tv Doc Film - Secrets of the Stone Age - Part 1 From Hunters to Farmers Deutsche Welle July 14, 2018 5:15am-6:00am CEST
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other part of the human race has been building huge stone structures for ages. what are the origins of these structures. what were the circular constructions used for. many of these structures were sealed up thousands of years ago by the people who built them. but in some cases wind and waves wore away that protective covering over time.
these structures are called mega lists. you could call them gigantic works of art we get a little sad moment that is down on black neighbor built long before the paramedics the technical and logistical muster paces that push the limits of human imagination . large stone structures like these were built in many places around the world. for example in the far north of scotland you'll find ancient constructions that are older than stonehenge. every home but lump in both that you see could be a new off your logical site. if you're particularly during the ploughing season new sites are discovered by farmers. these discoveries outline an important chapter in human history.
in tell about twelve thousand years ago our ancestors were hunters and gatherers. then and the reversible transition to a new way of life got underway. in. the vix it form of the void the transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary farming was a key development don't damage discussions to sydney for millions of years people had lived by hunting and gathering in that season and suddenly their lives changed radically much more so than during the transition to industrialization or the digital age. this is. a small hill in southeastern turkey. here in one thousand nine hundred four german archaeologist klaus schmidt discovered a series of huge stone structures including decorated pillars that way up to twenty tons.
a few years later austrian archaeologist bob a whole crash began researching the site. he says soon born to give a key is not only an architectural treasure and one of the most important structures of its kind in the world. it also symbolizes the beginning of the need to think. and sense. the good berkeley to pick complex was built by hunters and gatherers that is before mankind became sedentary this fact revolution ally's the conventional archaeological wisdom. and we discovered a society that was completely new to us. that society had such a long history and yet some aspects of it were familiar to us. why it is an aggressive lion for example it was just as much a threat to the people who built as it is to us today. for stand.
for those who live near the site a parallel supernatural world was part of everyday life. in. this crane may have symbolized the connection between the earth and the heaven. beetles and snakes were important little logical symbols in many cultures. there seem to have been few barriers between the natural world and the supernatural . teams of archaeologists from germany and turkey have only excavated a fraction of the site but they've determined that this period of mysticism was
relatively short lived. this didn't get out of our research indicates that the early ten. have said and terry societies kept covering up these sites and sealing them shut so that they could no longer be used. that these sites were preserved in the collective memory of society for a very long time that there are good reasons like abandon for thousands of years. old well. perhaps the first farmers wanted to distance themselves from the practices of their ancestors. good backley had lost its original meaning people had become sedentary. for.
the director of the state museum of prehistory and holler mellor says this was a major turning point in human history. if you were to have this new little it was really decisive that here we have nearly four thousand acts heads from the new little period. that i. used axes to clear forests to create farmland. they also used them to spit wooden beams which were then used to build complex houses. this construction of housing was a key element in the transition to sedentary life. in dimension would mean that sis huffed. hunters and gatherers also stayed in one place for extended periods provided that they could find enough food. but the changes that took place in the neolithic period or revolutionary. you see yourself heard of this mention is
aneesh this transition to sedentary life was a key development. for thousands of years people had to live as hunter gatherers a natural way of life. would. they fed themselves in a natural way as well as if they had relatively few children because the women did not become pregnant while they were breastfeeding we. hear that all that changed radically with the development of agriculture because that prompted people to change their diet. grain now provided carbohydrates and domesticated animals provided meat and fats. well this fits a man who would fit that increased the content in the body. also women became pregnant more often and this led to a population explosion. that in turn meant that people had to live together in
smaller spaces and houses settlements and villages. the work of archaeologists is often like trying to solve a puzzle they carefully dig up artifacts that belong to a specific society and then try to recreate an image of what that society was like . some objects like the shards of decorated pottery have lent their names to entire cultures for example the linear pottery culture which coincides with the first appearance of food producing societies. burial sites are often rich sources of information for archaeologists not just human remains but various items that were buried with the deceased. for example an expert can determine whether a person was buried properly. if not animals may have gotten into the grave and
shoot at the bones. maria tesla nicola is the director of the archaeological biology department at vienna's museum of natural history she says you can learn a lot from skeletons. for example we've confirmed vitamin deficiencies unstressed symptoms in some remains and that helps us to reconstruct what people ate and other aspects of daily life form and in me we found evidence of anemia in the upper reaches of ice ocket the man we've seen evidence of vitamin c. deficiencies in the alveolar ridges and other bone formations as i'd asked if we analyze this evidence systematically and we can extrapolate it to the entire population and try to reconstruct specific living and working conditions.
archeologists always try to determine the age of artifacts the development of radiocarbon dating was a major step forward in this process. over the last twenty years genetic analysis has also provided important evidence. experts can now examine human and animal d.n.a. that is several thousand years old. anthropologist says that genetic analysis of livestock can provide information on the migration patterns of neolithic foreigners. the island asked not as often but we did our very first tests on domestic animals and determined that all the european cattle are descended from iranian cattle and as a guy looked at it today this why those animals are found in switzerland or east breeziness somewhere but they originally came from another tallia and the middle
east. and then we thought perhaps we can apply that hypothesis to the migration of neolithic people in the field and up to ten years of research we were able to determine that these people from anatolia especially northwest anatolia are indeed the ancestors of all the european new little peoples. of and would not listen at all and for fun i'll avoid a lot over place new litigants and. it's difficult to find well preserved genetic material from this period in warm environments bones decay more quickly and with them the genetic evidence another problem is that sometimes older genetic material has been contaminated by newer material which produces inaccurate results . still archaeologists have come up with some interesting findings. in that i'm digging almost on a. genetic analysis of skeletons from northwestern turkey specifically an area
south of istanbul shows that merely think people in modern day germany and spain were descended from an ancient people that we called a.g.s. . again there is evidence that the migrants at that time highs used both the mediterranean and a buncombe root word order and about a kind of tree. farming people spread rapidly throughout europe over several hundred years. dignities couldn't even yet have the technology we have today is incomparably better than it was twenty years ago we can using face of and noninvasive methods plus isotope analysis which has been widely used in anthropology for about fifteen years to track prehistoric migration patterns. into pains to own up to fourteen. here examines a tooth that's about five thousand years old tooth enamel does not change over the
course of a person's life so scientists can tell from its composition where people grew up. the same technology is used to determine the place of origin of some modern day foods. the place of origin can always be clearly determined whether in plants animals or humans. in plenty business or does we have no use this data to confirm a definite pattern of migration and not just a transfer of ideas he won't need in effect we've been able to track the colonizing nation of your own. i hope our colonies see that. there are a few traces of europe's original residents the hunters and gatherers who lived there for thousands of years. they were probably displaced by the new settlers or
absorbed into new societies. at this point europe had been settled by migrants from the middle east. but what prompted them to move into this new territory. it's hard to say i don't think it had anything to do with overpopulation not at that point in time in choppy lation density was low compared to what it is today it was nearly peoples may simply have heard about this region and decided to go there with the money perhaps some groups had been there and came back and spread the word contact if i can only speculate but i think one reason may have been simple human curiosity as i did when the mission of to be reason was wondrous for my good. hunters and gatherers eventually learned to travel by sea. later some of the
sedentary farmers also use boats to travel west we don't know whether they used sailboats or rowing boats. in any case rowing boats were easier to maneuver. these migrants spread gradually to mediterranean islands including one that today is known as malta. the republic of malta actually consists of three inhabited islands malta itself plus camino and gozo and several smaller islands that are uninhabited malta is located approximately eighty kilometers south of sicily on a clear day one can see sicily from goes over likewise one can see gold so
from sicily so one must assume. there was a degree of curiosity in the people from society just wondering us toward the sly. was that lays slightly beyond the horizon. however it's it's hard to grasp why people would decide to leave such a fair trial island a society and in order to occupy and colonize somewhere the earth was far away. the first to arrive were probably explorers perhaps then followed by their families .
about two thousand years later some of the residents started building temples. the origins of these monumental structures are still shrouded in mystery. some of these limestone blocks way up to twenty tons they could turn to dust before we find out more about them. a marine archaeologist at the university of montana is trying to preserve the ruins here he's photographing some of them. gambon converts the photos to three d. animated images. this is what the temples might have looked like. but he says he's running out of time to complete his work. but. what's incredible is that the
rate of erosion has been much faster over the past seventy years than it has been in the past four thousand five hundred years and that is not just because that been uncovered but because you have aspects such as acid the rain lucian carbon monoxide and so on but actually accelerate so it's not just the period of time since there have been uncovered but since we've got all these more than paula newton's this is really accelerating the rate fell for ocean. this is the house our team temple complex on the main island it's a major tourist attraction. the canopy is designed to protect the site from the elements and slow the process of erosion. you know all these temples are a thousand years older than stonehenge which for
a country that's a colony of britain this becomes a. big thing all over southern our near lithic is a thousand years older than the people that are ruling us you know so this is a this is also this is what i mean about the political factor that these structures come to play. but why did people build these structures. we humans wants a comfortable life we want not to be hungry and not to be sick the way to do it was to make sure that the gods were were smiling up on new in one way to make the gods smile upon you was to build monuments in their own. this is what the site looks like without the canopy. we can now we construct how the temple
might have looked in its original form. but we can only speculate about its actual purpose and what sorts of rituals might have been carried out there who was allowed to enter the inner sanctum and who was not. there is a clear division between the inside space and the old door space the temple is built cover though it is the real name of the priest or priestess is the outsiders open to the elements and the rearm of the common people this vision is clearly thought of into the zine of the tempest. the interior of the temple is hidden from the outside world. and this hole in the stone may have been used by an oracle it provides
a connection to the temple interior. what was sacred to the local residents at that time. what gods did they worship if any. did they have sacrificial rituals. we can only speculate. the site leaves many questions unanswered. the temples of malda were used for about two thousand years and then they were abandoned. why did that happen. regarding the moment that time and this is very typical of prehistoric cultures is that they were not able to achieve real societal consistency we had no established traditions that could be passed down from generation to generation like written records a class of priests or a line of hereditary loves me because those are key elements in cultural development prehistoric cultures that did not have these elements didn't last long and need some dogs.
some of the farming peoples who sailed toward central and western europe traveled as far as what is now spain and portugal and the brittany peninsula in modern day france. going to. the rocky coastline provided building materials for these new settlers. they created a new society at the dawn of the neolithic age a society that remains a mystery to this day.
the temples that were built in malta are unique to that island. just as these rows of standing stones are to the village of car knock on britain a south coast. the legacy of these and other structures has been preserved in one of the regional languages breton. the word men here means long stone. dolman means stone table it describes a specific kind of grave it's impossible to accurately translate these words into
other languages experts have tried to solve the mystery of the standing stones in vain. cussen is an archaeologist at the university of not. sick of this spectacular sight of us they were to the stone rose of kanakas. found impression on everyone who sees it. people are stone age by the scope and the size of it that is all sort of it simply boggles the mind that when you walk and it gives new meaning to the word monumental. circuit i mean the one where you wanted to take. the rows of stones cover an area of more than three kilometers the site used to be much larger and. came. to me.
every rock is distinctive and each one could have its own individual meaning. some researchers believe that the stones represent an expression of political power. others believe that supernatural forces were at work here. still others simply see role upon the role of gravestone. only. a man with. no sin brainwashed it through is not a regional or local design of the mist and we don't know it's all records but you really can call it architecture that imago should take to. the rows of stones extended from the coast into the interior. perhaps they
indicated a pathway of some sort if so where did it lead. you that i'm story why. one thing is clear is that and this applies to war megalithic structures it's a sacred construction that involves the landscape and living space this is because you really can see that in the robes of stones and they're linked to a sacred site what i'm talking. megalithic sites are found on many mediterranean islands and along the atlantic coast as far north as britain. they were also built along the north sea and the baltic sea coast. but there are none of the sites in modern day hungary austria or southern germany that is places
where migrants travelled overland. what's the explanation for that. supposed to be nearly tickets and as these new look at people's left central anatolia they experienced the shop reduction in cultural diversity and. they were farmers when they arrived in europe as they travelled along the balkan route they lost their connection to their previous society including the construction of large monuments david came highly specialized farmers and they were very good at it all but it was not a life that was rich in culture. the only life the migrations from the first question to australia continued for nearly five thousand years.
in many parts of europe receding ice age glaciers left behind lots of boulders. the neolithic migrants found large areas of fertile topsoil and what is now eastern austria. but there weren't a lot of large rocks that could be used for construction so they used other materials. in the one nine hundred eighty s. researchers who were analyzing aerial photographs discovered circular shapes in the soil in austria's danube region. this was definitely something worth looking into. getting us in the cave missed meet the new film it in the us with all the psychos and aerial photos led to excavations and they found these huge money meant that we're more than six thousand years old will feel it even archaeologists just wondered what they'd been used for for the schools and there was
a lot of discussion about it back in the one nine hundred eighty s. . in phone call there were all sorts of possible explanations everything from fort to meeting places temples or cattle pens the point that the winds. here just use radar to scan the area to get an idea of what sort of structures might have been built here fences ditches or entryways archeologist involved can know about or has used this equipment to investigate sites around the world. for example know about it was able to prove that stonehenge perhaps the world's most famous prehistoric monument was originally made of wood. these circular shapes can be seen from the air only at certain times of the year
provided that they've not been covered up by blowing soil. noid bower found a total of forty circular ditches. in the vine fearful region of northeastern austria. in two thousand and five archaeologist. there and his team reconstructed one of these ditches near the town of helton bag they used stone tools and the same materials that would have been available during the stone age including wood bone and plant fibers. but it's the stone structures that tell us the most about our ancient ancestors. on the north sea island of silt for example there are more than five hundred burial sites made of stone.
a number of neolithic tombs can also be found on the northern german mainland and in denmark archaeologists continue to excavate and analyze some of the sites. these large stone tombs were often used for centuries. these mega little tombs people a sense of identity the local residents perform their rituals that help them to reaffirm their existence so these sites really did help to shape society at that time. mentioning. burial practices can tell us a lot about a given society and its people. a
little people's used common burial sites but there's little evidence of individual graves it's as though the deceased lost their identity. during the early neolithic period the focus was on the community not the individual . those who could contribute substantially to the community were held in high regard. over time our ancestors began to create high quality elaborately designed ceramics this beautifully decorated bowl was found in a grave there little's than in the eastern german state of saxony on hold i don't such as these and burial practices in general can tell us much about society including the status of women. just i don't know if i'm newly we've observed no major differences in the way that man was women whether carried in the olympic societies that are in many cases women were given burials that were just as elaborate as those for men and sometimes even more so much of what i get started.
with the only. room. but did neolithic burial objects really indicate the status of women in society. stone constructions represent spiritual immortality that is the deceased will be remembered forever. kind isn't the biggest of the key element in reconstructing ancient architecture whether it's temple buildings or tombs are the stone building blocks and see if these structures had been made of wood good we would have found very few remains we
could only speculate as to how large the structure had been but the stone blocks really gave us an idea of what it was like in prehistoric times when women tended to eat in plays dilutions hiking one. there's an amazing variety of neolithic structures in the orkney islands off the northeastern coast of scotland. excavation work began at this site in two thousand and two led by archaeologists nic card. i think what we're seeing today is just really very simply our experience of what was here five thousand years ago our eyes are drawn to these wonderful upstanding monuments over the last ten years the universe the highlands and islands has embarked on a large scale geophysical program all five of the sorry i write in these more new bits to see what else was potentially here and what we've discovered is that the
landscape which is filled with more new things. excavations have yielded evidence of sites that were used by cults as well as settlements and graves the concentration of neolithic structures on the island is extensive. this is the maze of burial site. the standing stones of stenness form one of the oldest circular structures in britain. one hundred fifty. meters away are the remains of the barn house settlement. the entrance to the narrow headland is guarded by a five point six metre high called the watch stone. further along we find the nests of broad gar a major settlement that included houses
a huge stone wall and even a version of a cathedral. archaeologists have discovered other neolithic structures that lie directly on the coast. and in. this settlement include some small stone houses much of the excavation site has been covered to protect the masonry from the elements no visitors are allowed only nic card and his team. people really no different from. what you see here is everything that you'd expect . with the electricity in the water. the flat construction protects the structure against stormy weather the grass roof provides warmth.
people lead a decent life here as far as we know there were no armed conflicts or other serious existential threats at the time. the local forests were more widespread in the times and the climate was relatively mild thanks to the influence of the gulf stream. the conditions were ideal for growing crops and raising livestock. and there were also plentiful supplies of fish. during the neolithic the fire is that great. and what we're finding is that there's material being drawn to it from right now we're told. britta but equally a lot of the ideas that seem to dominate the true history of britain seem to of originated in the old new orleans.
was the stone circle of orkney a model for similar structures throughout britain. meanwhile archaeologists have been able to pursue eisley determined militant migration patterns. all they need to carry out a comprehensive analysis are a few bones or teeth that contain traces of d.n.a. . this is the same method that proved that central europeans were descended from the people of anatolia. researchers also came up with another surprising discovery. in i'm slightly short where they examined genetic material found in what is now iran that is the heartland of the fertile crescent and they found a break in the migration paten approximately between western iran and western
anatolia the cities of the population groups had become so diverse there are indications that they may have split up between fifty and seventy thousand years ago following the migration of anatomically modern humans from africa both major groups became sedentary farm the land and built houses. horse of both. populations made the transition to sedentary culture in both europe and asia at about the same time but of course independently of one another. megalithic structures can be found throughout asia and especially in korea.
constellations the patterns of stars play an important role in korean mythology. well into modern times it was not unusual to find images of constellations engraved on headstones but it's not always easy to determine the precise age of these relics . the neolithic age appears to have been a relatively peaceful period in human history. archaeologists have found no evidence of armed conflict during this time. the neolithic period in europe came to an end around two thousand b.c. when it gave way to the bronze age. the stone structures remained of course today some of them serve as road markers. and others took on a christian look. churches were built atop burial grounds.
and some stone monuments simply faded into the local background. and. times temple served the same purpose as mosques synagogues and churches do today. this period saw the development of communities where people lived in small settlements raised their families and tended their crops and livestock. i think. these new living elements still shape today sometimes more than we think since.
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