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tv   Doc Film - Secrets of the Stone Age - Part 1 From Hunters to Farmers  Deutsche Welle  July 14, 2018 8:15pm-9:01pm CEST

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would. be limited to the love of the human race has been building stone structures for ages. but what are the origin of these structures. what were the circular constructions used for. blood. flow for love. many of these structures were sealed up thousands of years ago by the people who built up. the phone. but in
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some cases wind and waves wore away that protective covering over time. the structures are called make a list. you could call them gigantic works of art we get instant moment that is done and they were built long before the paramedics the technical and logistical must paces that push the limits of human imagination. large stone structures like these were built in many places around the world. for example in the far north of scotland you'll find ancient constructions that are older than stonehenge. every color but love them both but you see could be a new off your logical site i'd issue here particularly during the climbing season new sites are discovered by farmers. these discoveries outline an important chapter
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in human history. in. her. room until about twelve thousand years ago our ancestors were hunters and gatherers. then and a reversible transition to a new way of life got underway. and all that fix it from the void to the transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary farming was a key development something from damage discussions to sadly for millions of years people had lived by hunting and gathering in that season and suddenly their lives changed radically much more so than during the transition to industrialization or the digital age. this is a good pick to lead to predict a small hill in southeastern turkey. here in one thousand nine hundred four gentlemen archaeologist klaus schmidt discovered a series of huge two. structures including decorated pillars that way up to twenty
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tons. a few years later austrian archaeologist bob a whole fresh began researching the site. does this assume border skeptically did make a is not only an architectural treasure and one of the most important structures of its kind in the world. it also symbolizes the beginning of the new lithic age ten cents. the good berkeley to pick complex was built by hunters and gatherers that is before mankind became sedentary this fact revolution ally's the conventional archaeological wisdom. and we discovered a society that was completely new to us. that society had such a long history and yet some aspects of it were familiar to us. why it is an
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aggressive lion for example it was just as much a threat to the people who built as it is to us today but first on. for those who live near the site a parallel supernatural world was part of everyday life. in. this crane may have symbolized the connection between the earth and the heaven. beetle and snakes were important mythological symbols in many cultures. there seem to have been few barriers between the natural world and the supernatural
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. teams of archaeologists from germany and turkey have only excavated a fraction of the site but they've determined that this period of mysticism was relatively short lived. based in face to get out of our research indicates that the early to. ration of sedentary societies kept covering up these sites and sealing them shut so that they could no longer be used. that these sites were preserved in the collective memory of society for a very long time that there are good reasons why i abandoned for thousands of years the no one. perhaps the first farmers wanted to distance themselves from the practices of their ancestors. good directly had lost its original meaning people had become sedentary.
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for. the director of the state museum of prehistory and holler of miller says this was a major turning point in human history. it was really decisive that here we have nearly four thousand acts heads from the new little period. that i. used axes to clear forests to create farmland. they also use them to spit wooden beams which were then used to build complex houses. this construction of housing was a key element in the transition to sedentary life. and dimension would get sis huffed. hunters and gatherers also stayed in one place for extended
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periods provided that they could find enough food. but the changes that took place in the neolithic period or revolutionary. this is a journalist mention this transition to sedentary life was a key development. for thousands of years people had to live as hunter gatherers a natural way of life. would not through they fed themselves in the natural way as well as it would be they had relatively few children because the women did not become pregnant while they were breastfeeding. where did all that changed radically with the development of agriculture because that prompted people to change their diet. and assisted. brain now provided carbohydrates and domesticated animals provided meat and fats. well this should certainly fit that increased the fat content in the body. also women became pregnant more often
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and this led to a population explosion. that in turn meant that people had to live together in smaller spaces and houses settlements and villages. the work of archaeologists is often like trying to solve a puzzle they carefully dig up artifacts that belong to a specific society and then try to recreate an image of what that society was like . some objects like the sharks of decorated pottery have lent their names to entire cultures for example the linear pottery culture which coincides with the first appearance of food producing societies. burial sites are often rich sources of information for archaeologists not just
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human remains but various items that were buried with the deceased. for example an expert can determine whether a perp. and was buried properly. if not animals may have gotten into the grave and shoot at the bones. maria tesla nicholai is the director of the archaeological biology department at vienna's museum of natural history she says you can learn a lot from skeletons. we are. for example we've confirmed victim and deficiencies unstressed symptoms in some remains and that helps us to reconstruct what people ate and other aspects of daily life on anime we found evidence of the knee mia in the upper reaches of i saw the man we've seen evidence of vision and see deficiencies in the alveolar ridges and other bone formations as i'd asked if we analyze this evidence systematically and we can extrapolate it to
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the entire population and try to reconstruct specific living and working conditions . archeologists always try to determine the age of artifacts the development of radiocarbon dating was a major step forward in this process. over the last twenty years genetic analysis has also provided important evidence. experts can now examine human and animal d.n.a. that is several thousand years old. anthropologist says that genetic analysis of livestock can provide information on the migration patterns of neolithic farmers. they are asked not to run we did our very first tests on domestic animals and determined that all the european cattle are descended from iranian cattle and as
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a guy looked at it today that's right those animals are found in switzerland or east breeziness somewhere order but they originally came from an atoll here and the middle east. and then we thought perhaps we can apply that hypothesis to the migration of neolithic people in the field and up to ten years of research we were able to determine that these people from anatolia especially northwest anatolia are indeed the ancestors of all the european new little peoples. and would not listen at all and for fun i'll avoid a lot over place new litigants and. it's difficult to find well preserved genetic material from this period in warm environments bones decay more quickly and with them the genetic evidence another problem is that sometimes older genetic material has been contaminated by newer material which produces inaccurate results . still archaeologists have come up with some interesting findings.
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in that are time to get. a genetic analysis of skeletons from northwestern turkey specifically an area south of istanbul shows that nearly think people in modern day germany and spain were descended from an ancient people that we called in jeans. and again there is evidence that the migrants at that time highs used both the mediterranean and bunkum root and about a kind of. farming people spread rapidly throughout europe over several hundred years but not in an organized way. this research facility is located in tone in austria. maria testimony and her colleague thomas prasco are using analytical chemistry to try to determine the migration patterns of ancient peoples. dignity can't even yet have
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the technology we have today is incomparably better than it was twenty years ago. we can use invasive and noninvasive methods class isotope analysis which has been widely used in anthropology for about fifteen years to track prehistoric migration patterns. into space join us to fourteen. peer prochaska examines a tooth that's about five thousand years old tooth enamel does not change over the course of a person's life so scientists can tell from its composition where people grew up the same technology is used to determine the place of origin of some modern day foods. the place of origin can always be clearly determined whether in plants animals or humans. in plenty business orders we have now use this data to confirm
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a definite pattern of migration and not just a transfer of ideas he won't need in effect we've been able to track the colonize ation of your own. colony see that. there are few traces of europe original residents the hunters and gatherers who lived there for thousands of years. they were probably displaced by the new settlers or absorbed into new societies. at this point europe had been settled by migrants from the middle east. but what prompted them to move into this new territory. vonda to send a beautiful it's hard to say i don't think it had anything to do with overpopulation not at that point in time in choppy lation dentity was loadings to compare to what it is today if you would this new little peoples may simply have
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heard about this region and decided to go there if you must perhaps some groups have been there and came back and spread the word kentucky i can only speculate but i think one reason may have been simple human curiosity as an addict when the mission of the reasons why and for more good. hunters and gatherers eventually learned to travel by scene. later some of the sedentary farmers also use boats to travel west we don't know whether they used sailboats or rowing boats. in any case rowing boats were easier to maneuver. that.
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these migrants spread gradually to mediterranean islands including one that today is known as malta. the republic of malta actually consists of three inhabited islands malta itself plus camino and goes on and several smaller islands that are uninhabited malta is located approximately eighty kilometers south of sicily on a clear day one can see sicily from gozo and likewise one can see gold so from sicily so one must assume that. there was a degree of curiosity in the people from sicily just wondering us toward the slums . was that lace likely to be on the horizon. however. it's hard to grasp why people would decide to leave such a fertile island society and in order to occupy and colonize somewhere the earth
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was far away. the first to arrive were probably explorers perhaps then followed by their families . about two thousand years later some of the residents started building temples. the origins of these monumental structures are still shrouded in mystery. some of these limestone blocks went up to twenty tons they could turn to dust before we
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find out more about them. to me god in a marine archaeologist at the university of mata is trying to preserve the ruins here he's photographing some of them. gambon converts the photos to three d. animated images. this is what the temples might have looked like. but he says he's running out of time to complete his work. what's incredible is that the rates of the rosen has been much faster over the past seventy years than it has been in the past four thousand. five hundred years and that is not just because they've been uncovered but the because you have aspects such as us in the rain newsham carbon monoxide and so on but actually accelerate so it's not just the period of time since they've been uncovered but since you've got all these modern
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body mutants this is really accelerating the rate fell for ocean. this is the hotshot team temple complex on the main island it's a major tourist attraction. the canopy is designed to protect the site from the elements and slow the process of erosion. you know all these temples are a thousand years older than stonehenge which for a country that's a colony of britain this becomes a. big thing all of a sudden our nero lithic is a thousand years older than the people that are ruling us you know so this is a this is also this is what i mean about the political fact that these structures come to play.
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but why did people build these structures. we humans once a comfortable life we want not to be hungry not to be sick and the way to do it was to make sure that the gods were smiling up on the one one way to make the gods smile upon you was to build monuments in their own. this is what the site looks like without the canopy. we can now we construct how the temple might have looked in its original form. but we can only speculate about its actual purpose and what sorts of rituals might have been carried out there. who was allowed to enter the inner sanctum and who was not. there is a clear division between the inside space and the outdoor space the temple this built cover though for it is the real name of the priest still priestesses the
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outside is open to the elements and the real of the common people this vision is clearly thought of in the design of the tempest. the interior of the temple is hidden from the outside world. this hole in the stone may have been used by an oracle if it provides a connection to the temple interior. what was sacred to the local residents at that time. what gods did they worship if any. did they have sacrificial rituals. we can only speculate the site leaves many questions unanswered. the temples of mato were used for about two thousand years and then they were abandoned. why did that happen.
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regarding the moment that time and this is very typical of prehistoric cultures is that they were not able to achieve real societal consistency to obscure they had no established traditions that could be passed down from generation to generation like written records a class of priests or a line of her ready to resume assessment of those are key elements in cultural development prehistoric cultures that did not have these elements didn't last long and need to go off. and. some of the farming peoples who sailed toward central and western europe traveled as far as what is now spain and portugal and the brittany peninsula in modern day friends. and.
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family and. the rocky coastline provided building materials for these new settlers. they created a new society at the dawn of the neolithic age a society that remains a mystery to this day. the temples that were built in malta are unique to that island. just as these rows of standing stones are to the village of car knock on britain a south coast.
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the legacy of these and other structures has been preserved in one of the regional languages breton. the word men here means long stone. dolman means stone table that describes a specific kind of grave it's impossible to accurately translate these words into other languages experts have tried to solve the mystery of the standing stones in vain. is an archaeologist at the university of not. it gives her her sick this spectacular sight of us they were the scum rose of kanakas. found impression on everyone who sees it. people are spanish by the scope and the size of it it is all sort of it simply boggles the mind that when you walk out and it gives
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new meaning to the word monumental. circuit i mean the money not that it could take. the rows of stones cover an area of more than three kilometers the site used to be much larger it. came. to my. commitment to every rock is distinctive and each one could have its own individual meaning. some researchers believe that the stones represent an expression of political power others believe that supernatural forces were at work here. still others simply see roll upon roll of gravestones. or a looming. or
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a union. person brainwashed the cure is not a regional or a local design and we don't know it's already ships but you really can call it architecture gushing thanks to all. the rows of stones extended from the coast into the interior. perhaps they indicated a pathway of some sort if so where did it lead. i watched boy why. thing is clear is that and this applies to war megalithic structures it's a sacred construction that involves the landscape and living space this is because you really can see that in the rows of stones and they're linked to a sacred site what i'm talking.
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megalithic sites are found on many mediterranean islands and along the atlantic coast as far north as britain. they were also built along the north sea and the baltic sea coasts. but there are none of these sites in modern day hungary austria or southern germany that is places where migrants traveled overland. what's the explanation for that. supposed to be nearly tickets and as these nearly think people's left in central anatolia they experienced the shop reduction in cultural diversity. they were farmers when they arrived in europe as they travelled along the balkan route they lost their connection to their previous society including the construction of large monuments they became highly specialized farmers and they were very good at it but
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it was not a life that was rich in culture who owns all. the migrations from the first question to australia continued for nearly five thousand years. in many parts of europe were seeding ice age glaciers left behind lots of boulders . many olympic migrants found large areas of fertile topsoil and what is now eastern austria. but there were a lot of large rocks that could be used for construction so they used other materials. in the one nine hundred eighty s.
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researchers who were analyzing aerial photographs discovered circular shapes in the soil in austria's danube region. this was definitely something worth looking into. with me as nicky had missed me the north be a little bit in the us with all this a goes an aerial photos led to excavations and they found these huge money meant that were more than six thousand years old wolf you're thinking archaeologists wondered what they'd been used for for these schools and there was a lot of discussion about it back in the one nine hundred eighty s. . and phone call there were all sorts of possible explanations everything from fort to meeting places temples or cattle pens the but that's. here archaeologists use radar to scan the area to get an idea of what sort of structures might have been built here fences ditches or entryways archaeologists involved can know about has used this equipment to investigate sites around the
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world. for example know about was able to prove that stonehenge perhaps the world's most famous prehistoric monument was originally made of wood. these circular shapes can be seen from the air only at certain times of the year provided that they've not been covered up by blowing soil. noid bowel found a total of forty circular ditches. in the vine fearful region of north eastern austria. in two thousand and five archaeologist. there and his team reconstructed one of these ditches near the town of helton bag they used stone tools and the same materials that would have been available during
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the stone age including wood bone and plant fibers. but it's the stone structures that tell us the most about our ancient ancestors. on the north sea island of silk for example there are more than five hundred burial sites made of stone. a number of neolithic tombs can also be found on the northern german mainland and in denmark archaeologists continue to excavate and analyze some of the sites. these large stone tombs were often used for centuries. these nicoletta tombs give people a sense of identity the local residents perform their rituals and this helps them
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to reaffirm their existence so these sites really did help to shape society at that time. mentioning the. burial practices can tell us a lot about a given society and its people. look at people's used common burial sites but there's little evidence of individual graves it's as though the deceased lost their identity. during the early neolithic period the focus was on the community not the individual . those who could contribute substantially to the community were held in high regard. over time our ancestors began to create high quality elaborately designed ceramics this beautifully decorated bowl was
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found in a grave there loosen in the eastern german state of saxony on hold items such as these and burial practices in general can tell us much about society including the status of women. just a little different i merely we've observed no major differences in the way that men would women whether buried in the olympic societies that are in many cases women were given burials that were just as elaborate as those for men and sometimes even more so most of what i get you started. to leave the womb. to tomb. but did militate burial objects really indicate the status of women it's a society. stone constructions represent spiritual immortality that is the deceased will be
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remembered forever. trying isn't to be just a key element in reconstructing ancient architecture whether it's temple buildings or tunes are the stone building blocks and yes if these structures had been made of wood getting we would have found very few remains we could only speculate as to how large the structure had been the stone blocks really gave us an idea of what it was like in prehistoric times only talita it in pe installations fighting off. there's an amazing variety of neolithic structures in the orkney islands off the northeastern coast of scotland. excavation work began at this site in two thousand
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and two led by archaeologist nic card. i think what we're seeing today is just really very simply i experience of what we see here five thousand years ago our eyes are drawn to these wonderful upstanding monuments great all. the last ten years the universe the highlands and islands i was in part told a large scale geophysical program all four of the sorry i wrote in this morning edwards to see what carroll choice potentially here i know what we've discovered is that the landscape which through this morning's. excavations have yielded evidence of sites that were used by cults as well as settlements and graves the concentration of neolithic structures on the island is extensive. this is the maze old burial site. the standing stones of stenness form one of the oldest circular structures in britain.
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one hundred fifty meters away are the remains of the barn house settlement. the entrance to the narrow headland is guarded by a five point six metre high monolith called the watch stone. further along we find the nest of broad gar a major settlement that included houses a huge stone wall and even a neeld i think version of a cathedral. archaeologists have discovered other neolithic structures that lie directly on the coast. in. this settlement includes some small stone houses much of the excavation site has been covered to protect the masonry from the elements no visitors are allowed only
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nic card and his team. realistic people were really no different from ourselves what you see here in the house is everything that you'd expect really at a modern day house without the. tricity in the water. the flat construction protects the structure against stormy weather the grass roof provides warmth. people lead a decent life here as far as we know there were no armed conflicts or other serious existential threats at the time. the local forests were more widespread in the old times and the climate was relatively mild thanks to the influence of the gulf stream. the conditions were ideal for growing crops and raising livestock. and there were also plentiful supplies of fish.
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during the neolithic the five is that all three had a kind of predominance amongst many other areas and what we find is that this material didn't draw a whole week from right now we're forced britain but equally a lot of the ideas that seem to dominate the tree history of britain seem to have originated in the near islands. was the stone circle of orkney a model for similar structures throughout britain. meanwhile archaeologists have been able to pursue isley determine milicic migration patterns . all they need to carry out a comprehensive analysis are a few bones or teeth that contain traces of d.n.a. .
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this is the same method that proved that central europeans were descended from the people of anatolia. researchers also came up with another surprising discovery. in a. constraint what they examined genetic material found in what is now iran that is the heartland of the fertile crescent and they found a break in the migration paten approximately between western iran and western anatolia is difficult population groups have become so diverse there are indications that they may have split up between fifty and seventy thousand years ago following the migration of anatomically modern humans from africa both major groups became sedentary farm the land and built houses. horse of both. populations made the transition to sedentary culture in both europe and asia at
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about the same time but of course independently of one another. megalithic structures can be found throughout asia and especially in korea. constellations the patterns of stars play an important role in korean mythology. well into modern times it was not unusual to find images of constellations engraved on headstones but it's not always easy to determine the precise age of these relics . the neolithic age appears to have been a relatively peaceful period in human history. archaeologists have found no evidence of armed conflict during this time.
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the neolithic period in europe came to an end around two thousand b.c. when it gave way to the bronze age. the stone structures remained of course today some of them serve as road markers. others took on a christian book. churches were built atop burial grounds. and some stone monuments simply faded into the local background. in milicic times temple served the same purpose as mosques synagogues and churches do today. this period saw the development of communities where people lived in small settlements raised their families and tended their crops and livestock. i did him into and his new these new living elements still shape our society today sometimes
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more than we think since. only. a little bit. beyond to change now has been sentenced to life america but the neo nazi terrorists did not act alone. full on as received lesser sentences full of men who provided significant it's a cool. do all banks from what with them then tense. gemini's right
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when terra networks the end see him on trial. in fifteen minutes on dublin. sarno just couldn't get the song out of his head. the colleges began searching for the source of these captivating sounds. and deep in the rain forest in central africa and would like to have a look was able to evoke the anyone say the most money living so. they did by their culture that he stayed. only a promise to his son made sarno leave the jungle and return to the concrete and glass jungle but. the result reverse culture shock.
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from the forest starts august night w. t w news live from berlin germany is actually camera there are no williams to win the women's singles final at wimbledon camera crews and transplant in strength to pick up her maiden wimbledon title the first german victory in the singles at the all england club in more than twenty appearances also coming up at the soccer world cup and russia belgium the two poles had been led to claim third place belgium
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started stronger until the scoring after just four minutes to put england on the back foot.


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