't you talked with the eu and nato? yes, i have. they've turned us down. that's what i did. i worked on it for two days all by myself. i typed up the agreement between these two countries, and my lawyers were not happy with that when they saw it. the only crisis i had was they had two different names for the island. one, the african asian name, and the other was the european name. they said, we can't agree to two names. we will never get agreement.
i called down to my geographers at the state department and said, give me the exact place this island is located. what is the latitude and longitude? that's what i got here that is what i put in the agreement -- that's what i got. that is what i put in the agreement. mr. rubenstein: you and your wife have led america's promise for some time, and it is designed to help young people become productive citizens and young leaders. two young people who talk to you and say, i want to be colin powe ll, what do you think are the most important leadership qualities they should have? what do you think it is that makes someone a leader? sec. powell: you can't be colin powell. worry about being yourself. we isolated this into five promises.
promise number one is to make sure that you have an adult in your life, a responsible, caring adult. hopefully a parent, relative or mentor, but somebody to put this child on the right path and not get in trouble. the second promise was, you need a place to go play. you need to have boys and girls clubs. we have to put those together for these kids, and the third is every youngster should have responsible health care. we don't do enough of this. the whole country should have health care. i've spoken about this repeatedly. we deserve it for every american. the fourth promise is a quality education. you cannot survive in this world without some kind of quality
education, and the fifth promise was, make sure you give back, that you are giving some service back to the country. it is a simple little formula, and it works as you put people to work on it, boys and girls club's, salvation armies, people like you and me. mr. rubenstein: some people have said, the highest calling of mankind is to be a private equity professional. some people say, the highest calling of mankind is to be a four-star general. why do you think four-star generals are more important to the comp -- to the country than private equity people? sec. powell: i've never presented myself as being more important than anybody. if you think i can do something for you, let's talk about it. if i can, i'll do it. in many occasions when i was in
the military, we didn't get that kind of option. powell, go there. you are not a four-star general. you just did what you were told. that is with the army is all about. i had choices. i had to take a careful look at with my family and my children and with america's promise alliance, and it served the people well. i've got no illusions about where i came from. the people who taught me everything i need to know were chinese military experts from 2000 years ago and german experts. they are the ones that teach you about politics and making sure if you go to war, you do it well and prevail. mr. rubenstein: final question.
you were a four-star general and secretary of state. you have grandchildren. do they call you general or secretary of state? sec. powell: papi. mr. rubenstein: do you tell them you were a four-star general? sec. powell: they don't care. it's a family. when i was a junior officer, it didn't make a difference. the more senior i became, i didn't want to be anything special to my children. one quick story, i was based at fort carson, colorado, and we just changed into these new camouflage uniforms. it was cool. nice camouflage uniform, and i went home wearing the camouflage uniform. this was maybe 20, 25 years ago. i walk in the house at fort carson, and my youngest child
anne-marie, she was about 1012 at the time. -- 10 or 12 at the time. she looked at me and said, mommy, the g.i. joe is home. sec. powell: i want to -- mr. rubenstein: i want to think you for your service, and i'm sure if george washington was here in person, he would say, thank you for your service. sec. powell: i would say thank you to him for what he did for the country not just as a president but as a human being who taught us what being a human being is all about. he would fight and try to win, and then when he left, he left us with messages i will never forget. his farewell speech, his comments about, don't look for wars. he left us with that vision.
when he could've been the king of america or the special president of america, he just wanted to be the president, and that's what he wanted to be known. he stayed long enough, and then he warned us about spending too much money on military. he warned us about getting too cocky, and he left us with a great set of rules. i know them well. i've used them repeatedly as i've walked through a problem. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2021] >> several biden administration officials gave speeches remembering the four-star general.
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