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tv   Doc Film - Secrets of the Stone Age - Part 1 From Hunters to Farmers  Deutsche Welle  July 17, 2018 11:15am-12:00pm CEST

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back to. these are not talking they're reporting from central paris a quick reminder on top story for you u.s. president all tromped has returned home to a storm of criticism also refusing to blame russian president vladimir putin for meddling in the twenty sixteen u.s. election instead trump appeared to go against the findings of his own intelligence agencies even members of his own party expressing outrage at that. you're watching the news in then see me so much kind of taking over at the top of the ah thanks for watching. nico he's in germany to learn german. published in the. why not learn with him online on the mobile and free to suffer from the w z learning course nikos freak.
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the world. of. the human race has been building feuds stone structures for ages. what are the origins of these structures. what were the circular constructions used for. many of these structures were sealed up thousands of years ago by the people who built them. but in
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some cases wind and waves wore away that protective covering over time. these structures are called mega lists. you could call them gigantic works of art with a little sad moment that is dan and i never build long before the peronist that is the technical and logistical masterpieces that push the limits of human imagination that. large stone structures like these were built in many places around the world . for example in the far north of scotland you'll find ancient constructions that are older than stonehenge. every comfort love involved that you see could be an ewok illogical sight. if she or particularly during the climbing season new sights are discovered by farmers. these discoveries outline an important chapter in
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human history. of her. own. intel about twelve thousand years ago our ancestors were hunters and gatherers all then and the reversible transition to a new way of life got underway and. to fix it form of the void the transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary farming was a key development at something don't damage discussions to sydney for millions of years people had lived by hunting and gathering in that season and suddenly their lives changed radically much more so than during the transition to industrialization or the digital age. this is. a small hill in southeastern turkey. here in one thousand nine hundred four german archaeologist klaus schmidt discovered a series of huge stone structures including decorated pillars. that way after
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twenty tons. a few years later austrian archaeologist bob a whole fresh began researching the site. it is assumed border. is not only an architectural treasure and one of the most important structures of its kind in the world. it also symbolizes the beginning of the new lithic a sense adds. the good berkeley to pay a complex was built by hunters and gatherers that is before mankind became secondary this fact revolution ally's the conventional archaeological wisdom. and we discovered a society that was completely new to us on this soil that society had such a long history and yet some aspects of it were familiar to us. why it is an
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aggressive lion for example it was just as much a threat to the people who built as it is to us today. for those who live near the site a parallel supernatural world was part of everyday life. in. this crane may have symbolized the connection between the earth and the heaven. beetles and snakes were important mythological symbols in many cultures. there seem to have been few barriers between the natural world and the supernatural
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. the teams of archaeologists from germany and turkey have only excavated a fraction of the site but they've determined that this period of mysticism was relatively short lived. this didn't get out of our research indicates that the early to. ration of sedentary societies kept covering up these sites and sealing them shut so that they could no longer be used. practitioner that these sites were preserved in the collective memory of society for their e long time that there are good reasons why i abandoned for thousands of years. perhaps the first farmers wanted to distance themselves from the practices of their ancestors. good bakley had lost its original meaning people have become sedentary.
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for. the director of the state museum of prehistory and holler mellor says this was a major turning point in human history. so this new lead it was really decisive. here we have nearly four thousand acts heads from the new little period. that i. used axes to clear forests to create farmland. they also use them to split wooden beams which were then used to build complex houses. this construction of housing was a key element in the transition to sedentary life. in dimension with and yet since huffed. hunters and gatherers also stayed in one place for extended periods provided that they could find enough food. but the changes that took place
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in the neolithic period or revolutionary. users of journalist mention this transition to sedentary life was a key development. for thousands of years people had lived as hunter gatherers a natural way of life. would. they fed themselves in the natural way as well as if they had relatively few children because the women did not become pregnant while they were breastfeeding. where but all that changed radically with the development of agriculture because that prompted people to change their diet. and. grain now provided carbohydrates and domesticated animals provided meat and fats. well this would certainly fit that increased the content in the body. also women became pregnant more often and this led to
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a population explosion. that in turn meant that people had to live together in smaller spaces in houses settlements and villages. the work of archaeologists is often like trying to solve a puzzle they carefully dig up artifacts that belong to a specific society and then try to recreate an image of what that society was like . some objects like the shards of decorated pottery have lent their names to entire cultures for example the linear pottery culture which coincides with the first appearance of food producing societies. burial sites are often rich sources of information for archaeologists not just
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human remains but various items that were buried with the deceased. for example an expert can determine whether a per. and was buried properly. if not animals may have gotten into the grave and shoot at the bones. ritesh learned nicholai is the director of the archaeological biology department at vienna's museum of natural history she says you can learn a lot from skeletons. for example we've confirmed victim and deficiencies unstressed symptoms in some remains and that helps us to reconstruct what people ate and other aspects of daily life form and in me we found evidence of the knee mia in the upper reaches of i saw the man we've seen evidence of vision and see deficiencies in the alveolar ridges and other bone formations as i'd asked if we analyze this evidence systematically and we can extrapolate it to
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the entire population and try to reconstruct specific living and working conditions . archeologists always try to determine the age of artifacts the development of radiocarbon dating was a major step forward in this process. over the last twenty years genetic analysis has also provided important evidence. experts can now examine human and animal d.n.a. that is several thousand years old. then for apologists. says that genetic analysis of livestock can provide information on the migration patterns of neolithic farmers. they are asked not to go from one we did our very first tests on domestic animals and determined that all the european cattle are descended from iranian cattle and as
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a guy looked at it today that's why those animals are found in switzerland or east breeziness somewhere order but they originally came from anatolia and the middle east. and then we thought perhaps we can apply that hypothesis to the migration of neolithic people in the field and up to ten years of research we were able to determine that these people from anatolia especially northwest anatolia are indeed the ancestors of all the european new little peoples of and would. not risen at all and for fun i'll avoid a local place near little and. it's difficult to find well preserved genetic material from this period in warm environments bones decay more quickly and with them the genetic evidence another problem is that sometimes older genetic material has been contaminated by newer material which produces inaccurate results . still archaeologists have come up with some interesting findings.
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in that hard time to get. a genetic analysis of skeletons from northwestern turkey specifically an area south of istanbul shows that nearly think people in modern day germany and spain were descended from an ancient people that we called a.g.s. . there is evidence that the migrants at that time highs used both the mediterranean and a buncombe root word order and about a kind of. farming people spread rapidly throughout europe over several hundred years but not in an organized way. this research facility is located in talk in austria. reattached or nickel and her colleague thomas prague are using analytical chemistry to try to determine the migration patterns of ancient peoples. dignities couldn't even yet
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have the technology we have today is incomparably better than it was twenty years ago we can use invasive and noninvasive methods plus isotope analysis which has been widely used in anthropology for about fifteen years to track prehistoric migration patterns. into pains to own up to fourteen. peer prochaska examines a tooth that's about five thousand. years old tooth enamel does not change over the course of a person's life so scientists can tell from its composition where people grew up the same technology is used to determine the place of origin of some modern day foods. the place of origin can always be clearly determined whether in plants animals or humans. in plenty business orders we are now use this data to confirm
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a definite pattern of migration and not just a transfer of ideas he won't need in effect we've been able to track the colonizing nation of your own person. and you see that. there are few traces of europe's original residents the hunters and gatherers who lived there for thousands of years. they were probably displaced by the new settlers or absorbed into new societies. at this point europe had been settled by migrants from the middle east. but what prompted them to move into this new territory. you can do it on the main sheet of under toussaint get it for less it's hard to say i don't think it had anything to do with overpopulation not at that point in time in choppy lation density was low compared to what it is today you know it was nearly ten peoples may simply have heard about this region and decided
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to go there with the money perhaps some groups had been there and came back and spread the word contact if i can only speculate but i think one reason may have been simple human curiosity and a big linda mottram of confusing is one of my good. hunters and gatherers eventually learned to travel by sea. later some of the sedentary farmers also use boats to travel west we don't know whether they used sailboats or rowing boats. in any case rowing boats were easier to maneuver.
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these migrants spread gradually to mediterranean islands including one that today is known as malta. the republic of malta actually consists of three inhabited islands malta itself plus camino and gozo and several smaller islands that are uninhabited malta is located approximately eighty kilometers south of sicily on a clear day one can see sicily from goes over and likewise one can see gold so from sicily so one must assume that. there was a degree of curiosity in the people from sicily just wandering us toward this land was that lays slightly beyond the horizon. however. it's hard to grasp why people would decide to leave such a fertile island of sicily and in order to occupy and colonize somewhere that was
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far away. the first to arrive were probably explorers perhaps then followed by their families. about two thousand years later some of the residents started building temples. the origins of these monumental structures are still shrouded in mystery some of these limestone blocks way up to twenty tons they could turn to dust before we find out more about them. a marine archaeologist at the university of montana is trying to preserve the ruins. here he's photographing some of them.
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garvin converts the photos to three d. animated images. this is what the temples might have looked like. but he says he's running out of time to complete his work. what's incredible is that the rate of erosion has been much faster over the past seventy years than it has been in the past four thousand five hundred years and that is not just because they've been uncovered bottom because you have aspects such as us in the rain lucian carbon monoxide and so on but actually accelerate so it's not just the period of time since they've been uncovered but since you've got all these modern body mutants this is really accelerating the rate fell for ocean. this is the house our team temple complex on the main island it's
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a major tourist attraction and. the canopy is designed to protect the site from the elements and slow the process of erosion. you know all these temples are a thousand years older than stone age which for a country that's a colony of britain this becomes a. big thing all of a sudden our near lithic is a thousand years older than the people that are ruling us you know so this is a this is also this is what i mean about the political factor that these structures come to play. but why did people build these structures. we humans want to come from. in life we want not to be hungry and not to be sick and the way
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to do it was to make sure that the gods word was smiling up on you in one way to make god smile upon me was to build monuments in their own. this is what the site looks like without the canopy. we can now we construct how the temple might have looked in its original form. but we can only speculate about its actual purpose and what sorts of rituals might have been carried out there who was allowed to enter the inner sanctum and who was not. there is a clear division between the inside space and the old door space the temple is built cover though it is the real name of the priest still priestesses the outside is open to the elements and the real of the common people this vision is killin the thought of in the design of the tempest.
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the interior of the temple is hidden from the outside world. this hole in the stone may have been used by an oracle it provides a connection to the temple interior. what was sacred to the local residents at that time. what gods did they worship if any. did they have sacrificial rituals. we can only speculate the site leaves many questions unanswered. the temples of mata were used for about two thousand years and then they were abandoned. why did that happen. regarding the moment that time and this is very typical of prehistoric cultures is that they were not able to achieve real societal consistency it's here they had no
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established traditions that could be passed down from generation to generation like written records a class of priests or a line of her ready to resume syndicate and those are key elements in cultural development prehistoric cultures that did not have these elements didn't last long and need some dogs. some of the farming peoples who sailed toward central and western europe traveled as far as what is now spain and portugal and the brittany peninsula in modern day france. and. going to. the rocky coastline provided building materials for these new settlers.
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they created a new society at the dawn of the neolithic age a society that remains a mystery to this day. the temples that were built in malta are unique to that island. just as these rows of standing stones are to the village of car knock on britain a south coast. the legacy of these and other structures has been preserved in one of the regional
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languages breton the word men here means long stone. dolman means stone table it describes a specific kind of grave it's impossible to accurately translate these words into other languages experts have tried to solve the mystery of the standing stones in vain. carson is an archaeologist at the university of not. sychar this spectacular sight they were to the stone rose of kanakas where it is next after found impression on everyone who sees it. resort people are stone age by the scope and the size of it that is all sort of it simply boggles the mind that when you walk and it gives new meaning to the word monumental. circuit i mean the more money not that if you think.
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the rows of stones cover an area of more than three kilometers the site used to be much larger. in. clinton. every rock is distinctive and each one could have its own individual meaning. some researchers believe that the stones represent an expression of political power. others believe that supernatural forces were at work here. still others simply see roll upon roll of gravestones. or a union of. myanmar.
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person brainwashed dequeue is not a regional or a local design of the east and we don't know it's all regions but you really can call it the architecture of it my gosh thanks to all. the rows of stones extended from the coast into the interior. perhaps they indicated a pathway of some sort if so where did it lead. you that i'm still. one thing is clear is that if and this applies to war megalithic structures it's a sacred construction that involves the landscape and living space this is because you really can see that in the robes of stones and they're linked to a sacred site what i'm talking. megalithic sites are found on many mediterranean islands and along the atlantic coast as far north as britain.
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they were also built along the north sea and the baltic sea coasts. but there are none of the sites in modern day hungary austria or southern germany that is places where migrants travelled overland. what's the explanation for that. supposed to be nearly tickets and as these new little peoples left central anatolia they experienced the shop reduction in cultural diversity. they were farmers when they arrived in europe as they travelled along the balkan route they lost their connection to their previous society including the construction of large monuments they became highly specialized farmers and they were very good at it but it was not a life that was rich in culture.
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only the migrations from the first question to australia continued for nearly five thousand years. in many parts of europe receding ice age glaciers left behind lots of boulders. many olympic migrants found large areas of fertile topsoil and what is now eastern austria. but there were a lot of large rocks that could be used for construction so they used other materials. in the one nine hundred eighty s. researchers who were analyzing aerial photographs discovered circular shapes in the soil in austria's danube region. this was definitely something worth looking into.
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it to be a snow cave mist myth and to be limited to the obvious or goes in aerial photos led to excavations and they found these huge money meant that were more than six thousand years old will feel it even archaeologists wondered what they'd been used for for these schools and there was a lot of discussion about it back in the one nine hundred eighty s. i'm defining phone call there are all sorts of possible explanations everything from fort to meeting places temples or cattle pens the point that's. here archaeologists use radar to scan the area to get an idea of what sort of structures might have been built here fences ditches or entryways archaeologist involved can know about has used this equipment to investigate sites around the world.
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for example know about how it was able to prove that stonehenge perhaps the world's most famous prehistoric monument was originally made of wood. these circular shapes can be seen from the air only at certain times of the year provided that they've not been covered up by blowing soil. noid bower found a total of forty circular did. in the vine fearful region of northeastern austria. in two thousand and five archaeologist. and his team reconstructed one of these ditches near the town of helton bag they used stone tools and the same materials that would have been available during the stone age including wood bone and plant fibers.
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but it's the stone structures that tell us the most about our ancient ancestors. on the north sea island of silk for example there are more than five hundred burial sites made of stone. a number of neolithic tombs can also be found on the northern german mainland and in denmark archaeologists continue to excavate and analyze some of the sites. these large stone tombs were often used for centuries. to make. these negative tombs give people a sense of identity the local residents perform their rituals that help them to reaffirm their existence so these sites really did help to shape society at that
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time. mentioning damask up. burial practices can tell us a lot about a given society and its people. make a little people's used common burial sites but there's little evidence of individual graves it's as though the deceased lost their identity. during the early neolithic period the focus was on the community not the individual . those who could contribute substantially to the community were held in high regard. over time our ancestors began to create high quality elaborately designed ceramics this beautifully decorated bowl was found in a grave there little's than in the eastern german state of saxony on hold. i don't
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such as these and burial practices in general can tell us much about society including the status of women. just don't go through i'm merely we've observed in no major differences in the way that man would win is what i read in the olympic societies that are in many cases women were given burials that were just as elaborate as those for men and sometimes even more so than most of what i get pushed out of. the womb. but did neolithic burial objects really indicate the status of women in society. stone constructions represent spiritual immortality that is the deceased will be remembered forever.
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trying isn't the biggest a key element in reconstructing engine architecture whether it's temple buildings or tunes are the stone building blocks and yes if these structures had been made of wood getting we would have found very few remains we could only speculate as to how large the structure had been the stone blocks really gave us an idea of what it was like in prehistoric times what it will mean talita it in pe installations i think one. hand there is an amazing variety of neolithic structures in the orkney islands off the northeastern coast of scotland. excavation work began at this site in two thousand and two led by archaeologist nick card. i think what we're seeing today is just really very simply a spirit of what was here five thousand years ago our eyes are drawn to these
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wonderful upstanding monuments great all. the last ten years the university the highlands and islands i was embarked on a large scale geophysical program called for the survey i wrote in these monuments to see what terrible choice potentially here and what we've discovered is that the landscape which through this morning events. excavations have yielded evidence of sites that were used by cults as well as settlements and graves the concentration of neolithic structures on the island is extensive. this is the maze old burial site. the standing stones of stenness form one of the oldest circular structures in britain.
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one hundred fifty meters away are the remains of the barn house settlement. the entrance to the narrow headland is guarded by a five point six metre high monolith called the watchtower. farther along we find the nests of broad gar a major settlement that included houses a huge stone wall and even an eel i think version of a cathedral. archaeologists have discovered other neolithic structures that lie directly on the coast. in. this settlement include some small stone houses much of the excavation site has been covered to protect the masonry from the elements. no visitors are allowed only nic card and his team. people were really no different from ourselves you see here in the house is
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everything that you'd expect really in a modern day house without you. tricity in the water. the flat construction protects the structure against stormy weather the grass roof provides warmth. people lead a decent life here as far as we know there were no armed conflicts or other serious existential threats at the time. the local forests were more widespread in the olympic times and the climate was relatively mild thanks to the influence of the gulf stream. the conditions were ideal for growing crops and raising livestock. and there were also plentiful supplies the fish. didn't you listen to the fire is that we had a kind of predominance amongst many other areas and what we're finding is that
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there's material being drawn shortly from right now we're also britain but equally a lot of the ideas that seem to dominate the tree history of britain seem to have originated in new orleans. was the stone circle of orkney a model for similar structures throughout britain. meanwhile archaeologists have been able to pursue eisley determine milicic migration patterns . all they need to carry out a comprehensive analysis are a few bones or teeth that contain traces of d.n.a. . this is the same method that proved that central europeans were descended from the people of anatolia. researchers also came up with another surprising discovery.
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in a. slight constraint where they examined genetic material found in what is now iran that is the heartland of the fertile crescent and they found a break in the migration paten approximately between western iran and western anatolia the city's population groups had become so diverse there are indications that they may have split up between fifty and seventy thousand years ago following the migration of anatomically modern humans from africa both major groups became sedentary farm the land and built houses. horses. populations made the transition to sedentary culture in both europe and asia at about the same time but of course independently of one another.
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megalithic structures can be found throughout asia and especially in korea. constellations the patterns of stars play an important role in korean mythology. well into modern times it was not unusual to find images of constellations engraved on headstones but it's not always easy to determine the precise age of these relics . the neolithic age appears to have been a relatively peaceful period in human history. archaeologists have found no evidence of armed conflict during this time. the neolithic period in europe came to an end around two thousand b.c.
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when it gave way to the bronze age. when the stone structures remained of course today some of them serve as road markers. others took on a christian local. churches were built atop burial grounds. and some stone monuments simply faded into the local background. in milicic times temple served the same purpose as mosques synagogues and churches do today. this period saw the development of communities where people lived in small settlements raised their families and tended their crops and livestock. i did him into and these new lipstick elements still shape our society today sometimes more than we thank you susan.
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and. the city to the news live from berlin donald trump faces a storm of outrage after accepting the russian president's denial of meddling in the two thousand and sixteen u.s. election. he took the word of the k.g.b. . over the men and women of the cia. you can go about yourself from the level of a snake and that's where i consider water or food.


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