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tv   Tomorrow Today  Deutsche Welle  December 8, 2019 10:30pm-11:00pm CET

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i'm not laughing at you. because sometimes i am but mostly i'm laughing with you but you haven't think deep into the german culture of. new jersey can take this drama day oh you know it's all out there you know i'm rachel join me for me to germany monday of course. hello and welcome to tomorrow to day with the focus on the nobel prize science awards coming up. we look at some groundbreaking discoveries about the evolution of our universe and the earth's place within the next. check out some more earthbound discoveries and new medical treatments that draw on them. and we ponder what it takes to come up with such revolutionary insights could mazing
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around be the key to inspiration. since $901.00 each year's nobel prizes have been presented at ceremonies under the 10. x. an event full of pomp and circumstance a formal affair with a dress code to match. for men that means a white tie and tails. while the women are dressed in evening gowns. but most of the women at the ceremony are in the audience. as of 616 nobel prize winners in the sciences only 19 have been women just 3 percent. there's not much geographic diversity either most of the awards have gone so you have to do is just south america change is slow in coming but the discoveries may. by this year's physics laureates have transformed our
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understanding of the universe. it all began when the universe exploded out of a hot dense state nearly 14000000000 years later half of the nobel prize in physics was awarded for innovative ideas about what happened next the royal we dish academy of sciences has today decided to award the 2019 a belt prize in physics with one half to james peebles for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology back in the 1960 s. cosmology was something of a speculative science but since then we've learned a huge amount about the evolution of the universe and james peebles was a key figure in that process his seminal work has helped scientists interpret traces from the seconds after the big bang and it's help to show why the universe is expanding faster due to dark matter and dark energy. to other researchers and
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astronomy were also honored. and the other half jointly to michelle and video. for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar types thought. back in the early 1990 s. it was still impossible to take the incredibly detailed measurements of a distant star that could show whether it was ordered by a planet. michelle my your and d.d.a. kelo developed new cutting edge methods to do so and sparked a revolution in astronomy more than 4000 so-called exoplanets have been identified since their 1st pioneering efforts a number that's steadily growing the list now includes planets that could theoretically support life circling distant stars the discoveries made by this year's physics laureates have fundamentally changed our perception of the universe around us. hats off to the 2
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astronomers and nobel laureates. the exoplanet they spotted is located in the pegasus constellation it was named $51.00 pegasi be. the discovery i should in a new era of astronomical research but we still don't know all that much about these distant worlds vicki of this mission is not taking a closer look at exoplanets. ideas about planet formation used to be based on what we knew about our solar system but that all changed with the discovery of planets orbiting other sun like stars the 1st exoplanet to be identified was 51 pegasi be it's a gas giant like jupiter. but unlike jupiter it's so close to its sun that its orbit takes just 4 days. it's now been established that there are even planets that
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orbit 2 stars. nasa maintains a list of confirmed exoplanets they already number well over 4000. enter key ops the space telescope will study exoplanets in the earth to neptune size range and will use a method called ultra high precision transit for tom. 3 to measure their size ups is a follow up mission it's not a discovery mission so capps is not looking at $200.00 thousands of stars we see idea 2 does it more planets says looking at one star at a time. as an exoplanet passes in front of its host star caps will record tiny changes in its brightness in order to catch such so-called transit events the telescope needs a very clear view which is not available from earth where the atmosphere reflects
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or absorbs much of the starlight and blurs the signals that do reach the ground. so key ops will be carried into space on a so use rocket and go into orbit at an altitude of 700 kilometers. and the telescope will always be examining the night sky. away from our sun. and can look at stars in almost any direction. data from ups can help to determine the size of exoplanets. based on the precise measurement of the dimming of the light from a star as the planet passes in front of it the exoplanets volume can be calculated . this is then combined with other observations.
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cup's is a very good mission to follow up so there's a lot of target we have more than 100 stargate that we going to observe this target has to be carefully selected so most of the work is done what. ops will build and data already gathered via telescopes on earth and in space. this enormous telescope array in the outcome a desert in chile has been scanning the heavens for x. supply. that for 5 years. other telescopes have been focusing on the movement of the associated stars. they use what is known as the radial velocity technique it's based on the fact that the gravity of an orbiting planet also accelerates its star this causes frequency shifts in the starlight it emits bluer as the store approaches us redder as it moves away. or you can go by the 2 together and for some system having
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a transiting planet then you do also have the over the city in this case to give the mass you get the size and then you can compute the density or the both density that tells you about the nature of the planet. the density is key to determining what the exoplanets might be made of mainly gas like jupiter or rock like earth and mars do they have surface water oceans are the lumps of ice might some qualify as potentially habitable. here ups will also check for atmospheres on the planets it monitors it will track the exoplanets paths around their stars and how the star light is reflected from their surface. and it will gather information on the planets day night temperature differences. we know from our own solar system that some planets did not form at the position
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where they are found today. the standard theory says a planet emerges as a cloud of gas and dust clumps together. first forming a proto planetary disk spinning around a young star. gas giants such as jupiter form in the outer reaches of the solar system but it's something slows them down they move closer to their star. in a tighter orbit dust may coalesce to rocky planets. in the course of their development planets can travel long distances. should collect plenty of data to make it possible to determine the route exoplanets have taken. it also has the potential to find small planets orbiting close to their star that may have been missed in previous observations. the hope is that key ops will
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find rocky planets with a thin atmosphere like earth. over the next decade ever more powerful telescopes will study exoplanets in greater detail. they might help answer the enduring the fascinating question is there life out there in space. so what combination of curiosity and cleverness goes into making an award winning scientist intelligence is certainly a big part of the equation and intelligence gets a boost from a good education and wide ranging interests but intelligence alone doesn't always lead to inspiration for that some say you might just need to kick back and relax
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every once in a while no way of head of mexico had a question about that. why are people lazy. doing nothing relaxing taking it easy one can't as lazy is hard to define but historically people seen as lazy were frowned upon and europe at least just as it should stems from the protestant work ethic that took root in the 18th century. in the ancient world in contrast exertion was scorned philosophizing was seen as a noble craft to be pursued at leisure a perfect excuse to be lazy in other words. extreme laziness can be harmful even to your health. but now and then it's good to kick back. it gives us time to regenerate and have a think in fact find to. research suggests that lazy people are more intelligent.
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they enjoy spending time in force. other people get bored quickly and need to stimulation of activity. innovation has often been driven by a desire to avoid efforts. can sue is the inventor of the world's 1st programmable computer because by his own admission he was too lazy for arithmetic. our ancestors didn't always feel like hunting and gathering they would put it off until the next day and spend their time developing new tools and strategies instead this improve their chances of survival. according to researchers there's a genetic predisposition to progress of a nation and laziness it's to do with a gene that helps regulate the production of dopamine which plays
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a role in brain processes such as attention memory and motivation so laziness seems to be an ace and not just in humans. we asked our viewers what do you think about laziness are you ever lazy yourself. color replied they're taking a 15 minute nap isn't laziness giving your mind and body a break is a good way to regain energy and strength then you can finish your work with a smile on your face. play pointed out they're taking unnecessary breaks even when you're not tired is definitely just laziness. frank says laziness is the incessant need to avoid all responsibility or to take shortcuts instead of finishing your work. and that will always. problem for the people around
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you. martina pointed out laziness might not be the right word because we all need time for leisure. and yana says that people work hard so that they have time to relax that's real intelligence. thanks for your comments. we have no way of knowing whether these next 3 scientists believe in the power of laziness . but we do know that they've been honored with the nobel prize in chemistry for they recess on lithium ion batteries. wireless digital devices are everywhere nowadays and lithium ion batteries make them possible the scientists behind the innovation were honored with the nobel prize in chemistry the royal swedish academy of sciences and today decided to award the 1900
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nobel prize in chemistry jointly to join the good enough m. stanley with him and. for the development of lithium ion batteries back in the 1970 s. and eighty's stanley whittingham and john b. good enough laid the foundations for the 1st batteries made from the light metal but to truly take off the technology had to be refined by acura yoshino in the mid eighty's he began experimenting with lithium ion making batteries that were light nearly endlessly rechargeable and safe for everyday use the impact on industry and society was massive from smartphones to scooters and automobiles today lithium ion batteries are used in everything and because the energy used to recharge them can
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come from renewable sources they're helping us usher in a more sustainable world even off the grid for years scientists have been looking at new ways of storing energy but nothing is managed to beat the lithium ion battery for capacity and reliability. it was a development that indeed changed the world. we get a lot of thanks to the brief the oxygen in. the bloodstream to be transported to each of us cells they adapt to changing oxygen levels and the way that was discovered by adam next 3. nobel prize in physiology or medicine jointly to with. sir peter ratcliffe and greg it samantha the $2900.00 winners of one of the world's highest profile awards worked
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for the most part independently of each other the announcement caught them unawares at that point i think it was just so surreal and i sort of had this out of body feeling of just great appreciation and i got to start so thrilled to share this with all the people. much to me in my life well still i threw on a little bit surprised that this morning yeah i have a deep sleep 1st. i could wake up eventually but by the time i got to the phone it was too late and so i said to myself i wonder if this is somebodies idea of a bad joke in them is the 3 scientists were chosen for their work on how cells sense and adapt to oxygen the gas is a key part of converting food to energy but oxygen levels can fluctuate dramatically in the body for example when you exercise flying to high elevations or are pregnant oxygen levels that are available for metabolism go up and down to
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keep functioning the body's cells have to be able to adapt to these changing levels the work done by cain and simmons and radcliffe covers details of the mechanism that regulates that adaptive process but i would say that the benefit is understanding this fundamental mechanism by the practical applications are yet to come and that's actually what's 10 tries to see discovery that it opens up so many possibilities and he creates new research areas for example in healing or in treating patients who suffer from severe anemia or even cancer with their discovery came when samantha and radcliffe have laid the groundwork for a whole new era of drug development one that is now starting to address conditions that modern medicine seeks to heal. which nobel prize winning research has brought about the most significant advances
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added einstein is one of the best known nobel laureates his theories pave the way for the g.p.s. which is now part of our daily lives. marie curie discovered radioactivity a finding used to diagnose and treat cancer. alexander fleming discovered penicillin while experimenting with the influenza virus and other prize winning research has helped launch a new era of tissue engineering. for 10 long years could hardly go out for a walk he was suffering from cardiac insufficiency which is also known as heart failure and was in mortal danger. my heart was so badly damaged that i couldn't even go for a stroll without stopping all the time through. his condition kept deteriorating eventually any exertion lead to severe shortness of breath and a tightness in the chest he needed a new heart finally
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a donor organ was found. to have been given a new lease on life. it's an incredible feeling. because. he's had his new heart for 5 years now he was very lucky and he knows it many others wait in vain. professor who is working on healing broken hearts before a transplant becomes necessary with the help of bioengineered new heart cells she's part of a multidisciplinary team at hanover medical school. they've managed to grow cardiac tissue out of millions of lab grown cardiac muscle cells. the tissue grown in a petri dish is fully function. no it contracts rhythmically and autonomously.
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the next stage would be to attach it to a failing heart. our goal is to repair human hearts for example after a heart attack in which heart tissue died we want to replace that tissue or in young children with congenital heart defects. tissue grown from a patient's own stem cells won't be rejected and that's a great advantage to prevent the rejection of organs received from donors immunosuppression therapy is needed. the technique being developed here is based on a discovery that was honored with a nobel prize in medicine in 2012. namely that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluri potent specialisation is reversible mature cells can be reprogrammed to become immature stem cells and then reengineer to become cells of a different kind say blood or heart muscle cells.
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who is working on developing a technique to repair hearts with lab grown heart muscle cells delivered directly to where they're needed via a catheter without open heart surgery. she estimates it will take another 5 to 8 years of work. a transplant as in the case of gun quarter could then become unnecessary and the mortality rate among heart patients could be reduced. cardiac insufficiency is often the result of a problem with one of the hearts valves. substitute valves are being developed at dusseldorf university hospital. part of the research involves taking valves from animal hearts and testing them in an artificial heart.
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professor pio he heads the research laboratory for experimental surgery and the department of cardiovascular surgery. he wants to develop replacement valves that are better than the ones currently available. and. biological valves often come from pigs or cattle the problem is that they often wear out over time so their lifespan is limited or. the aim is to make valves that are less susceptible to wear and tear. he replicates the strain placed on heart valves in the body in both healthy people and people with high blood pressure diabetes and kidney disease many heart patients suffer from such diseases and in such cases the strain on the heart is even greater.
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dr carey observes what effect they have on the heart valves and is looking for substances within the body that might make them more robust as it's being even is to have a stock of perfect valves ready to implant that will do their job for many years without degenerating yalla because. they're going to. use it he thinks it might take another 10 to 15 years to develop such valves they would be a major boom to many heart patients and the further way to reduce the need for heart transplants. gun quarter still finds it astounding how fit and active he is now with his mean heart he's even hiked across the alps. part of the mines would embark or when you're climbing a mountain you just keep thinking oh i've had a heart transplant and you feel endless gratitude to all those made it possible.
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but it's good i think it's really important for people to think about being organ donors. who are not. he'd like to see more patients have the chance of a new life. because what is right right i mean i don't think you. do you have a science question that you've always wanted on say that we're happy to help you out send it to us as a video text over a smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you cannot just ask. to find as i did of you dot com slash science or drop us a line at d w underscore site tech on facebook d w dot science. that's it from us this week on tomorrow today thanks for watching. next week let there be light. we'll be taking
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a look at visible light exploring the phenomenon of electromagnetic radiation and also finding out about life by. interested in learning more tuning next time until then good bye.
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what do you merge have the others it is the. amount of christmas the current clueless feasts at the christmas market and listens to the visitors express themselves joy. into custody good becomes contemplative and explores other markets in the back of incredulous. coming up on t.w. . out of the comfort zone.
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into the crisis zone theater director mueller ron doesn't shy away from human suffering he demands an incredible amount from both his actors his audience an artist activist prices for your milorad on meet the artist. and 30 minutes w. . show hello upswings this is your new balls speaking welcome to the show with the ding dong xoai high end concert. with phil mistress guests. rocking sound. and then incredible location.
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groups. on t.w. . the big bang that created today's world. the turning point in politics business oh. god the up people of the islamic revolution under are not so to him he had always dreamt of a stake in the shed he had no room. opens up making its initial flirtation with capitalism. strikes and states of emergency britain sinks into chaos margaret thatcher remarks in cottage them to work harder and they will was a distortion of neo liberalism. john paul the 2nd is its public to the people and threatens the old order. a little bit this could be the end of communism
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and then. why our system ended up. the start of an era that defines our lives today. 1979 the big bang that created. stocks december 23rd t.w. . this is day to the news and these are our top stories pro-democracy activists in hong kong say 800000 people attended this weekend's rallies the largest crowds in months after 6 months of protests demonstrations said they want to show the world they're not giving up it's the 1st launch scale model to be approved by the city so .


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