tv High School Advanced Placement - U.S. History Exam 2022 CSPAN May 5, 2022 7:07pm-8:02pm EDT
you get your podcasts. announcer: c-span brings you an unfiltered view of government. our newsletter recaps the day for you from the halls of congress to daily press briefings to remarks from the president. scan the qr code at the right bottom to sign up for this email and stay up-to-date on everything happening in washington each day. subscribe today using the qr code or visit c-span.org/connect to subscribe anytime. announcer: jason stacy and matthew ellington, co-authors of fabric of a brief history with skills and sources for the ap u.s. history course host a study session for the advanced placement u.s. history exam. this is just under one hour. host: across the country this is
the time of your students are prepping for advanced placement exams in various topics. on american history tv we will take a look at the advanced placement u.s. history exam. joining us, jason stacy of southern illinois in edwardsville and met ellington -- matt ellington. what exactly is the advanced placement history exam into ministers that? >> the advanced placement u.s. history exam is a capstone exam for the ap history course. it is an opportunity for students in high school to take a college level course and demonstrate proficiencies in terms of their content and skills on a pretty rigorous exam, it is a three hour 15 minutes exam with multiple choice, short answer, document
based essay question and long essay format. it is meant to approximate a final exam in terms of covering content and skills for a two semester college course. it is a challenging course but a rewarding course. hundreds of thousands of students take the exam every year across the globe. host: professor cc, and how did you administer ellington get together on this. jason: i started as a u.s. history ap teacher years ago and i taught it for eight years. and i also did some work for the college board helping score the exams and leading tables that scored exams and even helping to write some of the questions. a few years ago i was approached by a publisher to work on a textbook that was aimed specifically at the ap u.s. history class and to help
prepare students for the exam. in one of the important elements of that is that i wanted to work with someone who still worked in the ap u.s. history classroom. by that time i had finished my phd and i was working at southern university in edwardsville. although i had experience teaching a class and preparing questions for the exam, i thought to have authenticity to the textbook, it to be important that we work with an ap u.s. history teacher who is experienced and had experience goring the exam, and matt ellington brings a wealth of experience as a teacher and as an evaluator of the exam itself, and so when the press recommended i worked with matt, i knew him through my work helping score exams, and i thought it was a great idea.
skills and practices needed to think critically like a story. it is a full textbook but it is different than other textbooks. host: one of the things i noted in the ap history exam is that time period,, we are going to show those on the screen. why was this important to include this. are these eras in american history? jason: first off, the course has been around for decades, over 50 years, and it is a true survey course that starts at the beginning of american history with columbus sailing across, 1491 all the way to the present. the college board, when they redesigned the course, they decided to break the course into units in order to make it more manageable for teachers and students and to help shape a narrative.
our textbook does follow that unit's structure, but kids do not have to compartmentalize their learning or be overly dependent on the structure. the unit structure is in place to help identify key turning points and also to help students understand the weighting of the exam. on that side there are nine units, and the first and last units are worth about 5% of the exam. the second unit, 1607-17 54 -- in the main units is over 80% of the exam. that is another way to help students by informing them the amount of weight that they should spend in terms of review and preparation and helps
teachers to structure the course and make sure they are emphasizing the most important developments in american history. matthew: those are also useful because those dates are significant as milestones in the narrative of u.s. history. as we get closer to the exam this year students can use those time periods and the dates within each time. to remind themselves of some of those key turning points. 1491-1607, 1491 being figure before europeans first arrived in the western hemisphere, so students are going to have to know, even though it is a small portion of the exam, they should be confident of civilizations that predate contact in 1492. 16 07 is the first founding of english colonies were first permanent colony in north
america that eventually become the 13 colonies that then during the independence movement declared their independence and become the united states. . two, 1754 is the beginning of the french and indian war, and historians generally consider that the beginning of what became of the revolutionary era culminating in independence. the dates and time periods are significant as well, and as we get closer to the test students can use those to jog your memory about key milestones in u.s. history. host: professor stacy, you mentioned that you have graded exams in the past. do you find any trends where a majority of students do better in this time period and worse in this time period? jason: some time periods are very tough for students. the period that runs from the
end of the civil war through the early 20th century, sometimes called the gilded age is complicated, and students sometimes struggle because there are no large wars or figures that they easily remember, the presidents get to be hard to distinguish from each other, but there are enormous changes going on in that period that are more abstract, economic changes, social changes, cultural changes. the other time period that is difficult is that period about 30 years before the civil war, the antebellum period. a period of great economic and social changes often difficult for students to recall those key milestones to help them
navigate. host: that pre-and post-civil war period is really important for what occurs during the civil war and what happened after, correct? matthew: absolutely, the civil war is a defining war in american history in a war where we went to war against ourselves over various issues, particularly slavery. understanding the changes that take place during the antebellum era, social, political, economic changes and what happened after the war is increased industrialization, the attempt to reconstruct the south, those are critically important, but that is one part of the ap u.s. history exam. if you look at the way the exam is structured, a good part of the exam is actually in the 20th century. unit 7, 8, and nine which started in 1890 and take us all the way to the president --
present through 9/11, that is almost half of the test. students have to make sure they are balancing their approach to study so that they encompass all of these time periods. host: we are going to show an image and this is from your book, an image that represents a time period, and it is a teapot. jason: this is a very interesting artifact. when students see an artifact like this, it could be considered historians consider a primary source, an object from the time period. it contains information at the context around it significant for students. this is an artifact that has appeared on the test before. an important part of
understanding an artifact is for students to look at the source information, so if i recall, this document, this artifact is produced between 1766 and 1770, and it was produced in england, so this is an import into the british north american colonies, but notice the teapot has two statements on it. you can give me the exact words on it but i believe one side says no stamp act and the other side says american freedom restored. host: american liberty restored. jason: so what we see is an artifact that comes after the first uprising in the british
colonies against british tax laws or mercantile laws, and this case is the famous stamp act that affected the colonies in the aftermath of the french and indian war. so the students who have taken ap u.s. history, you probably remember the stamp act caused a lot of anger on the part of the colonist, and eventually it was repealed. when it was repealed it was the first example of the british government really recognizing some of the anger on art of colonists against parliament's control, a virtual representation, and this artifact was produced for colonial consumption to celebrate the british repealing the stamp act, but what is also interesting about this artifact is noticed it was produced in
england, and it is important to understand that the british colonies were consumers of british made goods. you have a british manufacturer producing a good celebrating an american uprising against british law. and then americans are purchasing this as part of a celebration of the repeal of that law. this reminds us just how close the economic ties were between great britain and they american colonies it reminds us the stamp act revolt of 1765 were still about 10 years out from the american revolution, the declaration of independence, so there are very close economic ties between these people separated by the romantic but unified in economic terms and by language that are beginning to conflict with each other in 1776 and after. host: did this teapot be
compared to maybe a campaign poster today or even a television commercial promoting an issue? matthew: absolutely, one can definitely make that comparison. students might not be apt to compare across such a wide timeframe on the history exam, looking at the message and implication of the message and connecting that to the event and the time and how it is designed to have a point of view, of course, students could definitely make that connection. host: i am going to read a quote, and mr. ellington, if you could respond. this is tecumseh addressing governor william henry harrison in 1810. since the piece was made you have killed some of the chinese, winnebago's, delaware's, and miami's and i do not see how we can remain at peace with you if
you continue to do so. you endeavor to make distinctions, you wish to prevent the indians to let them unite and consider their property the whole. matthew: a territorial governor, harrison will later become president of the united states, and so what we have in this quote that you read is a primary source expert, very much the kind of document that students will see on the history exam. most parts of the ap exam, multiple-choice, short answer and document based essay question, about 85% of the exam, will continue these types of document experts, and students
are not necessarily expected to have read those documents ahead of time, but they are expected to read them for information, think historically about them and be able to use them to help answer multiple-choice questions or help answer a short answer. in this document, the first thing is identify what tecumseh is saying, and it is clear tecumseh is trying to contrast between the desire he states for he and the native americans to have peaceful formation -- relations, and get the aggressive policies the government is pursuing and taking their lands, and on the ap u.s. history exam some of the questions will ask students to identify that content and be able to work with it. they will also be asked to apply
the skills they learned in the class. jason talked about the context, surrounding events during the revolutionary time period with the teapot. 1810, context is the continued westward movement of white settlers, the ongoing conflicts over land, the soon to have been war of 1812 and the battle of tippecanoe in which harrison's forces attack shawnee indians. another thing that students are asked to do is to think historically by not looking at just context but looking at other lenses. one of those lessons -- lenses his point of view. it is analyzing the perspective within the documents or the
perspective of the author of the document in this document we can do that and a couple of different ways. students can look at the language, contrast terms like peace and killing and unity versus taking land and use that to explain the perspective that is being expressed their -- there, where students can focus on the author, tecumseh, hopefully students will remember he was a shawnee leader trying to create content and see -- confederacy. students can extrapolate he will represent a certain point of view and perspective, and if students can die in that perspective of how indians viewed the land or how they saw the conflict between them with the language in the events of the time, then students are
going to be well-prepared to demonstrate facility with historical thinking on the exam. host: i just want to bring in two things that occurred to me, this is 1810, and tecumseh is writing a letter, i presume in english, to william henry harrison and in that letter he refers to himself as an indian. was that something that should be noted as well? matthew: that can be noted, but it is not critical. it depends upon what the question is asking and what students are trying to demonstrate. i think students can i like that, but it is not critical to do that. host: professor stacy, i want to read another quote to you. this is from 1852, frederick douglass. what to the american slave is your fourth of july? i answer, a day that reveals to
him more than all other days of the year the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is a constant victim. to him, your celebration is a sham, you post of liberty -- boast of liberty. jason: that is a powerful document. something important about the document is students, when they are reviewing the document, is to look at the source line. who is the author, when is the author writing or saying what is in the document, and what you see here is frederick douglas, who students should be familiar with and should immediately call to mind the abolitionist movement before the civil war and the essential part frederick douglass played in that movement, and so here you have a
former enslaved african-american, frederick douglass, os become through the publication of his narrative and through his public speaking, as become a well-known figure for the abolitionist movement to establish that enslaved peoples in the united states were able to promote their own freedom, to argue for it, it was significantly for this document to situate that desire for freedom within the traditions and ideas of the united states itself. while students may not remember douglass is giving this speech in rochester, new york where he was invited to give a fourth of july addressed by local abolitionist. in this regard, students can think about the audience of douglass's speech. it is clear douglass is speaking
to a white audience celebrating the fourth of july, and he is situating that fourth of july within his point of view, and from his point of view the fourth of july is something radically different than it is for that audience, those white listeners, many of whom were sympathetic to the evolution of slavery itself, and from his point of view the fourth of july celebration is to ask him to give this address is a mark of the contradiction that exist within the united states in this period where in the declaration of independence there is a statement about personal rights, in alienable -- inalienable rights, and yet at this speech he is living proof the nation is not living up to that ideal. so when students analyze this
document they need to take into account the context, who is speaking, what time period they are speaking, what audience they are speaking to and what point of view they have in giving that particular address in this case. host: this is a full nine years before the start of the civil war. jason: that is right, it is. it is situated in a context where we can see the rising tensions that will lead to the civil war. it is two years after the compromise of 1850, when students will remember was not much of a compromise and would not last long. it is being given the same year that uncle tom's cabin has been published, which is a bestseller and abolitionist in its argument. there is already rising tension by the 1850's, and douglass's fourth of july address is one more piece of evidence for that rising tension. host: professor stacy, before we
continue our conversation, we have been talking for 20, 30 minutes already. if students are listening to this conversation, are they learning how to take this exam or some of the skills they should have been taking this exam? jason: i think they are. matt and i are talking about specific skills teachers have been teaching them throughout the past year, and these are skills articulated in the curriculum framework for the ap u.s. history exam. some of these skills being contextualization or comparison or audience or point of view. matt, would you like to jump in here about keywords we are introducing or reminding students about? matthew: any student was taken ap u.s. history will be familiar with what we are talking about.
one of the things jason i are trying to do is modeled the ability to analyze documents and think historically, because students will have to do that on the fly. that is one of the things that makes it so challenging. document show up on various parts of the exam, and depending on where they are situated in the exam and what the question is will influence which types of historical thinking students need to do, but there are a couple of types of historical thinking, to reset historically by using causation, considering the cause and effect, thoughts that lead to or present from, looking at continuity and change over time and seeing how events or developments within a given time period remained relatively static, or what forces are creating change, and finally comparing individuals's
ideologies within time periods. in the document-based essay question worth 25% of the exam grade, one of the rubric points students will strive to earn is examining the documents the weight historian would. in doing sourcing students not only need to understand the document, but then they need to apply one of four different lenses. that could be the lens of what is the historical situation or the context around that document? what events are going on during the time period to help us understand what is being said and why it is being said and that document. the second is the intended audience, who was a document before and how does that help us understand what is being said and why it is being said? the third lens is purpose, what
is the author attempting to accomplish? what do they want to happen as a result, and the last one is point of view or perspective. what do we know about this person, what bias is implicit or explicit sometimes and that document? one of the things that makes ap u.s. history so challenging is it is the combination of a lot of content and a specific skills students need to demonstrate regularly throughout the exam. host: given what you just said, should students put values into their answers? should they incorporate modern sensibilities, or should we try to interpret what frederick douglass or tecumseh was saying in the time? matthew: that is a great question. i merrily this is an exercise in making sure students understand the content and can provide a sound historical interpretation and judgment.
there are areas historian's debate, such as what are the main causes for the great depression? is it really the stock market crash or growing income inequality or overproduction, etc.? in terms of their own personal biases, they can bring that in. we all have that and as trained readers we set aside those things because we are upgrading based upon the understanding of their content and their ability to create a sound historical argument. students want to spend most of their time showing that they can do history, they can apply these historical thinking skills in more sophisticated and robust ways. host: are education department at c-span sent out a survey to the students and teachers on
their mailing list, and we ask them what would you like to ask you two about this exam? this is teddy. in what way did the federal government emerge from the civil war with more power than it possessed before? that sounds to me like it would make a great essay question as well. matthew: absolutely. great question. let's just contextualize this, the civil war, as we know, the bloodiest war in american history, hundreds of thousands of people killed, but at the time neither side believed that it would last years, so we see the growth of government power but it is not a pre-planned growth, it happens organically
in response to changing situations in the war. probably the most obvious item students may think of would be the emancipation proclamation and winking using his authority to free all of the slaves in the confederacy, not the border states. that will wait until the 13th amendment, but that is critical because it changes the purpose and nature of the work from simply preserving the union do not become an award that abolishes slavery. there are many other ways in which federal government power grows. we see the very first income tax passed to generate revenue. we also see an expansion of executive power. lincoln will suspend abs corpus, meaning thousands of sympathizers will be detained
without trial, there is an increased use of military courts. all of those get to the curtailment of civil liberties during wartime, and even though we have not seen those same civil liberties curtailed in the same way, we have seen in world war one, world war ii, the war on terror, there have regularly been curtailing of civil liberties during wartime. we have also seen an expansion of federal government power as the south and democrats are no longer part of congress, so republicans are able to implement a nationalist agenda with the homestead act, which greatly continues continued western settlement with the funded infrastructure, including the beginning of the transcontinental railroad, national banks and all of that stuff. in much bigger spending. the government is spending 10 times as much during the war as
it was before the war. there was also the issuing of paper currency that banks are forced to accept, the greenback, at both sides are also forced to implement the first draft in american history, the south first because your manpower is shorter, but even the north by 1863 is implement in the draft, so we see government expanding its power in several different ways. at the end of the war we see three constitutional amendments, the 13th amendment, which in slavery, the 14th amendment, which grants former slaves citizenship and due process under the law, and the 15 amendment, which grants black the right to vote. attempts by the federal governments to remake the south, even though that falls short it does lay a foundation for future changes we see come to fruition
with the civil rights movement. jason: if i could just add to that, i would encourage students to look closely regarding the growth of federal power after the civil war at the 14th amendment. while the 13th amendment is historically significant in enormous waste and about the 15th amendment is likewise very significant, the 14th amendment, which places in the hands of the federal government, the power to protect civil rights is going to expand federal power in the 20th century it ways that perhaps were not necessarily even envisioned by the authors of the 14th amendment, specifically through not only civil rights reform in the 20th century but even the ways in which the 14th amendment is used to protect
business, corporations that are defined by the federal records -- courts as individuals and so at the direction under the 14th amendment as well. it has some unforeseen applications well after the civil war, and certainly even after reconstruction and into the 20th century. host: you talked about the federal government, entity's question was about the federal government expanding the nation was also expanding in the postwar. by -- postwar period. this is a look at the u.s. workforce, and you can see in 1870 a majority of people were involved in agriculture, and by 1900 that had drunk. another one of the facts in here is that the population was growing. even though the percentage had
drunk, the population working in agriculture basically stayed the same. jason: that is right, and this is a useful document for students, and similar documents that are charts or graphs could appear in multiple-choice questions that are stimuli questions will be asked from so students will have to interpret that. this comes in the middle of the gilded age i talked about earlier today that is often a very difficult for students to wrap their head around because there are so many enormous economic social, and cultural changes going on, and here you see in this 30 year period by these two pie charts the shift in the american economy from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy, and well agriculture still dominates, it is a shrinking sector of the american work force, and so here
we can apply to historical thinking skills that matt and i talked about. what are some of the causation of this expanding industrial workforce? what if that is the shift in the american economy from an agricultural to an industrial economy. likewise, we can apply the skill of continuity and change, what are some factors that stayed the same? what are factors that are changing? the united states continues to be an agricultural economy while at the same time a proportion of the workforce that is agricultural is shrinking and it is being taken up by the industrial workforce. host: lucy, who attends el dorado high school, out close to that is al pacino -- l chino
hills? matthew: very close. host: who is our most important president from the gilded age? jason: we used to call the gilded age presidents the five dwarves and they together in this long, complicated time period. i would say probably the most important one would be grover cleveland. i would suggest grover cleveland is the most important to remember because of two significant events symbolic of changes that are happening in changes that are to come. as you know, grover cleveland served two nonconsecutive terms benjamin harrison is in between. he served one term and is out and comes back after benjamin harrison. during his first term we see the
passage of the interstate commerce act, which creates the interstate commerce commission passed overwhelmingly by congress, and it is the first federal commission whose job is to regulate the national economy specifically in terms of trade, specifically to prevent railroads from offering rebates to larger industries moving materials so they can move those materials cheaper than the smaller industries, and it is an attempt to prevent the creation of monopolies and trusts, and we will see after cleveland a continued growth by the attempt of the federal government to regulate the economy specifically to prevent the creation of monopolies as we move into the progressive era after the gilded age. during his second term, another significant event in 1894 is the
palm and strike -- pullman strike where in the pullman train cart manufacturer, a large strike began there at that eventually spread nationwide. the american wear rate -- railroad union unionized under eugene v debs. cleveland eventually called in federal troops, and the argument was because that's right prevented interstate commerce april federal law and it was under the federal government's purview to end the strike. in his second term really supporting business and struggling with labor activism and labor rights, and those two different federal approaches to
regulating the economy, labor rights, antimonopoly legislation , promoting general prosperity, promoting the growth of the economy while at the same time trying to promote small businesses or labor rights, those are going to be struggles throughout the late 19th century and certainly into the 20th century. i would say grover cleveland because of what these two examples foresee coming in the future. host: matt ellington, do you agree with them? matthew: i do, actually. i think grover cleveland is a great choice but i also agree with the characterization of the five dwarves. for the students right now who do not remember grover cleveland or think, wait, i need to remember all of these presidents , hayes and garfield and
harrison? you do not. as long as you understand the bigger trends, industrialization , to continued movement west and the closing of the frontier, political gridlock that ends up taking place at the emergence of the populist movement, some of those things, it is not necessary to remember every single one of the 45 u.s. presidents and every main event that we -- that they did. host: here at c-span we take a lot of time looking at u.s. presidents and what happened during their tenures? is that important question mark to be give too much to a president? matthew: i think presidents have agendas, obviously they have had
to work with congress, which has become more difficult in recent years, but in history, larger forces are at play that start well before a and continue further on, which is one of the things it that makes looking at recent history so challenging, because you often times need the perspective of years or decades to see and sift out what happened and what is causing these larger changes. i love medical history and i can name 45 presidents and i cover these presidents in my class, but for students that are overwhelmed by that, keeping every single president straight is not critical as long as they have a broader understanding. host: there are 55 multiple-choice questions, one document-based question and one long essay. unfortunately, we are getting
short on time so we will move into modern history. i want to read a couple of quotes, and we will start with you, professor stacy. gloria steinem, may 6, 1970, i have been excluded from professional groups, writing assignments on so-called unfeminine subjects. i have been denied a society in which women are encouraged or even allowed to think for themselves. 1972, phyllis schlafly, what is wrong with equal rights for women? i respect for the family, which is ingrained in the laws and customs of our judeo-christian civilization, is the greatest single achievement in the greatest history of women's rights. early 1970's, two disparate points of view.
jason: let's apply some of the skills that students are going to have to do some the ap test to these documents. the first that comes to mind is comparison. immediately we can see the contrast and similarities between these two documents. if we start with the similarities, both of them are talking about the women's rights movement of the early 1970's, both of them are talking about women in together. both have a very different perspective on those rights, and so we have gloria steinem, a significant figure in second wave feminism coming out of the civil rights movement of the 1950's and 1960's, and here she is arguing for equal rights with women in terms of the workplace and opportunity, whereas phyllis schlafly coming out of the same iraq but a movement -- same era
but a movement is to rinse with no call the new right, coming to a national consciousness in 1964 with the very cold water campaign, and here we have are arguing from a different perspective, that women grounded in their roles as mothers, in the family in a judeo-christian framework acquire all of their place in society, their status and even there equality different than men because of those differences as women. and so, within two years of each other, we have got through comparison a sense of the debate regarding the women's movement during this period. but another thing we can do when we look at these two documents is to apply contextualization. as students are probably aware, 1970 and 1972 are within the
context of all of the social changes that are happening during the 1960's, and those social changes are not only on the left, the new left, the antiwar movement, the civil rights movement and counterculture, but there are changes happening on the political right. the advent of the new right, barry goldwater campaign in 1964, and with phyllis schlafly the reaction against the equal rights amendment, and so both of these statements are coming within the context of these rising political movements, the new left and the new right, that will continue to shape political and social discourse to the 1970's and 1980's and i would think that historians argue continue to shape our times today. host: when is the ap u.s. history exam given? can you take it online? can people who are just interested take it as well?
matthew: great question, it will be friday, may 6. it is given in the morning local time, 8:00 or 8:30 depending upon the proctor. people must sign up for it. it is an example given to high school students, so i do not think anybody can come off the street to take the exam. most exam takers are currently enrolled in the course, but technically that is not a requirement for a senior who took the course previous year. someone who loves history can take the exam as well. there is a makeup date on wednesday, may 18 for people who have conflicts or an emergency arises. was there another question? host: is it in person or can you take it online? matthew: i think the college
board is allowing some accommodations, but by and large this year they have returned to an in-person exam. the last couple of years with the covid-19 crisis the exam was digital. two years ago it was shortened greatly, but this year as most schools are back, the expectation is that students will take it in person, a traditional pen and paper test. host: when we begin this we looked at time periods used to help contextualize history. once again, 80% of the grading is one 1754-1980, correct? end the earlier periods account for 5%, 8%, correct? matthew: correct, units 1 to 9 is 6%, and the other units are about 17%.
the board gives itself flexibility. that roughly gives us 80% plus on 1754-1980. host:: others of the fabric of a nation, and gear art last-minute review tips that they give. review key concepts and rubrics, practice as much as you can and be confident and trust yourself. professor stacy, what is a rubric? jason: a rubric is a set of standards with each level of success defined and usually assigned a point value. let's say there are five or six standards you want a student to achieve, and within each one of those standards you would have
an evaluative worry -- evaluatory category, and each one of those categories would be given a point value. as there are different kinds of rubrics. the college board has their own particular rubric for evaluating the ap exam, and there are different rubrics for dbq's and such. matthew: i would love to jump in here. the suggestion for students to review key concepts and to make sure they understand the material. the college board has two specific rubrics. one for the document-based question and one for the long essay question and those are checklists of tasks students must complete. they must have a thesis, they must contextualize, they must use a certain number of
documents and bring outside information, those kinds of things. the suggestion to students is that students use the rubrics, which they should be familiar with and will be summarized in the constructions of the exam, as a mental checklist to make sure as they are writing a good essay that they are also accomplishing those tasks. sometimes when students run short of time on an essay or they are overwhelmed they can use the rubrics to their advantage to say, maybe i do not know what to do with two of these documents, so i cannot meet the rubric point for six documents but i can meet the rubric point for three documents and spend additional time trying to complete other tasks as i write my essay. students who are prepared and comfortable with rubrics and use those to their advantage to maximizing their score on the exam. host: matt ellington is an ap
u.s. history teacher in california. jason stacy is a history professor at southern illinois university, edwardsville. gentlemen, thank you for helping us understand the u.s. history ap exam a little more and hopefully for helping some of the ♪ announcer: c-span is your unfiltered view of government. funded by these television companies and more, including comcast. >> oh, you think this is just a community center? no, it is way more than that. >> comcast is partnering with 1,000 community centers to create wi-fi enabled listings for students of low income families, to give them the tools they need to get them ready for anything. announcer: comcast supports c-span as a public service, along with these other television providers, giving you a front row seat to democracy. ♪ announcer: tonight, senate
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