"Clandestine radio broadcasting is broadcasting in the language of the target audience from a station which does not admit to the origin of transmission or which attempts to mislead listeners about the origin. Such broadcasting has been used for decades by the U.S.S.R. and, at Moscow's behest, by some of its allies as a propaganda medium. For example, one long-time clandestine station, Radio Espana Independiente (Radio of Independent Spain) controlled by the then-exiled Spanish Communist Party, in June 1941 began broadcasting anti-Franco Spanish-language programs from Soviet territory to Spain, just as the Nazis invaded the U.S.S.R. The radio was relocated to Romania in the mid-1950s and in 1967 added a Hungarian transmitter; it disappeared from the air with Franco's death in 1975. In the early 1970s, at least 10 clandestine radios were broadcasting to Western Europe and the Near East from Soviet and East European territory. Seven later closed down, in most instances because political changes in the target countries resulted in the legalization of underground domestic Communist parties and made the radios redundant."
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