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tv   Tomorrow Today - The Science Magazine  Deutsche Welle  July 23, 2018 10:30am-10:59am CEST

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militarily. does iran truly want peace. the countries of homes of their towns isolate. iran from yonkers regional superpower sponsor august first on g.w. to. allow and welcome to tomorrow today this time we're looking at the amazing things animals get up to and what we can learn from them. we make some seals who call them shore leave. from the north sea we had in london and catch up with some trouble some people. and we find out how bugs are helping scientists develop new drugs for humans.
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but for us synchronized team precision walking is a competitive sport in japan the teams train for twelve hundred kilometers to fine tune their choreography with humans collective action takes an awful lot of practice. in the animal kingdom it comes a lot more naturally. and there's strength in numbers a colony of ants works better than one. so how exactly does swarm behavior work. it looks magical a flock of starlings creating intricate patterns in the sky thousands of birds dancing across the firmament. or the synchronized swimming of shoals of fish movements so precise. that we humans
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could never emulate them. how and why do animals move in sync to find out we visit biologist alex jordan at the max planck institute in konstanz in southern germany he describes diving among a shoal of fish they were moving around me in this in this rhythmic pattern and i could hear it really whoosh whoosh as i swear through and i could see nothing but a wall of fish and it was so dramatic an amazing. choreography without a choreographer but how does it work in the past swarm behavior was believed to function according to quite simple rules such as follow the leader or dodge the predator but now researchers have revised their opinion. we know that in these systems individuals defy individuals differ in how they perceive information in the threshold that they respond in so many aspects they are not automate all but
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with sort of approaches that we're now able to take especially in the field in natural conditions we can ask those questions by tracking all of the individuals and monitoring their identity throughout time. but how do these individuals come together to form a group understanding that might also help us to understand human behavior and networks and collectives. jordan is particularly interested in the collective behavior of secluded fish here in lake tanganyika in central africa. sometimes they swim in shoals but sometimes they don't that's why they're a good species to study even here in laboratory conditions in konstanz. the researchers have recreated late conditions and start up with different species of sequoia some are very sociable while others aren't this species will be much less likely to tolerate an intruder intruder like me coming into the territory it simply
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will ouch not let me go anywhere near. so why isn't this secluded swimming in a shoal. the world is cruel and if you're alone and individual istic that can be a very hazardous situation the luxury afforded by this safe environment relaxes the pressure on conformity and collective processes perhaps we start to see individuals acting individual stickley. one result of the research the animal swim in a shoulder because it improves their chances of survival jordan records the shoals movements with video cameras and a computer program that identifies the individual fish recorded in the images goal is to be able to look at a scene like this and have our computational algorithms pull out the fish for us
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tell us who they are where they are and what they are doing to look at for instance when one individual in a system does something what's the change the defects in other individuals in the food in that system and how did the fish know when they have to follow and when they can go it alone this question remains unanswered but one thing is sure the cyclone's clearly like swimming together in a group. we know that when they are alone they feel isolation stress and as well when they interact with social partners that activates for instance the documented exist of the systems that incurred reward so in this sense animals do enjoy being together as humans collective decisions tend to be better than those made by individuals. connected to solutions tend to be better than those made by individuals that's what numerous studies have shown but what about you are you more of a lone wolf or do you prefer swarm thinking. sima in rome says she lives but
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according to the situation she's protected. samuel drew mom looks for advice just like the way we all do but at the end he says it all depends on me. fred griswold prefers to go it alone if a decision only affects an individual he thinks it should be made by the individual . pre-check a book of yeah carnegie believes in consensus collective decisions means that can't be any complaints because we're involved in the decision making. here some highly skilled collective action synchronized swimming as performed by humans and by fish go to something humans and other animals don't move in water the same way fish do. that something that gave from hong kong pause for thought and
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it's the topic of our viewer question. why do whales and dolphins swim by moving their tails up and down. while sharks by swaying side to side why some species of shark can swim at speeds of up to fifty kilometers an hour away a little more sedate swimming at an average speed of twenty five kilometers an hour . dolphins can reach fifty five kilometers an hour. but the speed of sea creatures is not determined by their tail movement but rather the creatures size and shape. sharks and many other fish have a vertical tail fin which evolved to allow for. a side to side movement.
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whales aren't very good at moving sideways that's because they're descended from land mammals whose backbones didn't bend side to side but up and down. force of evolution their back legs and tail were replaced by a tail fin. incidentally summary mammals are equally at home on land and on water. on like whales they don't have fins. but back to the question of why whales and dolphins have a horizontal tail fin it helps these air breathing sea mammals surface faster. if humans were aquatic they would presumably swim more like dolphins rather than sharks think about how we move when we use flippers we kick our legs up and down. it how that is right right i'm glad you made it to you have
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a science question that you've always wanted on say it with happy to help out send it to us as a video text over as well if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you can all just ask. it's astonishing what seals can do they typically live in cold ocean waters and can dive to depths of one thousand meters spending up to two hours underwater. that heartbeat slows when the ice of munched enabling them to conserve oxygen as soon as they surface now. heart rate accelerates again to keep the water for breeding season when they gather on beaches. on heligoland for example but their beaches are getting mighty crowded. too says grey
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seals can't happen favorite beaches too they lie in their hundreds on the sunday beaches of the island of do you know just across the water on hell or go lands main island live some one thousand four hundred people. for visitors to do you know it's a real thrill to be able to get so close to the animals there's nothing separating them from the seals. or yams and his colleague here to look after the seals and the people grey seals have been a protected species here since one thousand nine hundred seventy s. if an animal seems a bit sickly or lost and takes a closer look at who they want to instill strong it's not a hopeless case or they will leave it in peace. and fortunately some visitors aren't leaving the animals in peace the ranger recommends keeping thirty meters away from the seals for the sake of man and beast these portly animals might look
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rather common complacent but appearances can be deceiving. because of all tio why seals are predators many people underestimate them when they measure two metres in length in a way three hundred kilos and i don't know if they can walk upright and people might think twice about getting that close but because the seals lie in the sand people think they're safe. ever since getting protected status the grey seal population has been increasing. there are plenty of fish in the waters around heligoland and the north sea tides don't encroach on the sand use making this the perfect place to really young. but conflicts remain as the seals like to rove around. and they've learned that they have nothing to fear from the people here. much of one in your some of the newborn seals see people or photographers before they see their mother it's them
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this pattern continues over the first few weeks and months and one at some point it's summer and people venture into the water in the little ones find that really exciting or magically drawn to all that splashing around and they join in with those from the modest on scene and then one gets tangled up with the swimmers and causes a scratch with its claws quien was often nothing really nasty has happened but it shouldn't be underestimated either what does is in store for you all the. apple fan mail from the institute for terrestrial and aquatic wildlife research is also trying to find answers to the problem today he's looking for a seal bull he's fitted with a transmitter and a camera he helps the images will supply information about its movements and hunting behavior but the pool seal isn't anywhere to be seen good said. gray seals tend to stay close to home or is it so a young seal born in heligoland tends to spend most of its time here at least my
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side before this. year off the year many seals return to the junes and reproduce but how long can the seal colony go on growing. i believe missed the dish by and they don't like being really close to it but it's not just the bowls that fight females do to the conclusion that they don't cozy up but keep a certain distance from one another space here is limited so here i appeal ation growth here hasn't reached its limit yet but researches are already working on measures to help ease the conflicts of interest between humans and animals. the pilots and forth with made a range of suggestions such as establishing flexible protected zones in winter to protect the young seals a bit better but also measures such as creating a boardwalk for the dune so that locals and visitors can still visit the dunes you
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know via tends to be. believes that humans could have. if people just showed a little more respect towards them. this is much more humans often find it difficult to let something else take precedence especially an animal. one hundred years ago beavers were at risk of extinction thanks to conservation efforts bizarre back and. waterproof rather like tail and from poles that can grasp and dig their well equipped land and importer. felled trees and build homes and dams often changing their environment in ways that few other animals can. see santa is on his way to one of germany's big dams. reached by canadian this river is close to the town of.
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the presence of beaver it's impossible to overlook. the fact that. these trees are dead and partly submerged because of the beaver dam there's nothing the owner of the land can do to stop the beavers from wreaking havoc. i receive compensation for the trainees that pretty much reflected what they're worth but i can't do anything with the land it needs more it's dead forest. this needs to be in. the water reaches to the cornfield which suits the. news the corn cobs to build dams. along with. they feed and build. their kitchens they may be the the be. they cease to be
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a fish bone. he has also dig holes in tunnels in the ground a famine is that can be a serious problem. it is. what the interviews and i mean they've burrow in meadows then you come along with your tractor and get stuck in it and it can be dangerous and you feel it was. so all the just buckets on a seas the very differently eva dams are teeming with life they provide a habitat for all sorts of flora and fauna. including dragon flies which otherwise suffering from a loss of habitat. and
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what looked like snowflakes are actually seeds of pump loads which grow well on what blends the habitat that beavers helped create. woodpeckers and other bird species meanwhile like nothing more than nesting in dead trees. so be this boost biodiversity both on land and in water. you wouldn't believe what beavers can day and it's not a good thing they're only small rodents but they found a strategic spot and built this dam which is over one hundred twenty metres long that's an amazing achievement this is off it probably wasn't buried under heaps of plant life a construction made branches it could easily break so folk had found it has to be careful. and it's this one is mine and i have to dredge it out very carefully and it stuck
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to his distaste. it's a city but we can see there's about sixty centimeters of sediment and it's very muddy and it's made up of a lot of organic matter. i don't meet them and it's a very fine untie it's what's been filtered out it shows there's a wide variety of biodiversity here in the down by believing. he's keen to view the cameras findings. just walk into that's a mile or dust for a start i don't know that it's the tail of a fox crossing the dam with dry paws talking of which the movement for explaining this is another fox at night you can see its eyes you can already hear and that looks like it's not exist. done and go to center which is also crossing the dam looking for fish elves so obviously all sorts of animals are drawn by the beaver
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dams and it's a magnet for various species. to be this themselves keep a low profile tunnel and you get to work on the cover. they make their way through the water without my stealth ducking under a swiftly as the. insects are the unsung heroes of the animal kingdom they make up an estimated ninety percent of all life forms on us. and without bugs scientists say life on earth would end that's because insects pollinate the plants that humans and other animals eat but insects are amazing in other ways to even though they're often regarded as pasts. they're the scourge of the food pantry bread flour beetles which infest dry goods
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they also feed on raisins cocoa and nuts. although in base of in the kitchen the beatles are highly useful for experiments in the laboratory. scientists at the brown hall for institute for molecular biology in applied ecology and geese and are using the insects in their research they're feeding the beatles the pesticide paraquat which attacks their nervous system and alters their behavior. and i was on the permission to copy them substances that trigger symptoms similar to parkinson's disease then we mix different plant extracts into their food to see if any of them can alleviate the symptoms of these i'm told mcqueary it the researchers then cut test strips for the insects to climb up this is what the beatles do naturally as they explore their environment the induced parkinson's symptoms slow their movements and make them unsteady. the scientists are looking to see which group of
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beetles climbs the highest in one minute. the theory goes that the strongest climbers have ingested a substance that best mitigates the parkinson's symptoms. the differences are clear to see some beetles are vigorous climbers while others move hardly at all the best response comes from beetles that ingested drugs that are already used to treat parkinson's disease but vitamin c. and a chinese tea extract also demonstrate positive results so it's an insect based system for finding new pharmaceutical substances. while some insects serve as test subjects in the development of new drugs others actually contain fascinating substances themselves one example was the lady. a single lady bug will consume thousands of a food's in its lifetime and there larval form there especially veracious and
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they're not especially picky eaters. this young european species happily consumes the tiny larvae of an asian relative with deadly consequences. she sticks to find the few lady bugs themselves are their own worst enemy whenever a larger lady bug larva finds the eggs are smaller larvae of other lady bugs it eats them we've seen that when the european lady bugs eat their asian counterparts they die. but that doesn't happen when the asian ladybugs the european ones. so why do the insects that feed on the asian species die it turns out that the asian bugs hemo them the equivalent of blood in insects is full of microbes parading tiny parasites that act as a kind of biological weapon but leave the asian ladybugs unscathed. this was this was what i was surprised i've been researching the immune system of
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insects for twenty years and i've never see. anything like it you rarely see anything like this. only in insects that are very sick dead insects are full of pathogens but in healthy insects that eat fly and reproduce i've never seen that before. for. the asian ladybug must have a very robust immunity against pathogens to keep these parasites in check locating the substances that offer this protection might be helpful in developing new drugs . once those substances are found they might be tested on other insects like these wax moths which live in beehives these insects have adapted to thrive at thirty seven degrees celsius the temperature inside the behind it's also the human body temperature which makes the wax moth valuable in medical research breeding wax monts is easy and inexpensive they can be raised in boxes and fed with wheat
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flour honey and semolina. when the caterpillars reach a certain size the researchers inject them with pathogens and later they test various active substances on them it's a quick way to see which ones might hold promise for drug development and regardless of which insect species is used in testing the road to creating a new drug for human use is a long one. drug development whether you're talking about antibiotics or other medications can take up to fifteen years preclinical research is complex very expensive and labor intensive of all that's why it's such a challenge but to develop new substances we need a constant supply of suitable test organisms insects are truly a treasure trove. so when it comes to medical research insects may well be man's best friend. for this edition next time we'll
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be taking a look at the resistance that's threatening our crops. species is increasingly immune to chemical weedkiller as. whole industry come join us for. good bye and see you soon. move. move move. move move. move. move. move move. move. move. move.
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move. move move. move. move. move move move beyond a change has been sentenced to life from. the neo nazi terrorists did not act. in the full on as received lesser sentences. for a man who provided significant support. you want a crime what with them no chance of germany's right wing terror. and that's what they seem i'm trying. in fifteen minutes on details.
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we make up oh but we watch as a half of the hundred budget cuts we ought to seven seven percent. they want to shape the continent's future. be part of it enjoy napping youngsters as they share their stories their dreams and their challenges. the seventy seven percent. platform for africa charge. stay up to date don't miss our highlights. program on line w dot com highlights. see sarno just couldn't get this song out of his head. ecologist began searching for the source of these captivating sounds. and found
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that deep in the rain forest in central africa. the biopsy. hanging. in the muck to belittle is a big lesson in what i mean one. minute live the. good by their culture but he stayed. only a promise to a son was a son only in the jungle and returned to the concrete and glass drum. the result reverse culture shock. to realize how strange the artificial was really connected to life. the prize winning documentary from before it starts hope is not w. .
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this is deja vu news live from berlin one of germany's best known soccer stars puts the national team that citing racism midfielder measured as you'll says he will no longer play internationally for germany after facing a barrage of criticism from meeting the turkish president his decision has kicked off a debate about racism and integration. also coming up what do you do if you have to import almost everything you consume and you're not sure what the future holds we take you to the overseas british tourist territory of and we'll let the caribbean and its worries over the.


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