tv Doc Film - Out of the Ashes - Libyas Difficult New Beginning Deutsche Welle December 16, 2018 4:15am-5:00am CET
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where on route to the sahara. this is the most dangerous part of tunes journey through libya. the delegate is flying to his home region to pay a visit to his constituency this decommissioned military aircraft is the only flight from the libyan capital tripoli commercial airlines no longer fly to the region. little is known about the arms and drug smuggling and human trafficking that is taking place here the libyan state is no longer a presence in this region bordering algeria and.
it's often said that people are drawn to the water wherever they might be. abdul salam tune has been living in munich for fifteen years. in february two thousand and eleven the arab spring reached libya. vickie davis really henan sometimes i feel as if my body is here but my thoughts and feelings are in libya shared equally. in march two thousand and eleven one month after the protests began in libya nato launched air strikes against the regime in october more marga doppies forty two year rule came to a gruesome and. but instead of freedom this was followed by years of
civil war look. like. libya has been brought to its knees remains in a state of crisis. abdul salam tone has a mission to reinvent libya. he had yet havea is in such a difficult situation that eye contact might back on it's. come to know has been commuting between germany and libya since two thousand and fourteen. the political scientist is one of sixty delegates tasked with drafting a democratic constitution for the country. they were elected by the libyan people in two thousand and fourteen during a brief flicker of hope. after four years of work the project is on the brink of failure the constitutional assembly is divided mirroring the fronts of the
country's civil war. can a new democratic beginning be achieved in a country that is so near to breaking apart. come june hasn't given up hope. the port city of benghazi is located in eastern libya its airport was badly damaged in battles with the so-called islamic state. the airport was reopened to passenger traffic only two months before on tone's arrival. whenever hum tune travels to libya as a constitutional delegate his driver hunted picks him up from the airport. but now the power count yes there always is between six and ten pm in this area. so it will get back on at ten and you probably have said that's a terrible. as
bad as just the one he asked is running short to a gas cylinder costs around eighty dinars the gas plant was out of order back when islamist militias occupied the gaza. they were tough times back then and they didn't my because of the fuss bus stop at weddings to groom has to bring a gas cylinder as dowry welfare i was. good at. that. handover the gas cylinder gas instead of gold to a photograph but none of them. outside the sound of machine guns echoes through the night. news limited fighters are still occupying positions on the outskirts of benghazi. libya is ravaged by political divisions. in the capital tripoli in
the west the un backed unity government is headed by prime minister fayyad. but the real power lies with the many militias tribalists o.c. asians and islam is factions. benghazi in the country's east is under the control of highly evolved on a former confidant of moammar gaddafi the commander of a self-styled army portrays himself as benghazi's liberator. the south rich in oil but economically less developed is foundering under the conflict between rival centers of power. tunes home region is descending into chaos. i'm too left his home in one thousand nine hundred four as a young student after
a car accident he came to europe for medical treatment his leg had to be amputated he decided to remain in europe today libya is among the world's most dangerous countries. the next am tone heads for his first appointment. as an elected delegate to the constitutional assembly m tune is helping to shape his country's future and many libyans have placed their hopes for the future in the assembly but just like the country it is deeply divided. eastern libya is controlled by the gulf states think of what should be the form of the new libyan state federalist sent proponents of centralized government monarchists and islamists are vying to shape the constitution in their own image as national minorities including berber and peoples are fighting for their rights.
alliances are being forged behind the scenes but prospects for peace seem more distant than ever what happened to the revolution of two thousand and eleven and its promises. and. what lies behind the failures of the last seventy years. after the plenary session of those saddam tone decides he wants to talk to ordinary libyans to find out more about what went wrong. in benghazi the protests began on the seventeenth of february two thousand and eleven . i shout no i did that i mean it was about russia but i had methadone as you know back then we had something completely different in mind to what it. did we start the revolution with the aim of seeing people die. because as you know about that and witnessing the destruction of our cities it was up to. one of many. doesn't it we overthrow the old regime only to kill each other afterwards. but or
to plant the seeds for the rise of an organization like the islamic state and that of a nation can this be the result of our revolution i don't know what i don't know we wanted to demonstrate resolve not divide our country but out of order. and now we're at war with each other that has been and to be a custom and it was destroyed the country and how it certainly did how much it. how could the rebels have so deeply be trade their professed ideals. i'm tone has an appointment with one of the driving forces behind the two thousand and eleven revolts. not only benghazi the oldest football club in town had long been a thorn in the sign of moammar gadhafi during a protest in two thousand fans dressed as a donkey with
a jersey bearing the number of saadiq on offie more modest son who was also a footballer the dictator ordered the club's headquarters bulldozed the followers of otto you were brutally persecuted. untuned meets with abdellatif who sells soccer jerseys. will learn this probable look at all of us that we weren't allowed to show our love for the club. it had in the sea and we had to hide and move from place to place three months of psychological terror we weren't allowed to wear anything red any more. come to news here to meet his boyhood hero ali's former goalkeeper who also played for libya's national team. his haircut and his
flamboyant behavior during televised matches made reject budget tory a national hero in the one nine hundred seventy s. the former football star believes that the turning point of the revolution was the intervention of the western powers. let me be the little bugger that got the bombing started even before the mandate came from the united nations. it was exactly what they did in iraq going to them and now we're faced with ruin missed. because of the western powers turned our manageable problems into an enormous conflict where the i thought if i didn't know they played us off against each other you know whether my. many here in libya believe that the western countries have an eye on our oil reserves come up much in exactly that you know why don't they go to somalia and solve their problems and who are they trying to fool you know my head over.
the stolen revolution that is what many in libya call the nato led intervention. the nato coalition airstrikes took control of the uprising out of the hands of the libyan people citing the doctrine of responsibility to protect the u.n. security council authorized military intervention on the basis of unconfirmed reports of massacres of civilian protesters. china russia germany brazil and india abstained. on tone was among the libyans who doubted the motivation of the intervention in two thousand and eleven he recorded a video message to libyans. the western world can help us to establish a real democracy in libya because real democracy means independence. but the western world doesn't want us to be independent.
the air strikes were soon underway. french president nicolas sarkozy was among those calling for swift action. nato secretary general anders fogh rasmussen also issued a call to arms to show not that it realizes that he cannot win the battle against its own people or get better. the airstrikes serve to diminish support for the rebels among the libyan people rumors about oil deals and the geo political strategy of the western powers were rife. with spontaneous popular uprising turned into a war waged by strangers. the euphoria that followed gadhafi his death was short lived. rebel groups began to turn on one another rumors of backroom negotiations and secret promises cause them to splinter further the nato intervention continues
to divide the rebel groups to this day. benghazi suffered severe damage. nato coalition air raids were followed by brutal ouster house fighting from two thousand and fourteen on islamist fighters flocked to the city soon they controlled it after weeks of bombing general how they fought off to succeeded in reclaiming control. today benghazi lies in ruins more than half the city is inaccessible. the university of benghazi also mourns victims of the fighting. the revolution began in libya's universities the younger generation wanted to overturn the old order there was a youth uprising in one of the world's most conservative countries what happened to this hope for change. to has
a meeting with mohammed already a lecturer in surveyance technology into students want to contribute to the reconstruction. you know the city. well and we want to create real change and that despite all the hardship we've come up with construction plans we said that we could begin reconstruction as soon as they gave their permission. this is the contribution we young people want to make to benghazi our city. he made in about they swept our plans under the table and said thanks for your effort but we don't have time for this kind of. work. even though funding would be available widespread corruption has made it impossible to begin reconstruction the dean says that despite the difficulties they've been able to keep the university open and continue teaching the lecturers have been working for no pay for months and then just a matter of these are all models made by our students. this is the layout for the
local radio station in benghazi. and this is a study for modernizing the island of cuba. commis is a bridge to another island. this is a residential quarter for people who were displaced during the revolution and this is a quarter called a mile which means hope. producer tone also started in benghazi in one thousand nine hundred four while he was at the university more moderate after you ordered the public hanging of some students who had been critical of his regime. i'm tone was shaken by the cruelty. he began to become politically active working for peace in libya. by coincidence some tune finds out at a conference on the new constitution is underway benghazi favors a federal state politicians here feel betrayed by the old elite in tripoli who favor a centralized state. that yeah if you want to
isolate eastern libyans. i say no the constitution should be for all libyans. as usual the south of libya which i'm turning represents is caught in the middle now and apply all you ladies and gentlemen here from eastern libya why wasn't someone from the south invited. and if you had only a coincidence that i happened to be here right now but nobody from the south from the west from tripoli is here headed it's like you're talking to yourselves and emily is this supposed to benefit all very begins or a bomb this is no way to draft a constitution but what we see here is the results of the nato mission but. we don't believe we can solve our conflicts ourselves in and i realize now that a constitution won't be enough to resolve all this they've got what libya really
needs is fundamental change. do you. without unity in libya will not succeed in drafting a constitution or rebuilding a state arabs are pitted against minorities is a list so against secular citizens east against west but how can the necessary unity be created is there no such thing as a libyan identity beyond and apart from these differences in search of answers i'm turn besides to pay a visit to the judge bach to our region the green mountains some two hundred kilometers east of benghazi. libya is cultural history began long before the conquests of north africa by the arabs in the seventh century here near the city of beida by the ruins of the ancient greek polish side rini which was once the equal of athens and alexandria for the ancient greeks libya was simply the country beyond
egypt you find neither by borders nor peoples. one of the first constitutions in human history is believed to have been written in the city state of sirene dating from the third century b.c.e. it laid down rules for the distribution of property and basic civil rights. today the excavations are tended to by professor of cardium from by the university expunged by gadhafi from the history books as a legacy of colonialism the pagan temples are now under threat by the islamic state historical milestones like the constitution no siree me have been largely forgotten . or well done the house for the last back then were quite progressive i did look at their units through am i trying to create something similar. oh you can tell if you have a libya has creek roman and even jewish roots that's all part of our culture.
to defend your any man i don't know not only arabs but others around for guns european culture is as deeply rooted in the mediterranean as we are from have to be a year old this history lives in us to the bottom of the earth we don't that's right and. look at how this is our heritage. you can't destroy an ancient temple because of its jewish origin as if you or this basilica because it's roman i want to be an o. and for religious reasons year zero as well exactly you can't destroy statues and claim there is laws forbids them step however that's not right and then we'll have to understand them as part of our larger cultural history. if we understand the diversity of cultures as a source of strength we would be able to grant everyone their own culture within a unified state then the problem would be solved when we don't understand the
importance of our cultural heritage means that. libya's current borders are not of its own making across the african continent colonial powers drew arbitrary borders splitting many closely related ethnic groups. many of libya's present day conflicts have their roots in the colonial past how can a country with this history ever develop a shared identity. come to this driver wants to show him something. this is where the martyr omar was based she has showed you know that that. i didn't mean that it was the center of resistance head of marketing yet and the hanna exactly between the mountains and the valleys in these caves echo.
resistance leader muktodhara is one of libya's few popular heroes. in one thousand eleven italy conquered libya which was then part of the ottoman empire islamic scholar tar confronted the italian occupying forces he went on to wage a twenty year resistance under benito mussolini the italian fascists waged a brutal anti insurgency campaign in libya and mukhtar i was captured and executed under orders have been to torrijos marshal rudolph focusing on me every libyan schoolchild can quote a marked are from memory. and their say. sent. out live my executioner. than me shiny i look at going to see it's also said that all modern look tar told marshal graziano before his execution don't claim that i
beg for mercy of war you have any picking out all of us left of libya today is ashes we need to restore that self-confidence. we returned to buy their headquarters of the constitutional assembly the parliament building which dates from before get up he came to power was the first such building on the african continent. tone is attending a conference on corruption. to help his fight corruption flourished from gadhafi as takeover in one nine hundred sixty nine until today today it's not even considered a crime anymore where you corruption earns you respect making it in the shade it's one of the biggest obstacles to the reconstruction of our state. so that six months
earlier a vote was held in this chamber to decide whether libya should become a centralized state this will consolidate power in tripoli like it was under gadhafi supporters of a centralized state most of them western libyans from tripoli one never if tripoli were conquered today you would have control of all of libya the country shouldn't be entirely dependent on a single city libya's regional governments are the perfect foundation for our new state and kept how many voted against the draft seventeen seventeen didn't sign it that's right even if you subtract five for the berber and the two blue who are boycotting the constitution and the people from benghazi you're left with twelve as well. you know i mean you know i mean i don't i believe that you could reach an agreement with at least six of them in the mouth but i already know what they'll say we're going to be in there you know we want you most of willing to compromise
come up you insist on a monarchy. how would you reply to that you know and it was that i wouldn't want to have this. i would tell them that i only speak in the name of my own voters with them to the meeting and if you know the minute you know the people here in abida the headquarters of the constitutional assembly all want a monarchy i want a new one but no money would not have a parliamentary monarchy would spare us all these power struggles. and the our world and in the entire third world it's very hard to establish democracy all at once of. what it had many libyans find the idea of a monarchy appealing. in one thousand fifty one degrees so no see a member of libya's royal family declared independence italy had lost its colonies in the second world war britain and france then divided libya among themselves after negotiations with the french and british administrations libya gained independence the country became a federal state under king and results
a new scene despite his far reaching hold on power libyans were permitted to elect a parliament which was based in baidoa. and the evening of those solemn tune prepares to depart for southern libya. the last stage of his travels will take him to the visiting region where he's from. today southern libya is a powder keg one of the most dangerous and unstable regions in the world only chartered military aircraft still land here. southern libya is no longer under state control easily missed groups most prominently don't kyra are active in the region. around the city of a body where home to news from
a fierce battle for control over the sahara oil fields is being waged the petro dollars do little to benefit the south though rising poverty. he is exacerbating the lawlessness and violence kidnappings are the order of the day. here in nobody among us electric and under the protection of his clan i'm tone does not need to fear an attack. his visit is well timed a festival is underway. the local ethnic groups and tribes are presenting their customs and traditions. in this region arabs are in the minority unlike in libya's north. that. for a short time poverty and instability receded into the background and the former splendor of the city is revived o'barry was once a trading post on
a route that linked africa south of the sahara with the north it was wealthy and science education and culture flourished. tuner's held in high esteem in the city everywhere he goes he encounters relatives and acquaintances many ask him about the constitutional assembly and the impact that the civil war is having on the north. the south has not been spared the impact of war beneath the appearance of calm the situation remains tense i was under gadhafi the people of southern libya were pitted against one another to avoid persecution some in the south acquiesced huguenot use insistence on an all arab libya and set aside their own language and culture. because. i'm torn is tarik a traditionally semi nomadic people of the region. since two thousand and eleven libya's minority groups have been caught in the struggle that flared up after
gadhafi was removed in two thousand and fourteen new body became the center of vicious fighting between the two tribes it was a proxy battle in which libya's east and west vied for control of the lucrative oil fields of the south. a fragile peace has returned to the city come to news meeting with most or a member of the people. you need to try to get over how to get a good look at your pot in the war against the right q how did you feel about that . with this was it hard for you to. shame or you eager to be part of it would be i mean if he did i would like you met mike and i think no matter how many victories you win in war you always limbs in the end can and you may win the war but you still lose money
and we regret it them and they're going to come so i wish it had never happened this war cost us everything both us and our two our reg brothers it lasted two years that's a long time. in the making we did all the tuba joined the revolution. mattered and yes we fought gadhafi everywhere in the south. for the. it was a decisive element in the fall of his regime. well. that's something the nationalists arabs should all keep in mind holmes mean it. may have been a couple the arab suspect that the two boo were seeking independence from libya but that's a lie because if there's nothing good media propaganda. but i think the limits not just the tuber who want to have their rights recognized in the berber due to. the hint of india's constitution recognizes seventeen official languages in him and
they don't have a problem with it and you can only let the arab nationalists refuse to recognize other peoples there will be and. so. the two are speaking arabic with each other their native languages are different both tarakan to blue languages were banned under gadhafi state. for thousands of years the various cultures of the sahara lived side by side now the young generation that experienced war must really learn how to live in peace festivals like this sorry start. i. i.
visits his older sister fatima and her family. that was. over the years under saddam was still in his twenties when you decided to remain in europe after that is life and the lives of his siblings diverged. to see. if there was. something that was a self. edition of the novel. but to my it is illiterate she belongs to the generation of women who were children before going to be came to power it was graffitti who made it possible for girls to receive an education. and got at that as a joke going back to the madrassa i uniting how to write to and you know we only learned to recite qur'an verses my heart to get in the states recite something in
this order to which store would you like to hear there as is i think the one you like best. like he did last year or you know my eagle. eye. contact. must have a sort of goddess healthcare let. me want to meet of the oil belongs to the libyan people we demand reasonable oil prices for everybody but i was saying to me this message is directly addressed to mystify. the director of the national oil corporation if our demands aren't met we will stop all the oil the little ice. age of your home will not be here. more than half of libyan oil comes from the south but little of this wealth is
apparent here measured by the country's oil reserves all libyans could enjoy the same standard of living as norwegians but like the oil even the region's groundwater is transported away from the south through pipelines. that come to and pays a visit to his older brother are good are among the two brothers were born and raised here but i do it on my own tends to the families date grove's he also attended university but was unable to find other work with them not that i've had fields are dry i was in tripoli when the water pump died. so there's no water and no see that's terrible. i must add it wasn't this a mars shed. yes this was his little shop i did would be the only shop in town and he had everything we needed.
and this was our home that watch your step. son and i using my birthplace this is where you were born i think that if we all slept over then the pantry was over here you had to muck that i remember dick of animal and the kitchen was here. was eight years old when colonel moammar gadhafi overthrew king interests in a military coup in one thousand nine hundred sixty nine. the monarch's concessions to europe and the united states had made him an popular. we believe that the british now realize that their military presence has ended. now after the revolution of the people of libya. gadhafi came from a very poor background. initially he was motivated by anti colonial fervor to
believe in socialism. but over the years his rule became more and more autocratic arbitrariness nepotism and violence came to characterize his regime . in the early one nine hundred seventy s. cut off he ordered people in rural regions to leave their traditional dwellings and move to modern new housing estates some didn't wish to leave but they were given no choice the home to family was also resettled. that is first the qur'an school the soupy madrassa i remember it well our father said over there the only change here. all the boys from the village came here. and there i go fatima two i remember they all came here. yeah time flies time flies by just like the clouds exactly just like the clouds.
i shall have you know a while back that i am well. with. the boy. that evening the family gathers for a celebration. of over a hundred members of the family gradually arriving at the day to grow. while preparations are going on outside or goes around them to talks to his nieces in the house his nieces all attended university underground a few women were permitted to have careers and to send the ranks of government today that has changed. what about the women that you can join the army officer all. the. good they go there's no work for us around here.
has been out of work for seven years it is seven years right remember they even have a doctorate. well but yes. of course i want to earn money and not just make rice and chris coons. everybody here in the south is leading especially the doctors what is there to do here back then we could study and the state educated us seen a little bit well of connections it's impossible even for qualified people to get a job. yet they are the you know that for me the past seven years have been nothing but kitchen farm and housework and tending to the animals to do it so dull and dreary i can hear you say during the revolution it was good there was a sense of community to help me god i know you may guess we should have been
here even for just two days. when solidarity among neighbors. we shared what we hand to manto's bread and that's what neighbors do. it and that's all gone out of their lives where all that matters now is who was for and who was against gadhafi and even the children argue about that we see a sickness. that even making the children sick the parents teach their children they say don't play with him he's part of the opposition play with that other one he's i can see through to so it's all about who was for or against gadhafi. it's true. you know our village. the older the new system it doesn't really matter it's the same now as when gadhafi was in power the south is always neglected that's how it is. knowing that that is not bad and i also wasn't satisfied with my situation but it's worse now that under gadhafi some
things were bad but some of it was good too. now it's really a catastrophe though i have to improve things but instead it keeps getting worse that. means that we've been thrown back fifty yes we wanted to overthrow gadhafi but if you overthrow a government you need to create something better you can start a revolution for how good reason to look though that edition of that goes around hundred tunes family left behind their semi nomadic lifestyle generations ago. like many to are an under pressure from going up his regime they became settled farmers . but the family celebration recalls some of their old traditions. to keep.
on the following day home tune with a return to germany but before leaving he pays a visit to the dunes to draw strength and comfort in the places he remembers from his childhood. he'll need this resolved during the coming months and years his work to achieve peace in his home country is far from over. in this vast sea of sound a local driver is essential to get to the i know the desert like the back of my hand i know exactly how and where i need to drive by looking at the south its color tells me everything. they reach the oasis got a room surrounded by sand as far as the eye can see. and the young james. beauty of the sahara the conflicts that divide the country seemed far away.
here what's coming up on the going to sleep so much movement to me get this. plentiful back here what don't know it's fun to take a look at what all that means for the taking of course. the bundesliga fifteen years total. eco india. how can a country's economy grow in harmony with its people and violent when there are do ours look at the bigger picture india a country that faces many challenges and whose people are striving to create a sustainable future clever projects from europe and india. thirty minutes on the w. .
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