tv Doc Film - Secrets of the Stone Age Part 2 Witnesses for Eternity Deutsche Welle July 11, 2018 9:15pm-10:00pm CEST
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if you. live the human race has been building stone structures for eight years. what are the origins of these structures. what were they used for. and how did people move them into place. good luck. about ten thousand years ago humans became sedentary they started growing crops and raising livestock. needlessly people were no different from ourselves they appreciated the for. in the things that these thirty
six the legacy of the neolithic age endures to this day. the new people were the first to become heavily dependent on material goods just as we are today on the harvest heighten. our knowledge of this period is based on archaeological discoveries. and is into stone structures are a key to understanding early civilizations. much of the archaeological evidence has been buried for example our ancestors concealed their large stone tombs today these sites resemble hills. such landmarks were meant to last any turn it to. the oldest evidence of sedentary cultures has been found in what is now jordan syria palestine northern iraq and southern anatolia.
nine thousand years ago this region was probably more humid in densely forested than it is now. archaeologists discovered several prehistoric settlements near the ruins of the ancient city of patron in southwestern georgia. the yacht is about ten kilometers west of wa the move or the valley of most. it was an extremely important find. now for the first time archaeologists bands and her colleagues are trying to reach the excavation site during the winter. in. the site is located on a plateau twelve hundred meters above sea level to reach the plateau the team has to hike through a gorge. sometimes the gorge is blocked by rain water or snow. but today the
weather is fine. and ben is a member of the research association x. orient which is affiliated with the free university of berlin. this site was discovered more than twenty years ago by the german archaeologists hans-georg abel was also the director of the excavation project and the chairman of ex orienting. so far the team that carried out excavation work at six different sites in the area and have taken samples from several others. the entire site covers one point five hectares. the evidence recovered so far indicates that coopt were growing here. not only dorothy it wouldn't as either one of the big questions for us is why would
people want to settle up here. but possibly to protect themselves as can be closed off very easily. because it's also possible that the surrounding area has become overpopulated so these people move to the plato. as recent as now it was a founding society and people also raised cattle sheep and goats that sort of to see if. they developed specialized methods of farming and breeding livestock bomba there was a social hierarchy but we've not yet been able to determine the presence of a differentiation in social status is no it's not like his income. was. the houses are all about the same size and that indicates that this was an egalitarian society it also appears that they
were built close together there was no room for pathways between them. the rooms of the houses were very small. thank. people seem to have spent a lot of time on the roofs. how come. the small chambers were used to store food and house life stock. from this side was very carefully planned for example we determined that all three of these passageways of the same height off the on the small of axes and the masonry is quite neatly layered in places so it's likely that specialists did it in the early days of the settlement. none of the time as i understand in the hold on the
other hand they knew nothing about using support bins to shore up the walls. so they kept the walls from falling down by building the structures that you see here . so hard when that was put on. since the boyar settlers built with stone part of their history can be reconstructed. but these structures tell us nothing about the people who lived here their thoughts and beliefs. tombs are better suited for this. archaeologists have already discovered militant graves here and in summer two thousand and sixteen the team made a discovery that revealed much about the way that this community buried its dead. on these new homes there with found a room that had three different graves and one clinic it was a collective site where adults and children were buried together and the guns have
all they was also supposed example of an individual site which contained a rich assortment of burial items. we also found a grave in which two children aged three to five years old and a baby were buried just add to. the. genetic analysis might help determine the relationships among the deceased. but it's not yet clear whether the bone material will provide enough d.n.a. . archeologists spend a lot of. i'm analyzing the data that they've compiled. their primary goal is to document the original state of the site as accurately as possible. the excavation work at the but ya site indicates that it was an autonomous settlement that had no recognizable social hierarchy. if so that was a remarkable achievement. they flushed and have just imagine
a settlement of more than a thousand people that lasted for more than five hundred he is in a similar area surrounded by deep gorges as they lived in a very confined space and they did so without major conflicts that's an enormous social accomplishment for people who had only recently become sedentary. wouldn't. room. it's not yet clear why the settlement was later abandoned. there's no evidence of communal violence. it's possible that the residents depleted the local forests and grazing land. or perhaps the area was hit by a major drought. there are many possible explanations. scientists have proven the existence of one major climate phenomenon that changed living
conditions throughout the mediterranean region. six thousand one in approximately sixty two hundred b.c. and i stammered north america collapsed and that caused two huge lakes to pour their contents into the atlantic ocean up the crude this major inflow of water interrupted the gulf stream for more than a century and that in turn produced cooler temperatures in the mediterranean region perhaps one or two degrees celsius the middle. and there was a big drop in precipitation when these phenomena posed a real threat to early neolithic peoples who does include two and on the edge of the pool dodged. perhaps that's why people abandon the ba'ath settlement even today jordan suffers from water shortages and in summer temperatures often rise above forty degrees centigrade.
a climate change incident that took place about a thousand years ago has left its mark throughout europe the middle east and north africa. since the end of the last great ice age sea levels have been rising continuously. just four thousand five hundred years ago the water level on france's brittany peninsula was several meters lower than it is today. or. over time the sea moved about five hundred meters farther inland. french archaeologists costs and believes that many stone age relics have been covered up by the sea listen i'm in the hole it didn't evolve on the rise in the sea level certainly depends on fluctuations in climate including the ice age and post ice age
phases the ice a few sea levels have been rising in this part of brittany for more than sixty thousand years but in the last thousand years of hunter gatherer societies it rose especially rapidly the lovable to the sea of hockey that. both are only supposed enjoyed over just one generation entire fishing and food gathering ground simply disappeared can you describe a service you set for located. between forty five hundred and three. thousand b.c. in advanced megalithic culture developed along the coast of britain. there are three large stone structures near the village of locum arioch in the air gras passage great. men here and it term called the tabla demo shot. no human remains or burial objects have been found at the marshall site but there
are a number of impressive rock engravings. before that a fair bit of several symbols were carved into the ceiling there are three separate groups of symbols this time there's an x. with a handle so. you can see the polished blade and its edge he said you can also see the pointed handle pick. it end of the handle is curved in the shape of a snail the ruby heap of the me above that a crooked stick or crook you know and finally a drawing of an animal like you'd find on the island of nice new super cool for a game's. governance lies in the gulf of more beyond so the local residents must have had boats that could transport huge rocks. go poorly made them all. to get from here to the island and it really was an island at that time you had to
have a boat is good but not just a rock or a dock out those and so if you're going to exceed a certain height. i think they needed a proper water craft to get that had planks tied tightly together. the governess capstone weighed more than twenty tons so you can imagine that the boat had to be pretty large going to up and see if you'll still be back to. the megalithic tomb site on government once contained a stone structure that was even taller than the ground men here of local mariachi.
the column was later torn down but some of the stone was later reused a tribute to the symbolic importance that the structure once held. me a. little. more. to the south of the coal business or one of the men here of aircraft is certainly the greatest example of this kind of monumental stone structure of the city explorer. several hundred years after it was a wreck did the men here fell over and broke into four pieces no one seems to know exactly how or why this happened. the men here had towered eight hundred meters
over the countryside. at the time it was the tallest upright stone structure of its cause. does everything on and see is the guns and these monumental structures played an important role in the collective memory of society and they continue to do so even fifty generations after they were built to look and that's not later generations probably associated the structures with something entirely different landing in the uk or going to never to and from which it must come to on this the need for born. we can only speculate on the thought processes of neolithic peoples. how did they have madge in the world that they lived in. the engravings on these huge stone that the money loot site also me our local arioch a may provide some insight.
at first glance they may seem unrecognizable but a closer inspection shows that each has a story to tell. you see now here's one both you know the c. and s. and another the paralleled vertical lines represent the crew got a coup key sci fi to keep. images of boats waves and whales is it possible that these neolithic people had developed certain aspects of maritime culture. we see decision here's an image of a whale the body including a square feet and is clearly visible he beyond the sheep. taking a city on the left and up here you can see the spout which is depicted as a divergent office you could see a convenient convention and. we
can't say for sure whether the local residents thought that whales were dangerous wild animals or were merely a symbol of marine life in the gulf of moore beyond. ancient peoples often painted or carved images of animals. did they do so out of respect and admiration or simply because they enjoy doing. some of this artwork including paintings engravings and relief decorations is beautifully done. the farmers and herders who moved west from asia minor did not do so directly it was an irregular process that
took place over several thousand years to. design one new only thing these neolithic immigrants first encountered local european hunter gatherers about seventy five hundred years ago at the latest these are the original inhabitants had been in europe for forty thousand years they'd probably seen archaic human species such as neanderthals and had experienced various periods of glacial activity as you can feel. the hunter gatherers were there first guns and they were genetically distinct from the immigrant population on. their last common ancestors probably date back thirty thousand years or so didn't let the mines on for fun was all and certainly enough time to develop their own culture language and even physical appearance into beacons on and off and to see this is often. the differences between these two groups were quite obviously
honest friend foreston. europe's original inhabitants were hunters. the new immigrants had been farmers for several generations. and hunters and gatherers left behind little archeological evidence. later they probably migrated to less fertile regions perhaps near newly populated areas. along the coast of northern europe they found rich fishing grounds and decided to settle.
here in the colony modern region on the west coast of ireland archaeologists are researching this key transitional phase. this is the only mount of this type targeting was stretch of coast here so this is clearly a very significant place that has survived in the landscape it's likely to be much bigger in the past. so i'll need to show the shutters pointed to a seasonal occupation site as part of a seasonal round of living on the shore here we have all the shell middens on the shoreline here but they're inches or centimeters deep this is a monumental mitten if you like on like any other one along the shoreline here so it's it's it's a particular sites and housing probably is a sacral are sacred dimension to us. hopefully we'll get to explore in time as the site has been ruled by by the elements. but it looks like of course i know
archaeologists have uncovered a number of small treasures here. but there are states a kitchen midden which is a site that was built out of the results of cooking here between six and maybe eight thousand years ago to create a way or the farmers here are the preceding population of hunter gatherers living on the shore of galway bay or sort of right along its line to coles the our night is out behind us and is very boring granite landscape very unfair to i growing saw fish resources and shellfish resign. this is hugely important so some of the early asides in europe and their use investigators archaeological sites in europe are show from the very north to denmark but over the last two hundred years to be an investigations carried out on shell mounds but this is a classic example of one here. for years experts disagreed on the origins of these accumulations of shells the size of some thought that they'd been
washed ashore over time by ocean waves but now the majority opinion is that they were created by humans. as we suspect it is and misled take our transition side between the misery to hold together war does relieve the question european archaeology is also gathers because the new lazic to be adopted neolithic already displaced by early farming groups coming in from the consulate isn't going to be political and from one of the great unanswered questions about the neolithic period is whether the farming peoples emigrates to this region of the hunter gatherers turned to farming and became city entry and assistance mission trying to difficult to say for sure but in many cases we can assume that it was both from us out of this evidence to support each of these theories by this is connected to bias could just begin. between thirty eight hundred and twenty hundred b.c. neolithic peoples in northern europe built
a number of massive stone structures. german archaeologist speculates on why they did that. because from what i flung. it was during the ice age glaciers deposited huge boulders throughout northern germany and large parts of north central europe. this didn't bother the hunter gathering peoples but as. as soon as they became seven terry and began to cultivate large fields the boulders became a big problem and it will get much less even and for him big league. by this time people have learned how to move heavy objects like boulders. this was a major development. given now was it
a two if would get neolithic peoples discovered the concept of traction and approximately four thousand b.c. this is just about the time that the first megaliths were built as well get the good people have used teams of oxen to pull the boulders out of the fields to cheat us to feed them and they use these boulders to build cold sites or tune sort of men hears about these large single structures. so they found practical uses for these boulders and they cleared their fields as well. they used the same teams of oxen to plow those fields and became incredibly productive much more so than southern european peoples who hadn't discovered that kind of ploughing yet you know how wild was about. farming at this time was hard work particularly for those who used simple tools to till the soil. and since people were living more closely together in small spaces they ran an increased risk
of contracting disease. still the population of farmers grew more quickly than that of the hunter gatherers. and there was a big increase in construction in scotland the first stone circles were built. burial grounds began to appear in northern germany. and huge stone columns were erected in brittany for example the main here to shandong all. the structure is nine point five meters tall and the component parts were hauled from a site that was at least four kilometers away. and more. the men here get out tom de lay is eight meters tall and weighs about one hundred
sixty times. it lame slightly to one side because it was built on soft ground. this structure and two others near it were said to guard the entrance to hell. there are more than three thousand men here in the area around karna. why did the local residents build these structures. search cussen has been trying to answer that question for years. seen the kid on or off the local the local residents place the trust in those who were able to ensure their survival. and they were willing to work to put up ritual structures to one of them for the vital few security is the one you see examples of this just about everywhere to one extent or another. so. big because the way they see.
this is the barn in a burial mound in northern brittany. it's one of the oldest structures of its kind and was often expanded over the course of one thousand years. the mound contains eleven goldman's or single chamber tumors. the structures consist of at least two vertical megaliths and a horizontal capstone. it's often difficult to spot them from a distance but they are either part of a large stone complex or they've been covered over with soil. draft animals can haul large objects only on a flat surface. sometimes neolithic peoples build ramps to make this possible.
new. code of. large stone slabs like these can weigh up to one hundred thirty tons. it took huge teams of workers to move these objects even just a few centimeters you could imagine the amount of work that was required to place a huge capstone on top of the vertical pillars. these projects were wired an enormous amount of planning and organization. so why did people build these structures. it was just a beautiful limited i think they wanted to create something that was truly monumental get most of the structures when you build tech gravesites it wasn't enough to simply bury the deceased people wanted to put up some sort of memorial later generations had no idea that it was a burial site but the structure did last for centuries and illegal to disappear to
the eaves kates of all. the first neolithic farming peoples continue to migrate across europe. sun even made their way to northern scotland probably by sea. the nests of broad gar is a major archeological site in the orkney islands. the nests and the area around it were designated a world heritage site in one thousand nine hundred nine. these just on buildings these are pieces of all content should be viewed fully
constructed and it's not just an overnight sensation this site voice special for over a thousand years. this is what the nasa might have looked like stone buildings covered with pete. as far as we know these were not residential structures still. excavation director nick card and his team can only work here for two months a year because of the bad weather. the rest of the time the site is covered by protective shield. the archaeologists have unearthed hundreds of beautifully decorated relics. now john. each item could shed some light on what life was like here. at this point archaeologists are still filling in the blanks.
you know. what were these decorated stone slabs used for there are indications that some of them were painted. a large amount of animal bones have been found this indicates that the local residents organized feasts here. and. experts believe that the nest of broad gar was abandoned and partially dismantled by about twenty two hundred b.c. archaeologists have found no evidence of bronze age culture here. color seems to be in a very important part of the everyday life of people. in some ways of being luckier than a suit some of the preservation in particular areas of the site has been very cute and so we hop managed to pick up evidence for color not just in the ceramics but also actually in the walls of the buildings. nic card and his team have found evidence of painted walls.
the use of decorative paint or dye has also been confirmed at neolithic sites on the mediterranean island of malta. the first large temples were built around forty five hundred b.c. and all were colorfully decorated. the color red is the color of blood so if as we are assuming there was an element of on the moon the sacrifice the collection of blood told you saw blood in some form then one could be led to believe the thread represented the color of blood which represents a life full represents the thoughts of the sacrifice of anonymous so there may be this link between kala ritual and.
these beautiful relief artworks were carved in sandstone and indicate that animals were important to the local residents game animals and pets. why did neolithic artisans choose these particular subject. a number of food result to include. during the. the worship of nature the worship of fertility the idea of a mother god this comes from the discovery of a number of statues which i believe to represent a fertile woman. the idea coming from one's mother have a mother of a mother but the origin of mother is mother. these images indicate that women in
the olympic society enjoyed a special status. to fall is the. women represented not only fertility but also strength and political power this has been this image would change later of course but it was stable for at least a few millenia in neolithic times it was an age where gender equality was the norm and men didn't dominate women and men the fall of the mutants. milicic peoples also developed an interest in acquiring personal property. in their little hundred men during the neolithic period people began to define themselves by their material goods. they put a lot of time and effort into this process side of an industry and for the first time they began to attach economic value to these goods. and that value became the
basis for trade on that with these about four hundred of. the nearly six settlement of by god and southwestern jordan is guarded by a narrow gorge of red sandstone. the local residents use that sandstone to make distinctive semi-circular handicrafts. owes it to so far that these people would carve out a disk shape. and then they create these items out of the material that was left over on a pulley but sand down. each and until they were quite certain. they gave us and these items were probably too delicate for people to read they are very fragile and there's nothing to replace not to this last time if one does a thing it does have it's possible that these rings were used like money. in exchange for food overall materials for example an addict and i am to tell us
what. perhaps the way ya settlers chose this site because of the color of the rocks . red colored artifacts have been found at other sites and this indicates that the yacht may have served as a model. neolithic peoples more ornamented objects made of teeth animal horns and plant fibers they also used flint jadeite and up city on. the use of axe heads made of jade was popular at the time the trade in jade items was widespread and they maintained their beauty even today. since the shimmer of exquisite lustrous stores of value. they were used for up to fifteen hundred years and constantly reshaped. before one of our colleagues.
determined that all this jade came from monte visa in the western alps copeman would forbit was extracted there and then traded over an area of up to fifteen hundred kilometers house order for hundreds. some jade x. heads were also discovered on the southern coast of brittany near carnac's. people who are gathering muscles came across for acceptance but it ended up in what was in the olympic times alou feel soil. i did so to. see these acts heads were probably actual work tools at one time but they were later reshaped and assigned various other functions but yes you do. see the local residents smooth and clean the plates to make them a shop as possible. also sometimes they broke the axe heads into two
parts that could also be used against you nothing will salt. in the summer of two thousand and sixteen french archaeologist pierre petrarca found a deposit of jadeite in the age and region. the material may have been mined there up to nine thousand years ago. patrick constance coverage provided new historical insights. but trading was not limited at this time to jade obsidian or sandstone rings which the shells of spiny oysters were also used. here austrian archaeologists marco prosecutor uses a reproduction of an ancient tool to make jewelry out of the shells. the shells are found all the way from the black sea to the coasts of central europe . neolithic people fashioned them into pendants bracelets and belt buckles.
and they were popular as gifts. in. the neolithic period covered several thousand years. that's not very long in the timeline of history but our ancient and. sisters have the same spiritual and emotional needs that we do today. this period saw fundamental changes in everyday life and the ways that people lived and worked together. they began to bury their dead and to honor them afterward they built houses they raised crops and livestock.
they organize themselves in the construction projects and erected huge stone structures and some of these have survived to this very day. does it seem as if. on the transition to civilization in europe began with the arrival of the migrants from the east even short migration produced civilization one thing cities that survived. the indigenous hunter gathering peoples either merged into these new societies or adopted sedentary farming culture on their own. there was no turning back. just to see how that was absolutely a major step forward and says of history this neolithic sedan tree culture provided
the basis for the development of later ordered bombs civilization instead of the most beautiful it also created a number of challenges but people dealt with them successfully for going. to understand the present we must also understand the past rapid population growth of consumerism and the rise of megacities our phenomenon whose origins lie in the mill with a period where sedentary life began to. good . luck.
the wording in the end it's your trial today on t.w. news. sarno just couldn't get this song out of his head. the colleges began searching for the source of these captivating sounds and found that deep in the rain forest in central africa and electable in the fleet a building left in the gloom why only one thing led to. a livable cause. it was some fascinating by their. culture that he stayed. only a promise to his son made sarno leave the jungle and return to the concrete and glass jungle of work. the result reverse culture shock. from the forest starts. w. .
this is g.w. news live from berlin tonight the pictures their parents and the world have waited to see the first images of the boys rescued from a flooded cave in thailand are now recovering in the hospital we learned today that the boys were sedated during the rescue to keep them called also coming out in germany.
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