This briefing presents an assessment of the need for information technology interoperability standards and recommends actions that the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) can take based on that assessment. It highlights Issues in using the DoD Joint Technical Architecture (JTA) for the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Battle Management, Command, Control and Communications (BMC3). These issues were identified by examining selected joint BMD scenarios, the standards needed to support these scenarios, and the state of relevant standards and suites of standards. The recommendations are divided into three areas: (1) standards selections and tracking, (2) interoperability architecture development, and (3) compliance and migration planning. Significant effort should be expended to monitor the maturity and usability of the relevant JTA standards and emerging technologies, and certain key standards and products should be accelerated. The BMD technical architecture should be extended to identify where and how such standards will be applied. Computer-to-computer transactions and application-level protocols should be defined and standardized for open system communications between BMD systems, separating the communications messages from the medium that carries them. BMDO and the Services should coordinate their compliance efforts, and note that compliance is an evolutionary process that should be based on long-term criteria.