tv Doc Film - The Sputnik Shock Deutsche Welle July 18, 2018 7:15am-8:00am CEST
well done to reduce couldn't. because syria bought with off and everybody wanted. to steal and been accused bombed or isn't it cool. to call them. old tools all. the evil ball business that we put into the record just like the good old. the free will to run from really hopeless who disagree with the author of it but.
it was in all the headlines soviet moon races around the earth russians shocked america the soviet union had made history with sputnik one. was called like get the lay of the baseball bat and the bushes put a sugar shock admittedly most of us at least didn't know the russians without for all this true record the first shuttle adventure left for. the world had caught sputnik fever people were enthusiastic about the soviets pioneering achievement. was just ducky i'm pleased that the soviet union was the country that produced this masterpiece. melodrama ground ladies and gentlemen these are the sensational signals from space soviet russia has won the competition with the u.s. to put a satellite in orbit. these are the first signals from space. one
of my favorite is a long queue sputnik you gave the world a bucket. of. baikonur is the place from where sputnik one opened the gateway to space on october fourth one nine hundred fifty seven. two years before the historic sputnik flight a broad step was the only thing here besides a lonely train station and camels. it was a godforsaken place until the kremlin decided in one nine hundred fifty five to create an enormous facility for testing nuclear missiles. construction in the wastelands of the staff went on a case that was baikonur in one nine hundred fifty five.
more and more military personnel came into the closed region. keeping it all very hush hush was the rule. in the kremlin soviet leader nikita khrushchev and his nuclear weapon strategists were putting their hopes in a new type of intercontinental ballistic missile the r seven. as you know it was the also of his job to carry a free point five ton nuclear warhead across a range of at least eight thousand kilometers. the task force and to build a rocket to transport something into space. the specific aim was to get a nuclear warhead from point a to point b. with a point in the soviet union and point b. in the us it will get when you want it was on the sword. from the beginning to baikonur launch site was exclusively military territory the target was america not outer space the cosmos remained the stuff of science fiction films.
in one nine hundred fifty six soviet science fiction film presented visions of conquering outer space it even had special effects worthy of hollywood. so were rockets and trips into space just fantasies the dreams of a mad scientist. by then both the soviets and the americans had long been running ambitious missile development programs. in one thousand nine hundred fifty five u.s. president dwight eisenhower announced that the u.s. would launch an earth orbiting satellite within the next three years. two days later the kremlin told the world it was planning to put a satellite up to. people in the west could only guess at how far the soviet ten progressed with their secret projects. is and then i found that there were a number of americans who were convinced that the russians had very good engineers
and that they should be taken seriously as competitors and that we americans would have to make a big effort if we wanted to win. there were other americans that said the russians weren't that far along but they were backwards in everything and were cousins that couldn't do it. so we had nothing to fear. or. you could. most americans were convinced the soviet union was an enormous very backward country. there was even a genre of jokes about their blocky look. cars and the peasant in the kremlin. by contrast to the american way of life meant prosperity huge streamlined automobiles and optimism. it was a country that could be sure of itself in every respect. many believe the race for space had already been won before it even started. nobody in the us seemed to doubt
they would take the top prize. german american vendor from brown in particular could always drum up public support for spaceflight in the mid fifty's a daring visionary and clever pragmatist he spoke on television of flying to the stars meanwhile he was still occupied only with building nuclear missiles for the army if he wanted to take things further he had to win his employers over to the idea of conquering space to convince them he described space stations as potential platforms for launching nuclear weapons here is very good looking he was very persuasive he words very attentive to audiences so you know he knew what people wanted to hear and he would be your you shape the word what he said to make the audience interested in it so he just seems sure how this natural ability you have it accrues most. fund wrong wanted to get into space he didn't care who paid for it
. well when it was a personal dimension he wanted to be you know he wanted to be the columbus was phrase he wanted to hurt. the chances seemed especially favorable during what was known as the international geophysical year. but from ground still needed an ok from president eisenhower after all there were other people in the u.s. vying for funding washington decided against the ambitious german american. the us navy ended up getting the green light for the prestige project from brown west out of the race. and they then wanted to have a military change a time bomb brown was working on the redstone that's all and i think the. general feeling was that the redstone as a weapon for the army was higher priority than to fix things. the u.s.
army was out of the race but from brown remain focused on the satellite project just in case the navy's model turned out to be a flop. apparently it didn't occur to anyone that the soviets could beaten even though the russians were making no secret of their intensive work with missiles. but nothing about the secret activities at baikonur made it into the news. i mean it was good i would go to the people you have to say that the u.s. secret services did a poor job. we had so many technological breakthroughs starting with the atomic bombing i mean the americans didn't know anything about it they were convinced that our economy had broken down completely. they still come up with nonsense like that . and they still don't understand who they are dealing with any more woodbine your
eyes good morning me deal. the new enormous rocket launch pad baikonur was finally finished after two years of feverish development and construction work. and the rocket had progressed to the point that test flights could begin. when you are seven was the world's most powerful rocket at that time it was a masterpiece of soviet engineering. the first test launch was in may nine hundred fifty seven no one knew how the two hundred seventy ton colossus would behave. failed. the next test came a few weeks later it failed to. the new technology seemed especially prone to flaws it was a monster full of tricks. the board was she exploded in
mid-air and part of one of the sides flew right at me luckily however the rocket decided to spare me. after that we had orders to address the rocket using the formal you. perhaps a rocket is like a woman to whom you've yet to be introduced or. if you need to address or with the formal you. in this sense the rock it demands far more adulation and devotion than the most beautiful of women. we learned to address her properly as. the real power behind the project was chief constructors sergey carli of the soviet counterpart different from brown. carly off was respected in feared by everyone baikonur the sooner the r seven rocket worked the better were his chances of winning the space race. but he knew the americans were in the running to. a u.s. newsreel in july one thousand nine hundred fifty seven showed how the first u.s.
satellite would whiz around the globe. a satellite is ready. the satellite was good to go then guard was supposed to open the door to space for all humanity. at his home and would take his fresh pride to the space. in the sky. even life magazine was absolutely sure the u.s. would get to the finish line first. there was a little bit of arrogance you know certainly in the general public before sport may care kind of been resting easy and feeling our well we were always first we would be first and then us you know you read the kind of press and books government press releases about grand gone. on july seventh eisenhower announced that the u.s. satellite would be launched in the coming year. and it seemed absolutely certain that no one would put up another craft ahead of that. even though there were clear
indicators that the soviets were in the race. secret cia information that you two surveillance flights had picked up wasn't being taken all that seriously in the white house in fact about a seriously as official test reports after all they were used to soviet games of bluff and deception. this time however the soviets were right on schedule nevertheless carly. if had to rearrange his plans unlike the rocket that would carry it the satellite code named object was still far from ready it was too complex so he swiftly decided to take it out of the program and replace it with a simpler sputnik the constructor's had to work a lot of overtime no i don't think oh yeah they always had an eye on the americans . and he turned up the heat. but he wasn't the only one pushing us to hurry the
politicians were to. the ideological department of the central committee of the party was driving us like the dickens to. not just curly off got to know. car you off knew of course that his space flight plans didn't top the list of soviet priorities any dreams of getting into space would remain fantasies until the r seven rocket worked properly. the breakthrough came on august twenty first one nine hundred fifty seven it was the first successful launch of the missile. there before that so clearly off went to khrushchev and was able to announce that the soviet union had a rocket that was capable of reaching u.s. territory carrying a nuclear warhead or hydrogen bomb. was really excited.
he understood he'd been handed a rubber baton which he could now use to make threats from both of them a. test proudly trumpeted that the intercontinental missile could hit any target on earth. good will of. that was the truth it was just rather vague the missile could hit any targets on earth just not with a bomb. he cheated specifications for the atomic bomb had been miscalculated it would have melted going through the atmosphere. carly off needed to come up with an idea quickly and showed himself to be a skilled technician. he suggested to khrushchev that missile test with military warheads should be suspended until the problem with each shield was solved. meanwhile they could use the r seven to launch a space satellite sputnik. and all the other quiz show but my father asked. did you put out what you really have to
do all of the info to come and there's all this a little weather cut i know told no it will look to coat it go if you can do this. cowardly offer was even more determined than any other soviet to penetrate space he pushed for even more speed. judge judy what he had asked of course he wanted to be first he knew that everyone remembered columbus but the second man to set foot in america was already long forgotten it's the same way with space he knew that if i shoot the thing up into space then the name of sergei pop locus correctly off will remain in the history books forever. work was intensifying in earnest in september one nine hundred fifty seven there were a number of newspaper reports and rumors that the soviets were preparing to launch a satellite but officials in the us remained relaxed even when venner from brown was warning about the psychological effects of such
a pioneering achievement perhaps he was hoping to revive his own opportunity. a bit of an open brown had warned people in the summer of one nine hundred fifty seven that the soviets were on the verge of doing it he was not alone or a number of experts in the missile business in the united states who watched what the soviets were saying and they said they in the summer brown confused there when they gave out the the the frequencies for the first satellite and one brown warned people this is coming is coming they're going to beat us. carly off was planning to space sensation in secret seven rocket was scheduled to carry this but make satellite into space on october sixth. a short time before that at the end of september the us suddenly started testing the global flight control system for its vanguard satellite it wasn't supposed to be launched until nine hundred fifty eight. carli off was alarmed he pressured his
team for speed and pulled the launch date forward by two days. ago was the ultimate consulting with its minister corral you off independently you made the decision to not the rocket and sputnik without a decision from the police bureau or khrushchev sanction to all that showed he was ready to take an enormous risk here. there was no official party decision saying we're putting a spotlight satellite into space on october fourth two that was really something because normally in the soviet union there was the saying have a russian doesn't even go to the toilet without getting an order first clue. job or third one thousand nine hundred fifty seven the rapidly assembled metal sphere was prepared for a launch. when your deadlines were really very short today no one would be able to accomplish anything in such a short time. but because of the ongoing competition with the americans and the
enthusiasm with which we worked it was possible back then but it was working. as the rocket was taken along the one point five kilometer route to the launch pad to chief constructor carli off walked alongside. the final launch preparations were made on the morning of october fourth as the final countdown to the statistical probabilities of success were determined to be relatively small until that time only one r seven rocket had flown a half way reliable trajectory. yet. if the launch works this time would the fire spinning rocket actually find its way into space. everything seemed to be going perfectly fine this time.
but in the book a bit of both during the first launch the most surprising thing was that it went without a single hitch. until this time we've had a whole series of flops and flaws so the successful launch seems like a miracle to us at the book of though if you get back that showed up. if you're not although we are all atheists there are many who say that god knows who he has to help but what got. us both that are. the sort of big bosses congratulated us they said that we all could happen the rest of our lives off and now everything else was clear. we parted but i was there just as well as they did is moscow even though unfortunately alcohol wasn't permitted. everyone was relieved they were happy that the fire spitting monster had been
launched without a disaster. but the epic significance of this first flight even seemed to escape most of the rocky cheeky in baikonur. and it still wasn't clear if sputnik would actually reach its orbital path above the earth. orbital trajectory was approximately over us over by you know. when we saw this little point and only when we saw it did we become aware that it happened just an hour and a half the earlier we could touch it and now it was flying above our heads and would never return only then did we become conscious of the greatness of the event so we could. sputnik one was orbiting the earth. the beeping metal spear was whizzing away over the heads of the unsuspecting
americans. in the kremlin soviet leader nikita khrushchev ordered that he be kept up to date. but even then he didn't seem to understand the historic implications of this great soviet feat. to go to. discussing this with local officials well because we can talk of the. or and will listen this being upset if we listen this beeps and then went to sleep because it was late to. tell us soberly reported the flight data of the new satellite the speed of eight kilometers per second orbital time ninety five minutes everything was going according to plan without much ado at all. but the reaction in the west was different. ladies and gentlemen the ancient dream of humanity advancing into space seems to have become
a reality because yesterday evening at precisely eleven thirty five pm a newsflash came in at the world's press agencies this task bulletin from the soviet union on this bulletin from eleven thirty five pm said that on october fourth the soviet union successfully launched the world's first artificial terrestrial satellite. as has been said ladies and gentleman these are the first and i believe in comprehensible signals from space. the competition between the us and the soviet union to put up a terrestrial satellite has been won by soviet russia. even though it was a global sensation there were no banner headlines on the front page of pravda the next day there was only the test news brief and no image or blatant propaganda.
there was a five minute report in prompter about the launch of an artificial terrestrial satellite it was nothing special just a sphere with whiskey but the beat beat beat went that was it and the whole world was going crazy. sputnik made every front page it was a global sensation america was in a state of shock no one had believed for so feels could do it. you know there's a sense of national humiliation how could we be second we're the leader in technology how could that you know country of tractor drivers and whatever how could they possibly beat us seriously in sales with sputnik the soviet union proved to america and the rest of the world that it wasn't a backward country. we weren't better than the americans that everything was fear but there were things we could beat them at. spaceflight and the peaceful use of
nuclear energy for example. we simply showed the world that we weren't a backward country and we weren't second rate either and i need to pin this to them that. it wasn't until several days after the launch that the soviets realized they had achieved quite a coup which is when procter suddenly went on the offensive. in the us the disappointment was particularly bitter among the people working with friend a friend brown in huntsville alabama from brown had been knocked out of the race or at least was no longer in the running for the winning spot. there was a gathering of. the powers of government and hopeful that at a banquet the night the russians put up their first. and i needn't go into great detail explaining to you. the mood of that banquet when it was announced. the
russians just put up a satellite. you know kind of like what like thrown over everybody a little bit. was it was shock shock for brian it was a shock. there is no secret there burn of on brown and the rocketeers there were down in huntsville at the redstone arsenal felt that you know if they'd just given us this task we could have beat these guys and and the reality is they probably could if they did not have the mission to do so and you can kick yourself in the aftermath of that. either there or that they simply didn't expect that we would work that well and be able to keep our launch schedule so secret. so the first flight caught them unawares and they understood they had lost their predominance but. it was
a heavy blow for them prestige wise and politically. the u.s. military monitored the beeping metal ball with special telescopes but the shimmering white thought was imperceptible for most of the public. nevertheless the specialist knew it was a huge achievement on the part of the soviet union. at the devil in scientific form terms and in tahrir as as interpreted in political terms i think it was probably the biggest shock of the. twentieth century because. i don't think people knew what it was they were frightened by it and. they sort of thought well what can it do i mean can a drop a bomb on us can inspire on us and frightening. and the response by the scientific community is how do we match it. u.s.
president eisenhower remained demonstrably composed and went to play golf the day after sputnik was launched. he tried to talk down all the commotion sputnik didn't make an impression on him not at all he said all they had done was put one small metal ball into the air. later he came up with even more denigrating descriptions of sputnik eisenhower didn't really think that we needed to run around with their hair on fire. and there were some members of his party in congress who disagreed with him. and his vice president disagreed with him as well richard nixon thought that we should have been more aggressive and that we had short changed our ballistic missile efforts up to that point this government needs to start telling the truth that the american people kidding ourselves trying to pull our friends and our neighbors and by that i mean that find out just where we stand at this rate and
if i'm in the picture and let's find out just what we're going to do about it but quite accurate jeff nothing happened because something has happened and it has been barristers throughout the world. servers all over the world have caught sputnik fever they were all searching the skies for a tiny white dot amateur radio operators listened for its characteristic beat. newspapers printed daily where sputnik could be seen. at night people got out their telescopes and used reflector telescopes during the day. the prestigious race for space was taken up by the media all over the world even in divided germany. in the east this but mission was of course viewed as a triumph of communism. if you look to total four thousand nine hundred fifty seven is a day that will go down in human history on this day the exploration of space began
. we are all witnesses to a great development the liberated and conscious work of people in a socialist society can make the most daring of dreams reality. that over there they say the soviet people are five years ahead yes and they're probably hang on to it because we know absolutely that the conditions for research in the soviet union are much better than they are in america they came by and what do you think about an artificial satellite racing around the globe and. yes you know i didn't believe the russians could do it through it all yet because i believe that what do you think now for example after the soviets have managed to do it ahead of the americans that will give some people pause for thought as i think so too. the view of the soviets pioneering feat was more sober in the west. that of course the russian launch of the first global satellite hit like a bomb here in washington. during the first few days you got the impression that
anyone in a responsible position was a bit confused and had lost their heads over it but in the meantime things have settled down when do you believe that america will launch its satellite and do you think they already have the rockets they need to do it. the usa plans to launch it first i t y satellite in the spring of one nine hundred fifty eight. but that was a long way off the media was getting impatient pressure was mounting. the media got more and more in an opera war about who's about the blame game began kicking in a big way people pointing figures in washington in government in the congress in the media saying why did we come second so i think. public worry and concern got stronger over. suddenly the us was worried about being vulnerable to attack.
when people recalled the duck and cover drills from the beginning of the fifty's that provided directions on what to do in the event of a nuclear attack you know there were new fears of being exposed to any missile attacks. and. cover and. until then they believed that our american territory was really safe protected as it was by the two oceans really didn't have to worry through killfile but now the russian bear was knocking at the door and all of a sudden he was coming out of the sky to that must have triggered some major fears . as the first artificial global satellite was orbiting the globe the backward soviets were leading the space race suddenly people believed they could do anything and everything even the impossible on nov first one nine hundred fifty seven a newspaper reported bill bombed the moon. the author cited cia inside sources and said the soviets were planning to shoot and detonate
a hydrogen bomb on the moon on november seventh. of course the authors observed predictions were wrong although a short time later such a project actually came into being. but in the fall of one nine hundred fifty seven it still wasn't technically possible so the soviets came up with something else. the first living creature was to be sent into space onboard sputnik two. khrushchev was so pleased by sputnik one that he was immediately ready to sacrifice yet another of his few nuclear missiles to make a new space sensation. after all it would soon be the fortieth anniversary of the great october revolution. who should know what. his mother called curly off when we got back to baikonur
after being home on leave. her alone that. he asked if it was possible to launch another sputnik in time for the october revolution celebrations. by november seventh. oh yeah curly i was shocked at first because he wasn't interested in doing a repeat of the first sputnik. oh so they had to think of something completely new. both that and that's how they came up with the idea of launching the dog like a into space. but will put it go much further erode away what that way with. a way. like it was the next big soviet space feat she was the first living being to fly into space. her space ship had to be designed in four weeks the launch took place on november third. there were no plans for like his return. the second
sputnik flight was even more impressive than the first. sputnik two was certainly more important sputnik one where sputnik one way to hundred eighty four pounds and was about the size of beach ball sputnik to was about the size of evokes wagon and had a dog inside and it had much more capability much more electronics and if you were not concerned about sputnik one because it's national security implications were pretty modest. you should be concerned about sputnik too because you put a pretty pretty big bomb in the capsule that was a sputnik to. the global press began to question the mission for the first time. there were doubts about whether like his death was actually a painless one as had been officially maintained and suffering for apparently that god will be right. and baby and. person. might.
as well have the right data. should be lying remember that. but that didn't put a damper on the space craze in general. clearly so your bar successes how does completely convinced. especially after we launched the second sputnik. their breakthrough even though the english especially accused us of animal cruelty about the dog. all women. were political leaders again expressed that the missiles could be used to transport something besides a hydrogen bomb successfully. this time the soviet propaganda machine didn't miss its cue on november fourth and the next day on the front pages posted about the latest achievement in space just in time for the upcoming revolution celebration.
four days after the second space sensation the painstakingly prepared demonstration of power took place as usual on red square. that. you can do with that people on. the leader in the kremlin could show off with more than just military missiles the fleet of sputnik's even allowed him an advantage in the struggle for hearts and minds. particularly in the third world. two days after the rocket parade on red square eisenhower made a long awaited appearance at the white house the president was on the defensive. it's important to reinforce this point you know we were behind there were we were watching we weren't what was wrong with us eisenhower went on t.v.
and there was a news conference in november when she showed off the first warhead vehicle that had risks us we returned. and he went on t.v. and said you see we are coming along we have the technology don't worry so much things will be ok and. they didn't go over very well because people said look they've already launched two satellites are familiar there's a lot of people saying you know why should we believe what president eisenhower saying because obviously we aren't doing that well. meanwhile the world was now asking a different question when with the americans launch their first spacecraft. in november one nine hundred fifty seven a few days after the like a mission the u.s. presented its settled light the launch was scheduled for early one nine hundred fifty eight after a testing phase. yet the pressure was so great that the white house decided to skip the tests and go live with the launch even though internal documents indicated the
prospects for success were slim. it was the navy's vanguard rocket the project that had been given the go ahead instead of fund runs. the honor of the u.s. was supposed to be restored on december sixth one nine hundred fifty seven eight weeks after the sputnik one launch. but the rocket exploded on the launch pad. the press called it a flop nick. but the p.r. disaster gave an afront brown the opportunity he needed he was well prepared to make his redstone rocket ready to go into space he'd never given up his plans to launch a satellite even though i was an hour ahead ordered him to abandon them he'd simply been waiting for his chance now it had arrived. on january thirty first one nine hundred fifty eight the countdown took place that would
decide the future of u.s. space flight and vienna from brown's career. four months after sputnik a converted redstone rocket was launched. one drone was triumphant. all of huntsville turned out to underfund brown and his two daughters. the reaction of. why. people come out of the house hollered you know. i think there was generally speaking there was some relief that well we want to be. a native german fan or from brown became a national hero as a rocket man in the u.s. . the media celebrated his success brown was everywhere.
the position of his soviet counterpart was the opposite the actual winner of the initial race into space sergei carli off wasn't allowed to enjoy any public education he wasn't permitted to make p.r. appearances give interviews or be photographed for magazines nothing he could only write articles under a pseudonym. the grand old man of the soviet space program was relegated to the back row at public events. his name remained a well kept secret until the bitter end. at international events people were introduced in his stead who had nothing to do with his spaceflights. but there was that it was rather difficult for carly off to put up with. in fact it was quite painful for him. sergey corley often died in one nine hundred sixty six only then did the public get to see his face.
the world didn't even know his name until he was buried in the kremlin wall as a hero of the soviet union the man who ensured he and sputnik one would have a place in the history books. and it wasn't just sputnik. four years after that launch carli have succeeded again in the next space conquest when you're a good guy and became the first man in space it was the next humiliation for the u.s. . but three years after coralie of stefan brown's saturn five moon rocket turned things around for the americans again. landing a man on the moon was the first u.s. triumph over the soviets in space. the mission had been triggered by the sputnik shock more than a decade earlier. sputnik frightened and shook up america more than anything else. the country revamped its educational system and reinvented itself as a high tech nation.
everybody loves to talk about the so-called sputnik moment the aha moment at which we realize we have to take affirmative action to achieve some end whatever that end might be we've heard presidents use that many times mr obama used on one of the kids. after sputnik one burned up in the atmosphere according to plan in january one nine hundred fifty eight american reporter gabriel heater wasn't far from the truth when he wrote thank you mr sputnik you'll never know how big a noise you made you gave us a shock that hit many people as hard as pearl harbor you hit our pride a frightful blow you suddenly made us realize that we are not the best in everything you reminded us of an old. ash an american word humility you woke us up out of a long sleep. climate
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