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tv   The Day - News in Review  Deutsche Welle  August 22, 2018 2:02am-2:31am CEST

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for years he was known in new york city by his neighbors as the nazi next door or not anymore today ninety five year old yankee polly was deported from the u.s. to germany the white house says the former guard helped murder jewish prisoners at a nazi death camp in poland an accusation that he has always rejected a pollie has never been a citizen of germany but beginning tonight it is up to germany to decide if he should be tried for helping the nazis kill off the berlin this is the day. yesterday aug twentieth the u.s. government moved to germany of poly a former nazi camp guard at the notorious trav miki slave labor camp for jews in nazi occupied poland so we think that there's enough evidence to show that he used
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to force people to stay in a camp and that can kill them we think that the evidence shows that he is guilty and innocent so decision we do not see crimes we have tremendous difficulties to solve those crimes because they date back so long like the situation on the ground has changed like this and in germany being a member of a criminal organization like the nazi s.s. is not enough to warrant prosecution aiding and abetting all participating in a madam must be proven and he's ninety five years probably going to die at some point soon and so we wanted to make sure that he didn't die in peace and comfort in the united states and the german government can now figure out what to do with them . brushed by the soviet iron fist. and sixty nine hundred sixty eight is always closely associated with this feeling of emotional shock that is tied to the occupation. to the twenty first of august in
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the days that followed it. life is where people resisted nonviolently to where people really came together as one in our society says. the time it was a very very powerful time that. we begin today with a man who could be one of the last people to stand trial for helping the nazis carry out the holocaust today ninety five year old yaki polly arrived in germany from the united states washington believes the former nazi camp guard was a nazi collaborator who escaped prosecution after the war by changing his name and building a new life in the u.s. in two thousand and three a u.s. judge stripped poly of his u.s. citizenship but his deportation last night it almost never happened his native
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poland germany and other countries spent years refusing to take in germany finally agreed citing its moral obligation but there is no arrest warrant here in germany for poly and nazi war crimes prosecutors have already said there is still not enough evidence to justify any charges. to living quietly in new york for decades this was the moment history caught up with the. u.s. authorities arresting him for deportation to germany expelling the ninety five year old despite his plea of frailty has been a priority for the trumpet ministration born in what was then poland poly arrived in america in one thousand nine hundred nine concealing his nazi service from immigration officials. eight years later his application for citizenship was grown tud. but in the one nine hundred ninety s. investigators caught up with him he admitted to them having trained at a nazi s.s. camp in trav nikky the site of one of the holocaust worst massacres claiming the
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lives of some six thousand jewish citizens a judge then revoked pollies american citizenship in two thousand and three a year later the us authorities ordered his deportation. until now though germany had refused to accept him on the grounds that he isn't a german and also because german investigators say the evidence against him using conclusive. but the u.s. ambassador lobbied strongly behind the scenes saying berlin had a moral obligation to admit a man suspected of committing crimes in germany's name he's ninety five he's probably going to die some points. he's a little bit sickly and so we wanted to make sure that he didn't die in peace and comfort in the united states but that he was brought back somewhere to to face justice on diplomatic rather than legal grounds the german government has now accepted that argument. of
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a more on this story i want to bring in rosenbaum he is the director of human rights enforcement strategy and policy at the u.s. department of justice he joins me tonight from our washington d.c. studio mr rosenbaum it's good to have you on the day we know that you and your colleagues spent years on this case and finally yaki probably has been deported to germany now the u.s. ambassador to germany today says that the deportation took place because president finally put pressure on berlin is that how you see. i'm not privy to two diplomatic engagements at at that level i know that the ambassador has said that the president asked him to to make this happen and that the ambassador had extensive conversations with german officials and we appreciate germany's willingness to readmit polly who after all was ordered
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removed after u.s. courts found that he assisted in nazi sponsored persecution. on behalf of the former government of germany which gave him his weapon his uniform his orders. here in germany the nazi war crimes investigators and prosecutors they say that there is not enough evidence to charge polly with anything i mean with this deportation are we closer to having justice served or could we be seeing polley escape justice. i think that the deportation in and of itself. represents the attainment of a significant element of justice. we leave it to our colleagues in germany with whom we've worked closely for nearly forty years on these nazi cases.
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to whom we are greatly indebted. particularly the. live explore her newly under the leadership of yes rommel we understand that standards legal standards are different in germany than they are in the united states i've worked on these cases for over three decades and i well remember when we deported hans lipschitz to germany a former auschwitz birkenau extermination camp guard and we were told and it was said publicly by the german government that the evidence is insufficient he can't be prosecuted thirty years later as. german courts own appraisal of their law in german prosecutors understanding of what was possible evolved a low and behold midst of the could be prosecuted and and he was arrested so. we're
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dealing here both with different legal systems and in both of our countries evolving once you have been quoted mr rosenbaum as saying that trying to find nazi war criminals and gather evidence against them is very much a search for that proverbial needle in a haystack how much confidence do you have that german prosecutors will be able to gather the evidence that is necessary to bring this man to trial. our german colleagues are familiar with the evidence that we've amassed to be clear the united states government has taken the position that. germany should admit mr polly as a deportee from the united states we have not said that we believe that under german law he can be prosecuted that is a matter soley within the province of german state law enforcement authorities.
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pauli is the last deportation case connected to possible nazi war crimes how many living nazi war criminals do you suppose are still in the us and what is against you the most time against you the most or having the resources to gather evidence. no one knows how many nazi perpetrators might still be in the united states we still have investigative work underway as one might imagine that that workload diminishes each year because of actuarial realities. but it is as well an enormously challenging undertaking mostly it involves a search by our gifted historians in our office. for the fragmentary documentary record the the surviving documents of the third reich that
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the nazis themselves didn't manage to incinerate or that didn't get inadvertently destroyed in combat. and mr rosenbaum before we let you go you know you are called the u.s. is top nazi hunter would you describe yourself the same way. i don't care for the expression nazi hunter and it makes it seem as though it's a sport of some some sort of this is in both of our countries very serious law enforcement matter and it's handled you know by professional law enforcement personnel i do want to say that it should be remembered that yacc of poly lied his way into the united states by concealing service in at least three different s.s. sponsored units and that part of his responsibility was to guard a labor camp which served to prevent the escape of jews who ultimately were as you
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said massacred he should not be permitted and will not be permitted and again we are grateful to the german government for its assistance in this he will not be permitted to die in a country whose whose families sacrificed two hundred thousand of their sons and some daughters as well to bring an end to the nightmare of nazi terror any in europe was the reason we certainly do appreciate your time and your insights tonight only rosenbaum the director of human rights enforcement strategy and policy at the u.s. department of justice mr rosenbaum thank you very much. well here in germany compulsory military service or conscription was abolished in two thousand and eleven a germany is not an outlier here most european countries decided years ago to start converting their armed forces into purely professional armies won't was that the
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right decision or some lawmakers here in germany say the country needs more boots on the ground made possible by conscription i'll be talking to a member of the us talk about that in just a moment but first we look at the case of sweden like germany sweden abolished military service but unlike germany sweden is now reintroducing it one argument the growing aggression posed by russia and the annexation of crimea is sweden's new way of building a military delivering what lawmakers have promised an example that these young people are undergoing military training in sweden's forests are being put into shape to defend their country. this year sweden introduced conscription lasting eleven months for every high school graduate and that means both young men and women. for me it's a matter of course it gives me something and i probably would have done it
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voluntarily he said mccain i. mean for me my family and friends think i should stay in it's most believe it will become my profession i'm not so sure myself but i really enjoy it. this year only about four percent of graduates and four thousand other young people will be involved in. the swedish government has reintroduced the draft mainly for defense reasons. when russia annexed crimea when we have conflicts in ukraine and a military presence and activities at our doorstep in the baltic sea we have to make our army ready. and that's why we need general military conscription. in militarily neutral sweden a return to conscription is taken rather lightly. but so when i don't believe in a professional army everyone should be involved because i did military service
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years ago and found it good how much the fish you have to defend your country i think it's good that girls and boys learn something before they take on further study thing and i bet yesterday. besides learning how to use weapons the young people also learned things they may not have learned at home. let's go my kid and we teach them how to make their beds and how to take care of each other so that's very different from today's culture discipline so here we are into vigils where a group get a band and the group is set to get larger sweden's army aims to increase the number it calls up in the near future. joining me here at the big table tonight is patrick or he is a member of the german parliament for transfer i'm going to michael's christian democrats he is also a vehement advocate for a return to military service here in germany and i should mention he is an active lieutenant colonel in the german army reserve masters in vegas good to have you back on the day you saw that report there about what the swedes are doing
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reintroducing conscription do you see what they're doing and do you think this is what germany should be doing to definitely if we look to sweden and just to to say it's a first we did suspend conscription we didn't abolish it so there is a chance to go back and call for young men and i think there's a change in the political situation things two thousand and eleven so that's the reason why we have the discussion now in germany explain to our viewers in two thousand and eleven when the law was passed then to suspend it the thinking at the time was we don't need conscription yes i think that was the main reason there were lots of discussion about against it even then right so are you going to. to look at your colleagues in the buddhist dog and say i told you so i don't i wouldn't say that because i think the best way is to have a discussion about the actual political situation in terms of defense in terms of
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security there are a lot of changes since two thousand and eleven you mentioned in in the video right what happened in crimea what happened in east ukraine the discussion about. the baltic states so we have a changed situation in the world what position if you are in the nato for example is going to ask you what is the number one in your opinion the number one reason why conscription should be reintroduced i think the most important issue is national defense i think the core task off any army is national defense i think for germany then comes security in europe and then comes the other missions for example afghanistan mali south sudan but first is national defense was that was the main threat was the number one threat i think the number one threat is not having the power to do by yourself national defense and you cut the question always is who is the threat which country i think it's like having
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a fire brigade and you ask in the witch house will the next fire that's a good or that's hard to answer but the question is can a country defend itself and we have the german army sixty one thousand soldiers always make the picture these soldiers fit in the olympic stadium in berlin and fall yeah the strongest economy in europe nothing it's not enough to have the size of twenty eleven there have been very embarrassing reports about the german military having rifles that can't fire street having helicopters that you know you can't get off the ground having a military that has outdated equipment all of these things have happened in the last five to six years how is conscription. young men and women right out of school coming into the movie how is that going to make you or military a better military i think these are two different issues i think the condition of the german army is better than reported in many reports for example of the arrival
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of thirty six very good rifle so it's definitely not used many many times it's delivered like it's ordered and it's a very good weapon so i think the condition is better than it's reported but since the ninety's the german army was shrink the material was getting lower and lower in number and so the capability is less than in the ninety's and now we have a little bit changed the personal is getting more and we put more money in the defense budget so i think there's a changing of time you're spending more money now right you know are you doing that because your military needs it or because of the pressure that has been coming from president donald trump no it's because we need it and not because the material has got a better condition you have to renew the material year by year decade by decade so it's time for it and on the other side conscription is not something you do because
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. you need to for example material more personal you do it because you you want to have the possibility to do national defense and i'm going to ask you what we've got you here about the russian threat we heard about it from the swedes i want you to take a listen what the u.k. foreign minister jeremy hunt recently said about dealing with that russian threat america expelled sixty russian diplomats and what i'm saying is now they're going a step further and doing sanctions given that this attack happened on european soil he was make sure that what we two matches up to that. there he is saying that we europeans would must do as much as the americans are doing germany has not expelled any russian diplomats it he's implying that the germans and the europeans are weak when it comes to dealing with russia compared to the u.s. or the u.k. that is truth i don't think so germany is engaged for example in the baltic i'm
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with if mission. there and i think that this is a sign for russia as well that we are present that. germany is increasing the defense budget and we make quite clear that we do our part of burden sharing in the nato and in the you use descent but as always it's good to have you on the show we appreciate your insights always valuable information patrick symmes borgen member of the german one does talk thank you thank you. oh it was fifty years ago today when soviet tanks rolled into czechoslovakia crushing what became known as the prague spring today czech prime minister andres bobbish tried to deliver a speech to mark the anniversary but the crowd of listeners and onlookers well they had a message for him take a listen. to
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what you are hearing there are shelves in check of shame on you aimed at the prime minister some historians say that mr bobbish was an informant for the state secret police under the communist in the nineteen eighty s. when he wus free coffman travel to prague and he introduces us to a resident who lived through the events of one nine hundred sixty eight and the return to hard line communism that followed. roland burris our retraces the pass near the radio station building and crowd fifty years ago dramatic scenes unfolded on this very street. toward the. mall where i was standing in front of this tree. the shells were exploding shrapnel was flying everywhere.
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explosions and shrapnel everywhere barricades were crushed by soviet tanks soldiers shot demonstrators there our took photographs on that long day along with many other progress events in the early hours of august the twenty first one nine hundred sixty eight warsaw pact troops ended the prague spring dream of an open and humane communist system at the start of that year the communist party had begun allowing greater freedom of expression journalists working for czech radio we're no longer censored. or so we did not want the radio building to be occupied. so people set up barricades they also set a tank on fire here. god forbid for the. images from that day is stored in the check archives of state security services the documents a studied in catalogues by historians like on very much a care the violent hands the truck spring is still felt today. and the sixty
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nine hundred sixty eight is always closely associated with this feeling of emotional shock that is tied to the occupation. to the twenty first of august in the days that followed it departed on our. lot is where people resisted nonviolently. where people really came together as one in our society it is our. time it was a very very powerful time. it's dark. but the events of the prague spring served only to fortify moscow's hard liners in the politburo czechoslovakia state security services immediately expanded and they took on additional spice historians believe that in the one nine hundred eighty s. the current prime minister on trade became one of them. and. bush was in the highest category meaning agent. denied the allegations a few weeks ago on an online channel he himself phones some of them when the media
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claims that i lost this state security affair and courses and then that is a lie. while many historians are convinced that czech prime minister used to serve as an informant of the state security agency of communist czechoslovakia at least some office voters see it a little bit differently. last year about issues party became a stronger in the country after a populist election campaign was opinion about him is divided and i would like you know it's not strange that he was an agent it would bother us but they haven't proved it. as a message of the year so i think just about everyone is bothered by it but most people don't let it show so. these are things that are contrary to human principles and it's downright unprincipled that it is also that i don't know but it bothers me terribly i can't understand why so many people don't care. as people remember the
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events of the prague spring is violent ten fifty years ago it seems to debate about the country's communist past has also returned to the czech republic. the day is nearly done but it's never the conversation continues online to find us on twitter either at u.w. news or you can write directly to me at brant goth t.v. don't forget to use hash tag the day every member whatever happens between now and then tomorrow is another day. we'll see if they've ever. cut cut. cut cut cut. cut. cut. cut cut cut cut cut cut. cut. logs move.
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