tv Doc Film - Crimea through the Ages Deutsche Welle March 18, 2018 2:15am-3:01am CET
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. crimea with the rugged beauty of its landscapes its mild subtropical climate and strategically important location the peninsula has captivated visitors for more than three thousand years. throughout history it has drawn conquerors and settlers into a mosaic of cultures on the northern shores of the black sea. today the majority of crimea's inhabitants are ethnic russians ukrainians and crimean tatars. but the peninsula is also home to belorussians armenians. poles jews and germans.
the crossroads of the orient and the oxidant europe and asia. greeks came from across the mediterranean founded cities and opened up trade routes to europe. nomadic tribes from the steps of asia conquered crimea well the mongols of the golden horde established a slave trade here conquerors became settlers tradesmen and artisans farmers and citizens until new conquerors came and new cultures. for centuries crimea belonged to the empire of the crimean tatars and the ottomans . under catherine the great it became russian and remained so for one hundred fifty years. then in one thousand nine hundred fifty four the peninsula became part of ukraine.
i a demonstration in the crimean capital simferopol in march twenty fourth team was an overwhelming show of support by the majority ethnic russian population of crimea in favor of leaving ukraine and joining russia. even if. i that sentiment was reflected in the outcome of a referendum a few days later. some of the multiple sclerosis by on march sixteenth the referendum was held in crimea this referendum took place in line with international legal standards and the rules of democracy. two percent of the electorate voted. this strategic territory must have stable leadership the fact is that only russia can provide it. the tory offical or the big crises.
understanding the present situation requires a look back at the region's complicated history. in seven hundred eighty three emperors catherine announced that crimea had been incorporated into the russian empire. two hundred thirty one years later president vladimir putin signed a treaty absorbing crimea into the russian federation. a look back into the distant past shows that history leaves no stone unturned. what remains bears testimony to subsequent inevitable change. over two and a half thousand years ago the scythians arrived in crimea from asia. with the sea head and the rough step behind them the nomadic people settled here. at the same
time the greeks established the first towns and settlements on the south coast of the peninsula. cultural coexistence developed in a relaxed and perfectly organic way in crimea. as the region became home to more and more waves of immigrants it blossomed through trade and change. the guest list of material never heard of it what that was the is this place is the manifestation of a cultural melting pot. here we see traces of cultures that extend far beyond crimea greeks thracians scythians cold starry summits our missions is to be submitted for us in all our excavations and what has been left behind we can see exactly how the culture has merged with one another the prototypical feature of crimea. but i get sort of the mr the right thing and this site is called now policy scythian now pulitzer newtown older historical works also described the
place as the czarist fortress of man palace. this is the first and the oldest side to reveal the facts here you can survey the beginnings of the excavations provide us with the most compact information on lake city in settlement of crimea here in the immediate vicinity of the present day city of simferopol. mr sort of in the record of the search for. empires rise and fall those of the greeks romans byzantines turks in tatters ole succumbs to the passage of time. in seven hundred seventy four russia defeated the last ruler of the crimean tatars catherine the great let it be known that henceforth and for all time crimea would be russia. the empress was right in saying henceforth but not in predicting for all
time. in one nine hundred fifty four celebrations were held in moscow to mark the three hundredth anniversary of ukraine's reunification with russia to soviet leaders transferring crimea to ukraine appeared a suitable gift in public there was applause but in private confusion crimea is part of ukraine. at the time it didn't really matter which flag flooded over crimea it was and remains a part of the soviet union. because the stuff is still thought the i wouldn't say that khrushchev made a gift of the peninsula that various explanations are offered in the official reason in one nine hundred fifty four was that with electricity. water and traffic routes in mind crimea was only accessible through the ukrainian soviet republic.
he said that was the official reason but there is another explanation in one nine hundred fifty four crushed oak was one of the less probable candidates to replace stalin as the country's leader. restylane had died in march of one nine hundred fifty three and he was initially uncertain whose successor would be the next of they as i'm in our hold on tape on top of the suspicion is that khrushchev transferred crimea to ukraine in order to secure the support of the ukrainian party elite of its own. elite to for. after russia conquered and annexed crimea in the late eighteenth century they've been insular became an underwriter for archaeologists the wealth and diversity of the relics uncovered here were a boon to the new rulers who came to be seen as the saviors of hellenistic culture . all. armenians also have
a rich culture in crimea having lived here since the eleventh century. it was here that they founded the first center of the armenian d.s.p. or on european soil. despite being resettled by catherine the great in the late eighteenth century and deported by stalin in one nine hundred forty four the armenian minority in crimea was never eradicated. today more than eleven thousand armenians live here. before. the armenian church is the oldest state church in the world. legend has it that the up. ourselves brought christianity to the armenians seven hundred years ago.
you know to ensure we do this was peaceful to live the moment the serious moment. so because the monastery of the holy cross is the only armenian apostolate monastery outside armenia. built in thirteen fifty eight it served as a sanitarium during the soviet era. it was not until two thousand and two that it was reopened as a monastery and handed back to the armenian after stalin church. crimea became the home and the center of life of national minorities but they also experienced great suffering here in the form of persecution expulsion and death.
one of them from the as a multi-ethnic region in the soviet union crimea experienced a great deal that was positive but also much there was extremely negative. the fate of the crimean tartars in particular is without parallel after the communist revolution the crimean tartars had many opportunities to participate in the formation of the young soviet state. of course but during the second world war the nazis played them off against the other peoples in crimea. it was a political tactic and one of the charters fell victim to. give us the illusion of when german occupation came to an end stalin accused the crimean tatars on mass of collaboration and have been reported to central asia. we should only. it was not until the late one nine hundred eighty s. that they were allowed to return to their homeland for three hundred years but
she's are i was the capital of the state of the crimean tatars the crimean khanate . when mongol had germany came to an end they dominated crimea and large parts of modern day ukraine. in fifteen seventy one crimean talked our warriors advanced as far as moscow and set fire to the city. the khan palace is a reminder of long gone power and glory she has good radiance he lets them the khan palace is a unique monument to history and architecture and it is the only palace of the crimean tars a pearl in the world's cultural heritage. but for us crimea tars from the palace is also a symbol our self-confidence and their identity are linked to this palace along with the rebirth of our ta-ta or spirit. like it seems today as if it were calling the
crimean tars to return and to see new opportunities for themselves here. at the swiss this place is sacred to us it's a bridge to our roots and to our past it is his and she said i live as a business man. yeah forty seven kings ruled the empire of the crimean tatars today the grass or forgetfulness grows over their graves. but nothing has shaken the tars resolute adherence to islam. it continues to characterize their identity and sense of unity as it has all through the highs and lows of their history. for centuries the faithful have heeded the noise ins call to prayer.
in the inner courtyard of the con palace is the fountain of tears russian writer alexander pushkin immortalized in a poem the fountain of. droplets of water dripped into a ball of flowers from a cold spring legend has it that there are the tears of a tartar king shared over the death of a beloved slave girl from the north who died before she was able to learn to love the tarkhan. located in the mountains above buck she sarai is the thousand year old cave city of two foot kali the jewish fortress. it was inhabited by the car it's
a jewish sect who fled to crimea from palestine and egypt in the twelfth century. the car ites led secluded lives here apart from other jewish communities. the russian conquerors saw them as good jews catherine the great granted the car it's the same civil rights as the native russian population. the german occupation of crimea in the second world war that status meant the car its were largely spared the persecution that their fellow jews suffered during the holocaust. s.s. mobile killing units murdered almost all of the crimea's other jewish inhabitants. the reemergence of a jewish community in the region is nothing short of remarkable. the fact of crimean jews recently acquired russian citizenship doesn't seem to bother
anyone here on the contrary. look on the one you look at this that is mentally and spiritually we have always remained crim chon we were never ukrainians nor were we ever russians we have always been crimean jews and i don't wish to say anything bad about ukraine but like others in the crimea it was as if we had been hung out to dry now legislation has been adopted to ensure that money's no longer siphoned off from crimea instead funds will be invested in regional development i get the feeling is there now pulling out all the stops to ensure that crimea doesn't just exist but that it's given a developmental boost. movie sure that's what. jewish life has a long history in crimea there's fresh hope that it will have a bright future in the region.
the influence of the ottoman empire during the crimean tatar era brought islam to the peninsula the ottoman rulers drew their legitimacy from the concept of holy war which was designed to extend the boundaries of his land. as a result in the early seventeenth century it was turkish architects who built the mosque in yes but toria. you have put henri is known as the little jerusalem of crimea. jews muslims and orthodox christians. here in close quarters. russian orthodoxy often pertains primarily to a cultural affinity and only after that to religious affiliation. and
yet legend has it that russia's conversion to christianity began in crimea. and switch in bookings to course after having been him self baptized in the town of just on his horse runs for the mayor had the citizens of kenya in the cuban roofs baptized on the banks of the neighbor. to work it was an important act one essential to understanding russia as a nation and the significance of baptism for the identity and culture of the empire oh. this baptism by prince bloody mirror in nine hundred eighty eight had long been forgotten. russia no longer had access to the black sea because. it was only under catherine the great that is changed. it gave russia a new identity as a major european state and returned to its cultural roots which had been led by
prince bloody mary back in the tenth century the most which of course we are. situated outside the gates of the port city of sebastopol on crimea's southwestern most point by the ruins of the ancient greek city of trysts arsenals. in one thousand nine hundred two seen vladimir's cathedral was built in the middle of the excavation site on the very spot where prince fled emir of the kevin rose is said to have adopted the christian faith. let him near had conquered no switch at the time belonged to the byzantine empire in a military campaign. he planned to crown his victory by mary. the daughter of the byzantine emperor. byzantium consented to the union but only if the prince agreed to be christened. let him use acceptance of the faith laid the foundations for the christianisation of the russian empire.
centuries later russia would justify the legitimacy of its claim to crimea with the legendary reference to ancient church sawsan knows as the birthplace of its orthodoxy and civilization. i. thought. modern day military presence and power. was the russian black sea fleet based in sebastopol peace in crimea moscow says is guaranteed by.
russia for a long and costly war against the tars and the turks for position of crimea. it's conquest and annexation in seven hundred eighty three marked the start of russia's rise as a major european power. establishing sebastopol as the base of its black sea fleet enabled russia to control the key maritime links with the mediterranean. on her journey across the newly conquered lands in the south in seven hundred eighty seven catherine the great also visited crimea which was also known as the tower of peninsula. she was impressed by its oriental flair but she also observed backwardness and poverty.
katherine had an advisor and a favorite prince gregory potemkin whom she appointed governor general of what was called new russia. his task was to oversee the swift economic development of the new lands. to ensure that they were populated by loyal subjects the empress invited settlers and colonists from central russia and abroad. he would but he was speaking of. the russian empire laid claim to the former territory of the ottoman empire on the northern shore of the black sea. russia had long been cut off from the black sea and set itself the goal of gaining access. over cool surely peter the great had opened a window on europe but communicating with european nations solely through a window was difficult. for her door was needed and that door access to the black sea on the mediterranean was opened by catherine the great.
to the russian nobility crimea seemed like an arcadia within the borders of their empire they spoke of it in almost tender tones as the pearl of the empire. principle runs off the governor general of new russia and crimea during the first half of the nineteenth century was one of the wealthiest and most powerful men in russia. in eight hundred twenty eight he had a palace built in a mauritian meo graphic style designed by the british architects of buckingham palace. it's an aftershock that's just starting i have to go sorest empire conquered crimea in seventeen eighty three it became
a desirable place for russians to visit or for various reasons these included its climate which compared to russian conditions and especially central russian or conditions was like another world. and he says he's got the south coast in particular with its mediterranean climate and volume sea was light sources and this was something russians had absolutely no experience of all they knew where the cold water is of are hungry for example angles so that was certainly one reason as big t.v. so many other factor that made crimea such an a try. active location from a russian perspective at least among the elite was the spread of western culture and values in the late eighteenth century and even since peter the great best o.p.'s in all the classical antiquity was in vogue at this particular time the until one day crimea russia had obtained a region that had contributed to this period and bequeath the rich classical
heritage of viet shits ninety quid cotton c.p.s. what. it was mainly the rich and powerful who profited from the conquest of crimea. princes counts and generals. bizarre as the empire generously gifted its elite with sea front property whose. recipients built luxury as parks and palaces. transforming the landscape into a scene of unrivalled opulence.
is this what you wish to conquer see you as always look at russian influence in crimea was substantial crimean influence on russia was just as great politics but above all on culture. or insult russian poets painters and writers flocked to the peninsula who should want to take alexander pushkin. toward the peninsula soaking up the spirit of classical antiquity which question was captivated by the scenery so unfamiliar to the russian i. presume you'd like greece crimea also weather influence on the fine arts. the history of russian painting is almost inconceivable without crimea. one of russia's greatest painters was even to write off the it was here that he reached the pinnacle of his artistic talent he wrote softly repeatedly painted the black sea in the landscapes of crimea he wasn't an ethnic russian he was an armenian but he had a tremendous influence on russian and european painting. a
selection of events of his works is on display in the artist's former residence in fair dosia. wrote his life he enjoyed the patronage of his are a grant from nicholas the first allowed him to study at the imperial academy of arts in st petersburg. theirs are also financed a five years study trip in western europe for the young artist and appointed him the official painter of the russian navy. even softly produced more than four thousand painting. but he wasn't only a popular artist he was also an entrepreneur. he made a decisive contribution toward the financing of a railway line to theodosia. my home address he wrote to a friend will always be fair dosia crimea. even soft he was born in fair dos or
in eight hundred seventeen. he died in one thousand nine hundred in fair dosia crimea. in eight hundred ninety eight the playwright and one checkoff had the white villa built in the mountains above the altar. checkoff suffered from tuberculosis and hope to find relief from his illness there. check of an actors from the moscow art theater at a reading of his play the siegel. leo tolstoy the patron saint of russian literature. the altar and the white fellow became a place to run devo for russian writers and intellectuals in crimea.
in the winter of one thousand know one chekhov wrote to his future bride in moscow i'm absolutely fine apart from a petty little matter my health. in july nine hundred four check of died on a visit to the german spa town of biden viler. he was forty four years old. peace was to last for another ten years then war broke out and everything changed. develop a course coming to an end sarrasin russia would soon be consigned to the annals of history. during the first world war stately homes in crimea were converted to military hospitals. then came the october revolution. lenin and the
bolsheviks seized power in russia the revolution rolled across the country. crimean tatars proclaimed the people's republic of crimea. then the red army arrived in crimea became the town read a soviet republic. but the revolution had not yet triumphed. german troops occupied crimea followed by the british and the french. and finally the remnants of the czarist army rallied here. full of a little song the profit after the october revolution the civil war broke out in russia between the reds and the conservative white gods the red army drove the white forces south relatively quickly and on time on the tonsil in around one nine hundred twenty crimea was one of the last region still controlled by the whites and in other words by the czarist military company of a large number of intellectuals fled to istanbul and western europe via crimea and
all based on all the high school. for. the long time this modest looking wooden lodge in the middle of a forest near my son drought was shrouded in mystery. it was rumored that every now and then black limousines would pull up to the property which remained closely guarded even though it stood empty for decades. it has since been established that stalin had the house built for himself in a small circle of aides the rooms it said were furnished in line with his wishes so that he could conduct business as usual if need be. but was he actually ever here. possibly but no one knows for sure.
but this concert going to leave quietly in the soviet era society was dedicated to implementing the idea of communism which we all believe that if we worked hard and implemented the idea the bright future of communism awaited us through quick wins. just to kill but gradually the idea assumed the form of a state religion. you know and eventually it became clear that the idea of communism was a big illusion of the bush league. for almost one hundred years the dream of communism in crimea had a concrete name arctic. seven kilometers of beach front a holiday paradise for four thousand children. are czech is a touch our word that means the best. established in one nine hundred twenty five
by the soviet government arctic first served as a clinic for children suffering from tuberculosis it was then turned into a camp for elite members of the young pioneers the communist party youth group. for children and teenagers from every soviet republic vacation joined by youngsters from all over the communist world. their relationships and friendships fostered here were geared toward securing a bright communist future for all and invitation to vacation in arctic was considered a great honor. only the very best were included. in twenty fifteen arctic was reopened as a youth camp for children and adolescents. the russian government has invested a lot of money here sports and games three weeks of holiday and lessons combined offered all year round and free of charge.
no one here talks politics the war and eastern ukraine may as well be going on on another planet not on our tax doorstep. friends focus on remembrance the words from the loudspeaker echo around the square . i i what's being reversed here and what might seem to be a relic of the past is a review in remembrance of the heroic days of the soviet union. in memory of the victory over nazi germany in the second world war. the was.
the group of honor contains the marble busts of those who spent their holidays here as children and lost their lives in war. in nazi propaganda crimea was idealized as an ancient germanic region that it once been conquered in settled by the gods. since all found on the hill is a truth what we have here is a typical mix of military strategy considerations economic expectations and something transcendental a symbolic as in we were here once before and now we have to take it back. but what we have also discovered is that many of the van must soldiers who were in crimea
experience it as a fascinating place because of us and that's one of. the palaces in stately residences remained unscathed in the battles for crimea. the last german troops left the peninsula in may one nine hundred forty four crimea was liberated. only a few months later the region was in the headlines when in february one thousand nine hundred five the altar conference was held at the live audio palace the summer residence of the last russians are. joseph stalin invited winston churchill and franklin delano roosevelt his allies in the war against nazi germany . the aim in yalta was to negotiate the distribution of power in post-war europe.
the big three agreed on the division of germany and the protection of their interests in the occupied countries of southern and central eastern europe. when the summit photo was taken the die had been cast and a new chapter opened for europe and the worst. after abdicating in one thousand seven hundred nicholas the second asked to be allowed to retire here but his request was denied. instead the tsar and his family were banished to siberia and later executed. his summer residence was turned into a sanatorium for farmers in the soviet union. the revolutionary soviet regime nationalized the palaces in crimea. under the
auspices of the first workers and farmers state the russian riviera for a select few was to be turned into a holiday paradise for all. the new soviet man was seen as a collective entity the principle of working and living together extended to vacations as well. rest and relaxation in the interests of increasing production. millions of soviet citizens gratefully accepted the state sponsored holidays. people from every soviet republic came to vacation in crimea the peninsula was part of the soviet union whether it was russian or ukrainian was of no interest it just didn't matter. for many people here the fact that the soviet union ultimately collapsed on the divergence of its constituent parts is an accident of history a painful failure. thinkers shorn the genesis of
a soviet people one that was no longer split up into separate nationalities but had something of a common identity was a concept repeated like a mantra in the soviet union for many years and i think that idea certainly existed to an extent and is definitely still present in many people's minds today if you want. the future is shaped by the past and in that sense to most inhabitants of crimea russia feels closer than ukraine. if a kurdish lots are once experts of international law tell us that russia annexed crimea the whole thing the demographic picture shows us that roughly sixty percent of its population is russian it's just under twenty five percent ukrainian and
twelve percent crimean toss and that the official result of the referendum was a communist style ninety seven percent in favor of. but that is incorrect what we probably can say is that this referendum which was not recognized internationally and was not held in accordance with international standards probably did result in a majority in favor of remix ation by russia but on the other hand of course it is unacceptable that minorities are simply ignored this is not really thought. that's money in the hype and for all split on. whether russia will learn to accept dissident thinkers and include them in its plans will prove decisive for everything that happens in crimea. the crimean is still iced irrespective of nationality for the first time crimea is perhaps somehow relevant in the post soviet psyche and it is now clear to the
ukrainian government that it can't simply relinquish crimea it's called. soul quo vadis crimea. it can only be hoped that the people of crimea can decide for themselves what lies ahead think whether we like it or not in my view we have no alternative but to accept that crimea is now and will remain russian jews live at. approaching even worse the ukraine the way the relationship between russia and ukraine is extremely dynamic. basically even today it has yet to find a definitive form though. you first of course she's going to add a point in time in the past crimea was handed over to ukraine in the past from the
russian to the ukrainian soviet republic within the framework of the soviet union. it's difficult to see that as a justifiable act it was a step within the framework of a single state and when one state is suddenly replaced by two independent states it's logical that both will stake a claim. time will pass and the relationship between the two countries will find reform and bounds. but the most important thing is that the voices of the people who live here are heard just to get. in the eyes of most of its inhabitants much has changed for the good since russia annexed crimea for them a look back evokes little nostalgic. skulk and that in time and again throughout the history of crimea there have been efforts
a cloudy day. thirty minutes. this is the gathering is coming to life from buddy and let's go right to our correspondent news in central istanbul i'm joined by the show a couple of you know who's political correspondent on those stories in just a minute but first this news just in it's all about perspective closer. to. come on.
was. in syria thousands of people continue to stream out of the rebel held district of eastern ghouta near the capital damascus artillery fire from syrian government forces and russian airstrikes has intensified more than three thousand civilians have been killed and thousands more wounded since the offensive began. russia has summoned the british