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tv   Doc Film  Deutsche Welle  August 18, 2019 2:15pm-3:01pm CEST

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club like. states because you know as some call it you will have the people stop going up against the plastic club plastic club for a limited talky thanks so much for that not my words. you're watching news from berlin up next a documentary film dirty dream that it's more news at the top of the hour. welcome to the body is the game here for d.w.i. . we have plenty to talk about some. place else our coverage. 3 more. until we have. let's have a look at some of the other much legal so you don't want to miss. we get to w. .
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cruise ships like this and liberty stones of our ports. iraq to you know more luxury liners and. the industry is booming. german tourists still on cruises all year round even in the winter. should just i like getting to see different places without having to unpack and repack my bags and you know there's all these bars and 17 restaurants you always have your home right with you. but the ocean giant spawned just glamorous they will say harmful to the environment there exhaust fumes contain sulfa nitrogen oxides and such particles people are now becoming more aware of the problem. because it's terrible we're from s n n s n is clean now but that wasn't always the case. base it
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more people living on the coast always used to have clean fresh air now it's the other way around it's the sort of with. cruise operators have responded to the growing criticism and saying their vessels have now become more environmentally friendly the tough thing really. it's december he environment on the baltic sea. ever since cruise ship companies began offering more when to delist the harbor he is busy even during the cold months. jim and sa europe's top cruise ship customers with over 2000000 passengers in 2017 and asked the business increases so does the appellation it causes we 1st visited vandeman day in 2014 when we spoke with local residents like mike during
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a fleming 5 years on we meeting her again magdalena ritchie moved to the namenda for the clean air crews operators have been promising ships with clean exhaust fumes few years now we asked magdaléna whether she feels they've kept that promise she simply said. they haven't gotten any cleaner i'm so angry and this video a little bring it up from time to time and you believe them you think the ships are finally going to get cleaner but then nothing happened simply because the adverse gets all talk. because it's nixon all the newspapers are full of it but nobody's taking any action ok now left us. green boats and their dirty air what a cruise operators doing about it. this is funny shall a port city on monday era in the atlantic ocean just north of the canary island
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down here is a popular destination for winter cruises. most passengers on board are german tourists. we asked axel freight of age to join us on this trip he's one of the world's leading experts on air pollution. right now he setting up his instruments to measure the cruise ships emissions. excell free today she used to head the department for transport or noise at the german federal environment agency u b a and now regularly advises governments and environmental organizations. like all larger ships cruise liners emit pollutants into the air. the floating hotels need electricity 24 hours a day including when they are at port they get that energy from fuel generators. the cruising line's international association or clear says it has recently adopted the exhaust gas cleaning systems e.g. c m s the association has reportedly fitted 111 of the 253 cruise ships in
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its fleet with the system. just how effective are the filters to find out axle freight of each will be monitoring emissions on 3 separate day. the equipment he uses measures nitrogen oxides so that sulfur dioxide and ultra fine particles. a cruise ship is approaching the harbor is exhaust plume is still only faintly visible axletree delicious particularly interested in the amount of fine particles it contains 3 cruise ships have now docked at port. even at a distance axel fraser likes the quitman his able to measure the particulates matter the crew ships the minutes but the wind direction keeps changing so he can't say for sure which pollutants the coming from which. the portable device detects 65000 particles that's 3 times more than on some streets in germany where driving
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has already been banned. but this level is typical for busy small harbors like here . here again there's only room for 3 ships are dark here strongly 3 ships are here but in other ports like barcelona and abroad not good runners up to 7 ships can dock each day. the cruise industry does not consider a one off measurements like this to be significant yet the cruise operators won't provide us with more detailed information despite our request neither clear nor the 2 big german companies aida and toohey provided us with pollution levels. axel freight of age was invented monday in 2013 to measure the absolution caused by cruise ships for the documentary series 45 minutes his film raised a lot of awareness for the problem. tourists sought out this seaside resort for its
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clean and that these days even the pedestrian zone has a pollution level similar to a busy traffic intersection. the missing words are fine if i were measuring ultra fine particles that are smaller than 300 not a medium speed or this extremely small matter can penetrate deep into the lungs. in some cases this can have fatal consequences the particles also come from the ship sinks almost the engines are pallid with diesel or heavy oil. what kind of fuel is heavy oil to kill will to police explained it well in 2009 in a documentary find a company called constant went from on by ships. just use one this is english crude oil from the forty's and who the oil from the north sea. this is the stuff everyone is after on us all the rest of the crude oil
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contains lots of components each one can be sold better separately as far as that's why crude oil is refined. and the from the that the refinery crude oil gets broken down into its components it's huge there are gas components liquid components and also solid components and at the end of this process and so there's this leftover we hear that it can no longer be refined and it does this is what power ships come on down the trunk ship or does is just sort of these yourself when i turn it upside down nothing happens that's how dense it is at room temperature it's like a road surface this is the stuff ships run on ships. no matter whether a ship is powered by heavy oil or diesel exhaust fumes will always contain. carbon dioxide the greenhouse gas that majorly contributes to global warming. which you may know from. it also affects marine life. ringback nitrogen oxides
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also known as and thanks they made headlines during the diesel scandal and are especially harmful to children pregnant women and sick people and finally atmospheric aerosol particles many studies have shown that ultra fine particulate matter is most dangerous and can lead to pneumonia heart attacks and strokes. as a chemist investigating the effects of fine particulate matter from ship exhaust. in his research he collaborates with other chemist physicians and biologists from the german research center for environmental health. they use a special method to show how particulate matter is harmful to humans the research is direct exhaust fumes from a ship's engine into their lap and expose it to living. human lung cells.
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here is the exposure of the most experiments to date added the pollutants to a solution and you cells that were also in solution. that's not natural because lung cells are normally exposed. that's their characteristic feature and we managed to simulate that with this machine. here the cells are out of the open so to speak and take in air pollution like real dogs would and. this is to date the closest. research has come to faithfully simulating the impact of ship exhaust on living human cells. in a 35 generally speaking fine particles course pulmonary information. if you're exposed to particular matter over long periods of time that inflammation can become
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chronic chronic inflammation can be to cardiac diseases and permanent pulmonary inflammation which in turn can trigger or aggravate diseases like asthma c o p b. it's an invisible threat numerous studies have found that 10 nostrils only catch and filter particles larger than 10 micro meters. ultra fine particles are much smaller than even 2.5 micro meters with no barrier to stop them they can settle deep in our lungs. then they can trigger dangerous inflammation they can even enter our blood stream with severe consequences can't disease cardiac arrest or strokes if the particles reach our brain. cinnamon's colleagues can identify each individual component of particulates matter in ship's exhaust fumes this lets
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them determine its precise effect on the human body up until a few years ago research suggested emissions from heavy oil were much more harmful to humans than diesel but more recent studies paint a peek a picture. yeah i mean let's leon feel we've looked at a number of different processes over the past 10 years anything from emissions from car engines to wood combustion this chip emissions have been found to have the biggest effect of war regardless of whether they use diesel or heavy oil. in the long run the heavy oil has a larger cost an agenda effect but they both have equally high acute effects. in their lab the scientists can also measure pollutants emitted by ships at sea for this they suck the outside into the lab on windy days.
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the instruments are so sensitive that they can pick up pollutants emitted from every 100 kilometers away. the team uses shipping routes and timetables to determine which vessel it's from. 2019 on the banks of the i'll bring him the. axle fatally she's here to measure the pollutant levels emitted by a cruise ship his portable device is ultra sensitive. the senior he loves to hear is fine matter in the air here even though the ship is far away when it was passing out of the wind blew the other way but even at a distance of one. i still get a reading of over $20000.00 particles now and there is more not region dioxide to about. $20000.00 aerosol particles that's roughly twice the average level in
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hamburg and the wind wasn't even blowing in the right direction. to pass no filter the exhaust was being blown to the other side of the other by the people on that bank were exposed to the fumes. magdalena flemming from amanda continues to worry about her health. she suffers from asthma last year alone she saw 199 cruise ships docked here it was nice i'm not sure if it's still healthy for me here. it's just getting worse. and i'm concerned for my children and my grandchildren you know i already have 3 great grandchildren. and how ditty is the extreme boats are emitting.
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this ship's chacha tells us that all the cruise ships operated for them always that hit the official regulations in the baltic sea and elsewhere. its shipping company says they are striving to operate their ships as keenly as possible but installing a filter isn't possible for technical reasons. we also spoke with several passengers. well i know cruise ships are dirty but i don't know the exact numbers. but sure they're big polluters sujata section or that's really just that one was just so that worries me a lot yes they are still taking a cruise i'm still taking a cruise. in hamburg some roads have been blocked your car pollution but here in the harbor the ships let their engines run day and night and they're filthy you can see the black clouds above them blast out. it's terrible there from s. and s. and it's clean now but that wasn't always the case people living on the coast
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always used to have clean fresh air now it's the other way around. in the gym and computing center in hamburg researchers have calculators help had to newton's have to spin us through northern germany the results were saying bring. fine particles from ships and the health risks they bring with them have spread across the entire north of germany. and cruise line isn't just making matters worse . i was shocked at how deeply ship emissions impacted areas not directly by the coast yes sometimes the effects could be seen hundreds of kilometers inland from the beach on long island. and when we were taken aback when we realized just how much came from ship traffic before we thought sure there are 10000 ships sailing in the north sea but what damage can they possibly do compared to 50000000
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cars. but if you look at the pollutants if you added how much is emitted per kilometer per ton of goods. you find it's much higher with ships than with cars and. most people don't know that even further inland the air we breathe is being polluted by ships out at sea. cruise companies say they have taken action to become more environmentally sustainable. this is kill it the end of january 29000 where in you to we ship has been presented. just like other operators this not cruise ship is equipping its new ships with so-called self ascribe us and catalytic converters they're meant to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions by up to 99 percent and nitrogen oxides by up to 75 percent the additions are also meant to significantly decrease the amount of
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particulates matter released into the atmosphere but it's hard to tell just how effective the equipment is. the cruise companies stay very. it up because we achieve excellent values with the aftertreatment of emissions some are even better than marine diesel values. the company off a similarly generic statements 2 thirds of the questions submitted in writing so it remains unclear whether selfless couples can actually reduce health risks. if you have to distinguish between environmental. and health impacts sulfur emissions are known from acid rain and can be very harmful to the environment but the effect of so far on our health is rather limited. from 2020 onwards the level of south of permitted in ship fuel will be restricted to 0.5 percent that might sound good at 1st but 0.5 percent is still
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$500.00 times higher than what is permitted in car fuel. on the baltic sea itself a content cap is set at 0 point one percent that still $100.00 times more than coffee. nevertheless shipping companies are looking to scrap has to remain commercially viable. with because scrap a strip cellphone from heavy oil as it burns companies can keep relying on cheap fuel and simply wash it with scrub. that to the port of. axle freight today she's trying to measure whether ships here have scrubbers. but again wind conditions are unfavorable. the fish want to scrub or works well it can reduce offer dioxide emissions by about 85 to 90 percent but other issues like ultra foreign particles remain unchanged that's why
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toohey was braised a bit more than the other group history of manufacturers because they got a little better but they're still far from good enough. in january 29 teen one of the boats influentials harbor was to ease mine shift. the ship is reportedly equipped with an exhaust gas purification system. according to the company it filters out 60 percent of atmospheric aerosol particles emitted. we are. asked whether this also included ultra fine particulates matter but we didn't receive an answer nor will we provided with any details or mission values. part of the problem is the international maritime organization imo. the united nations agency has so far failed to set a limit for particulate matter emissions. this means it's
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up to experts like axel free to place to point out the risks it's 4 am in from china and axle free to patients waiting for the i need to know about the ship's technology as a willed novelty we've all seen we want to see what the emissions are by year's new ship or alaska it's a completely new ship powered by a liquefied natural gas so we mission levels should be considerably below those of ordinary cruise ships and that was for sure. aida nova is the 1st cruise ship in the worlds to run with the new technology in theory it does not emits nitrogen oxides sulfa or particulate matter into the air but acts afraid of ice will have to wait for another day to verify those claims the wind is keeping the exhaust gases out at sea away from the measuring instruments is the wind salaam favorable you know very. well you're going to recall this wind
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the ship is also equipped to be able to run on ordinary fuel. winsor pre-condition this ship can also run on diesel it has 2 tracks on board so it would have been good to see what i need is using what is this far away from hamburg. canal he'll have to wait a day later informed us that it wasn't possible to measure the air quality on the ship that day they said they would invite axel faith based on board to measure soon though but it remains to be seen when that will actually happen. and at 1st loans i need to know if his chimney looks clean enough. other cruise companies have announced they want to follow suit. not to we however the cruise line wants to do without to liquefy natural gas for the time being as there are currently only few ports that offer refueling possibilities. do passengers even care about the natural gas technology for months
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may not think about it it is important to always like think this is the 1st ship with liquid natural gas let's see how things develop i think it's good i do 3 thought so it's certainly affected my decision i wanted to be on this ship. as it's like quieter. go friend link yeah that too is protecting the environment a factor in your decision no. for being honest not really well with a i've heard about it. but it wasn't the deciding factor for us. one problem is that madeira doesn't yet have a fueling point for liquid natural gas that is large enough for the i need a nova. so tank has like the condescending have to travel over 1500 nautical miles from rotterdam to the high atlantic seas to refuel the new aida ship it's
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a long and expensive journey. and i need a ship is being serviced in hamburg according to company figures the i need a fleet consumed over 50 percent more heavy oil and diesel in 2017 compared to 2011 the cruise line says more and more of its ships are being equipped with quote modern exhaust gas purification systems but it remains unclear which systems these entailed exactly and whether they also filter out harmful ultra fine particles. it seems northern germany still enjoys the potions of its not tree crews linus. hardly anyone protests. hamburg is even planning a 4th cruise terminal it will be the 2nd one in the half and city district right by a residential area. meanwhile in other european cities more and more citizens and politicians feel that the cruise line industry has got
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big enough. the city of venice is a unesco world heritage site and a popular cruise destination in europe. here cruise line is ponce strait by the city's top attractions. but they don't only block the view from locals they will say pollute the air. and yes more than $450.00 of the ships still arrive here every year bringing around $1500000.00 tourists. the undertow created by large cruise liners alone is a risk for the old city which was built on wooden poles. a unesco study presented to the italian government cited these waves caused by water traffic as one of the major threats to the city. axle fleet base was in venice in
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2014 he used a handheld device to measure atmospheric aerosol particles. measured over 100000 particles per cubic centimeter of air once it was even over $200000.00 that's extremely are and they are yours already polluted. many venetians have had enough they formed a committee called no kindy navi which means no big ships together with one of its members. trying to measure the air quality right in the wake of one of the cruise line is. but the cabin near the the state police stopped their small boat after taking down the names and addresses the offices for bait any further measuring attempts i. but it seems the protests in venice have had enough. fact the number of cruise ships has started to decrease and as of 2021 only smaller cruise ships will be allowed to enter the
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famous jew deca canal. venice isn't the only place where the cruise boom has faced backlash another one is no way. the country is one of the top destinations for cruises from germany. the guy who under few would another unesco world heritage site is especially popular. a few more tricks many cruise tourists. it's picture perfect. but the high mountains surrounding the narrow fjords mean exhaust fumes cannot disperse. during the shooting for this film that lloyd and i need when the fuel. but the problem of concentrated pollution because with all cruise operators.
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the guy running a field isn't the only case like this organic farm and as 5 time has his film in fly on the famous sonny a few awards. show there are new factories and signs but that doesn't mean the end is always clean. we often have very still days that we often have 2 or 3 or 4 ships and is a very still day and the 4 ships plus all the express both of the ferries and the and the buses and the cars and this sort of this is the sum of all this is it really that the slope in the air is absolutely terrible to the brain and it's the smell the smell of subway used to beat you up cross now the smell of color is crude or or a few you can burn fuel. in
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a week in parliament decided that from 2026 onwards only completely a mission free ships would be allowed into the fields then diesel and heavy oil for ship fuel will be banned completely. resistance to the booming cruise industry is also growing elsewhen. amsterdam is demanding more money from cruise ships protests are taking place in dubrovnik and an american cruise ship captain was put on trial in pollution charges in mustang. landing vaniman. and measuring station was set up in 2015 but not in the residential area. gemini's ministry for the environment provides no information on fine particulate matter it also claims that knowledge of particulate matter environment is within range. the situation is similar in hamburg. to the
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ministry for environment tries to appease health concerns by saying that according to the measuring stations by the harbor the levels are within compliance range. does that mean that the german government thinks cruise ships pose no risk to health. one of the measuring stations is located in the middle of the huge industrial port area like so trade in age takes a closer look. showed me it seems a very pretty far away from the water distance dilutes the air so there's less to measure but the real problem is that nobody lives here nobody walks here so if i'm trying to measure the america pollution is having on people's health then i can't do that from this port is going to hear the fish in the next measuring station cruise terminal is tucked away behind toll residential buildings accelerating he says this location isn't ideal for measuring air pollution levels either yet hamburg's department of environment states the levels again in range. that's just
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one problem the e.u. has set a limit to full weight of particulate matter in the air many experts argue that this form of measurement alone is not enough to determine actual health risks. launch heavy particles usually filter down. it's the smaller particles that are most harmful even just a few of the tiny particles can damage our health that is why a limit value based on weight alone doesn't provide sufficient information. approach to measuring particulate matter adequate the ultra fine particles which are very very small have no weight and that's why they're so problematic because they can penetrate deep into our lungs and into our brain size and these are really the things that should be measured but only researchers or environmental organizations do that's unacceptable. the official
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limits by weight are 1000000 indication for atmospheric aerosol particles in order to determine actual health risks axle feet of a smashes the amount of particles in the air not their total weight. he's not the only one skeptical of official measurement procedures. it makes no sense from our point of view measuring the number of particles and so that absolutely necessary. so i think your thirty's are aware that they could achieve much more with measuring fine a particular matter or even chemically determining the particles composition or that cell phone party confuse. us like they don't have the funds to implement the change and the directives haven't been updated. since it's new this year so far there is no official body that regularly measures fine particular matter has been so you have to rely on measurements done by environmental associations or by people like me or i or what's in the ministry for environment in mechanical for common is
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the 1st one that wants to measure fine particulate matter pollution. in chalets wake hush 9 authorities do not have current data on evolution from ships and from ships in particular. the office responsible says it does not expect limits not being exceeded. nonetheless the measuring station for pollution by ships is planned for 2019 by the key to florida. trashed only just money it's battling is it in a federal state surrounded by the sea as they say there are no stations recording pollution by ships and that all that gets done is what is operationally prescribed not what is actually necessary to protect people's health visual images i find that frightening. the mouth of the elbe a in there with saxony where frank says and cruise ships also abound. the ministry of the environment in one over us said the
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following regarding evolution ship the missions evidently play a role in certain areas but they are not seen to be a relevant factor in achieving equality targets in lower saxony. other places take a more modern approach. every time a ferry from the shipping company color line from key. arrives here in austin i know it gets connected to a power socket and modernization introduced in 2011. as soon as the ship is stationary a robot secures the plug. the shipping company opted to power it shipped this way so that this city diesel engine can be switched off while in harbor. the reason why we have this reverse all is that color lines that we are going to do
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this that shows that this is the way to do it and they also looked into the investment in it but it was also very important to them to be the 1st to show that this is possible and in that way it's important to now give candy and hong burnt. at the port of also we want to. we want to challenge of say go for it. in hamburg only one of the 3 cruise terminals has an on shore power supply line and only since 2017. the construction costs of around 10000000 euros were paid by taxpayers not the cruise ship company. an employee of the portage ministration demonstrates how the device works directly because so far only one shipping company aida has used the key with on shore power and only 20 times in all of last year around
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90 percent of all cruise ships do not choose the environmentally more friendly option of on shore power although many of them coolant another problem is that some ships are too long well the power terminal is too small recently i need to only used on shore power from 8 am to 10 30 am then it was switched off because from 10 30 am onward electricity becomes more expensive. we're trying from a technical point of view it's not difficult to build more on shore power stations and other ports. have also photo just a big challenge we face is that the price of diesel which is crucial when electricity is being produced on board has fallen significantly since 2014. in 2014 the business case for on shore power was profitable but now it is and because of the drop in diesel prices. right now there is basically no money to be made from
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on shore power stations across europe and it's cheaper for shipping companies to produce electricity on board with diesel. and the other to have the crews to mill is on full power stations aren't available for the time being is he said that this will change in the next few years. but in the meantime ships continue to pass on the option of using on child power. since the same was finished $139.00 crew ships capable of using on full power passed by the station without plugging in. so far the hamburg senate has done nothing to change this. it was different and also. here chip operators bear the costs for the on shore power supply. our politicians are pushing out there wanting us to go forward with this investment because they find that it's
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important for the city and also it's also trying to bring because one of europe's green scythe is. so they're pushing us to try and find a solution. there are plans to offer on full power for crew ships. in stocks on a monday however the city in port company still hope that the responsible federal government will lead with the electricity price if possible for the entire. danny. mrs fleming has been listening to this argument back in full for years. until. today so again we're the ones who are being kept waiting at the moment the conversation has fallen quiet but it comes up time and again that's what bothers me because nothing ever gets done. with on show power yes. the cruise industry says cruise lines bring income through tourism to port cities. in
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banda no way an expert from the business tested this claim. saying lawson used to advise cruise lines now he's professor at the university of bag and we have started this extensively over many years and we have data from social shell for visitors to our poll and we do know that the people who live the nice mommy and my burger and that's the course truest even the backpacker all become part even the german my. home more part time our lives for at least twice as much mana per person per stay as the course ritualised. according to research by the university of bag and passengers from one cruise line is spent an average of $41.00 euro is to person per visit on land. for 2017 crew ship companies estimated that their passengers spent 48 euros
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a day on land in germany. in hamburg the chamber of commerce calculated that in 2012 cruise tourism for the city around $540.00 euros per passenger however $100.00 chamber of commerce study had included additional data including figures from the port anniversary. hamburg zora turnover of 270000000 euros in 2012 with cruises to cities. politicians aboud these figures justify the taxpayer funding costs for terminals and on shore power stations. but does the cruise boom also mean higher tax revenues. in the case of the market leader aida the research is complicated that's because i had a belongs to the italian company costa which in turn is a subset dri of the u.s. cruise group con of all. kind of a list listed on the new york stock exchange in the us a bad companies are subject
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to strict complication requirements. the f.c.c. the us stock exchange supervisory authority is when you can find data on aida in the many documents filed by the eda parent company carnival it says. that aida is exempt from german corporation tax. by nato was subject to a tax rate of 6 percent in italy. this recently dropped to 5.5 percent. by aegis response. the ships of the fleet sail under the italian flag. it goes without saying that we not only comply with tax and fee or geishas in germany and italy but anywhere else we travel to in accordance with respective
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national legislation. we are driving engine for regional economies and also for maritime sites such as germany. similar to other cruise liners also enjoy tax concessions in their foreign home ports. this way they can legally reduce tax payments in germany. the corporations are aware of the environmental problems they see. they are open to new technologies and marine fields but the exhaust their dream ships them it remains nebulous because operators do not publish precise data. they've been told they have is because we have found that it's just as dirty as it was before as far as the particles are concerned so far we've seen no significant improvement in ultra fine particles. it seems that finance
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it will be left up to shipping companies whether they want to consider health risks as well as profit. or not. searching for a hero look no further than virus. the. current 10 or stephen god the son of great advice to interpret or was. this year is lending his voice to time has an encounter with a different kind of hero. 30 w. . to
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put your ears. to yourself work. for your next you tube channel subscribe don't miss out. the world is getting better soon. moore's could substitute a lot of problems. 3000 talks with a team of british researchers who take a more optimistic view. the world is not always a good place but it's much much better than it was and how. is the world really getting better. a global $3000.00 special report. starts august 19th on do you think.
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this is deja news live from berlin the so-called islamic state says it's behind a deadly suicide bombing to me afghan capital kabul funerals are now being held for the victims of last targeted wedding reception attended by more than a 1000 people dozens of killed and scores more injured also coming out. tens of thousands of hong kong protesters brave heavy rain to take part in another mass democracy rally the turnout being closely watched as a gauge of public sentiment after more than 2 months of violent clashes and increasingly stern warnings.


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