Skip to main content

tv   Doc Film  Deutsche Welle  December 21, 2019 8:15pm-9:00pm CET

8:15 pm
in mandalay because in and house have been in a now as i speak battling mentioned it glad back on friday hoffenheim standard opened on sunday desoto i was only on bed in a friend's but travelled a part of or 3 watching the news from by and up next doc film looks at one of the key steps towards german reunification on how an ounce frames island thanks to a company. welcome to the but is the game here for d.w.i. trial trying to talk about its. coverage. 3 more. subtle we have. let's have a look at how the government believes look so you don't want to miss that. we can tell you.
8:16 pm
most we begin to a meeting will be held tomorrow between east german premier hans montrose and west german chancellor helmut kohl no movement when the chancellor arrives at 9 15 in the morning east german television will be broadcasting live from charleston. up at least after tourists and i knew that reunification was going to happen. one way or another i could see it was what the people wanted order to. protrude you could see their faces in the range of expressions people cheering but also people weeping it was deeply moving. says call saw himself as the victor that's for sure wall. i am going to stack up although i was no stronger way of expressing the will of the people than saying we belong together we're going to the.
8:17 pm
vietnam we will not abandon our compatriots in the german democratic republic i suspect that that was what the people wanted to hear and they believed. the chancellor they saw him as someone who'd gotten a lot done so he get this done to my guy and you know your piece must spring from german soil that is the goal of our unity you would have i that was probably a contribution not energy german unity but also to peace and so for her i think once and i say that emotionally it was one of the most moving days of his life. for. no one who was in dresden on the 19th of december 1989 will ever forget that
8:18 pm
day dramatic as it may sound it mount a turning point in german history i'm peter limburg back then i was a reporter in dresden with the camera man you're going to hack we were reporting from west german t.v. from what was still communist east germany would head it over the day the balun wall fell and witnessed the system collapse the people we met were euphoric about the newfound freedom but also anxious most bookish astonished of the cover was extraordinary was how we'd show up with a camera and a microphone interviewing all these people and they take us to where they lived and show us thinks it's cool it was an openness that we hadn't expected them all to do we assume that they were all being spied on the mothership would suit you. they didn't trust their own media sure that's true because we all said that they weren't worried about us because we came from the west in fact they often approached us 1st
8:19 pm
so it's a whole lot of couple of books that. we spend 6 months travelling around east germany a lot has changed since then and so have wages. colored grief that was a reception with your highness rao he's in his usual. boardman's. about fair enough. it was a special time we had to make up a lot as we went along. with the fly think we were the only t.v. child travelling around in a trap easy to see. the others had flashy valdas with the most looking boy. and there we are in a truly it almost believe they come over from berlin just for a day we were there all the time but we didn't have our own car but it was it was enough for us helmut cole's visit to dresden was one of the highlights of that
8:20 pm
transitional period after the fall of the war jurgen and i are going back to the city to talk to others who are also that. 30 years on what exactly made the 19th of december significant. and what was going on behind the scenes in december 1009. it was very quiet on the plane with everyone was preoccupied with their thoughts on this we didn't know what was going to happen the atmosphere was very tense. i am on . the whole warned us that we had to do everything in our power to avoid a volatile atmosphere expose even. in the common border. the mood of euphoria and apprehension wasn't limited to palin the palin war had fallen on the 9th of november and after months of protests the east german
8:21 pm
government had stepped down across eastern europe the communist regimes were collapsing. people were celebrating but the future of both geminis was uncertain. after the wall fell everyone was on the phone to one another all the time whether it was mitterrand margaret thatcher president bush or president gorbachev. president bush the bottom line was always keep calm. don't let anything get out of hand don't let things get chaotic. the whole process had to be kept under control and supports this was going to climb totally. 3 weeks after the fall of the wall helmut kohl unveiled a 10 point plan for german unity including economic aid for east germany an easing
8:22 pm
of travel restrictions and free elections then joint government committees european and german unity as a common process and redefined as no one knows today what a real unified germany will look like but i am confident that reunification will happen if that's what the german people want to see should i call canteens plan top secret until the very last minute sharing it neither with his own coalition partners nor his international allies other than the americans he was shown it in german just before it was published the british and the french that bone was forging ahead with the plan without consulting them. so hard for it was far too fast and so did many many other people it was very talking loudly about that but i think the reasons for the acceleration were. first that the idea of unification
8:23 pm
was legitimized encodes 10 points speech it was accepted as the go of germany west germany in this development buzz and. president gorbachev reacted very negatively to the 10 point plan speech. when the west german foreign minister hans de twit kensho was in moscow gorbachev said very clearly that he opposed it and he started to include that it was a dictate he couldn't accept. but if you look at the plan there was no timeframe it was basically just an attempt to create a roadmap not against the others but with them. call had 1st gone around trying to shore up support for what he had in mind based on the domestic and the international stage nothing would have ever happened nothing i think it was very brave of him to have shot at the responsibility by himself. on the 11th of
8:24 pm
december the ambassadors of before and i powers came together in berlin for the 1st time in 18 years they made it abundantly clear that german reunification could only happen with their approval. that they wouldn't this alarmed the west german government they couldn't believe that the allies were discussing germany without their involvement with their minds that. you're going to and i have a arrived in dresden it feels strange to be here like a trip back in time 30 years ago traveling to the east was a lot more complicated there were barely any train connections between east and west germany even chancellor cole's plane needed the allies permission. the west german delegation wasn't sure how their visit to dresden would be received by the east german public not by the rest of the world the chancellor was acutely
8:25 pm
aware of the trip would be a high wire act with the world watching but then they were met of the apple by hundreds of people devise and i'm sure. most people didn't want. the east german system anymore they wanted reunification and they wanted it as soon as it seemed in reach. the wall fell on the 9th of november because it was brought down from within it wasn't opened up by the east german leadership as is often said the people wanted to enter communism and they wanted reunification. then stick it on the plane he was unsure of what he would experience but when he saw the cheering crowd still on top of the stairs he turned to rudolph minister of the chancellery and said it's a done deal. this awful. i'm not in the face of it. all the law says you know someone is going to fly over you come to vote on something
8:26 pm
a lot was also at stake behind east germany's new primary reunification was not on his agenda what he wanted was financial and aid for his badly run down country. but isn't this really. the point of the talks was to voice the demands and expectations we had of east germany's democratization. with it and how it could be tied to economic and financial aid from the west. we didn't know that things would go in a completely different direction that day. the men didn't know one another was taken aback to realize that cole had prepared meticulously for the meeting yet. he became we talked in the car that took us into town meeting nobody much talked. of miss you and i was surprised the call had been briefed in detail on my biography. down to my childhood in the village of ya's and that's in western pomeranian time
8:27 pm
and then it's. inform your thoughts. and i thought to myself. i could have told my own people to prepare. or is it better to hike to the type. of too far to do start to turn to when people were lining the street on the drive into town. because we couldn't go very fast we could only crawl along the street in quantity if you could see the people's faces. and the range of expression there is if the people cheering but also people weeping. to shift what was deeply moving and. these germans had chosen to hold a meeting and a hotel for foreign visitors contact with the public was to be kept to a minimum. but they hadn't bargained with
8:28 pm
the crowds who gathered ahead of the meeting between cold and thousands of people wanted to catch a glimpse of the west german chancellor many were pinning down hopes on. this is a vice the british and it's what we want more than anything us yet still here we hope that the talks between more drawing call will make it happen stilt dimensions us to what we want is for the barriers that exist to be brought down today and that we can take major steps towards german reunification closer so i didn't get into an issue all the last month's issue i hope that the talks are calm and objective and on the bush to be set aside i think we're 2 very different countries and we can't just be reconciled in a sudden fit of emotion than i would soon and to fill the country when we want things to change here we want our lives to improve. they have all of us i want to see immediate steps taken toward german reunification no further delay. you know going and i were among the crowd. this was soon as i remember there was
8:29 pm
a lot of jostling it was almost impossible to push your way through and ask a question. call gave a. few brief interviews which made matters worse. as a crush got worse when he got out of the car as always the reporters from the west were used to elbowing their way to the front. but the whole situation was insane especially it was a cultural issue also watching the streets had been partly blanks but it didn't make a difference there was such euphoria for sure 4 people were there in droves yet in shock they were calling out helmets helmets they moved it musta been very hard for multiples i mean it's a good business he was the country's leader but he was completely ignored. and goes to a well i think it was all about the powerful man from the west. but
8:30 pm
in fact hans multiple remembers it very differently from. jerusalem and. there was a very mixed reception at the hotel all clues people weren't just there to greet her. but to greet hans too long i'd worked in dresden for many years they had faith in the class because i had a home advantage and this is in the home for. you. that was this was that was the 1st time we saw the germany united fatherland slogan. what it was the message the world was getting in those days you debated us with this book i thought any german saw this image the whole world did. it what. i remember him this i just incredible.
8:31 pm
at the press conference the distance between the 2 leaders was immediately obvious . they had to have kind of another i had no. reason to foster a special friendship with helmut kohl here it seemed i wasn't boris yeltsin was must go to work later all those stories emerged about gorbachev and meetings held in the sauna we weren't friends not even close. and was a cautious man and this was a very new situation for him for 40 years the soviet union had kept the east german leadership on a short leash and 50 these people went used to using their own judgment. even though their positions were poles apart cold trying to keep the mood beat. about chancellor kohl you said you wanted to see if you could find common ground and you i believe so i was just thinking among the huts i believe that one to one
8:32 pm
talks have given us an opportunity to get to know one another and so it's possible that we will go on to find common ground in the way that can. the expectation was that more people would lay out the political and economic reforms he intended to launch. that's not what he did if you read out a speech on improved relations disarmament peace love and understanding as are a lot or little no one cared to manage. what should have been said was chancellor kohl we need to initiate reforms in east germany these are the priorities and we need your help to start. the talks lasted longer than planned both sides agreed to facilitate contact between east and west. but cole was aware that multiple was not going to support his
8:33 pm
reunification plan. their different positions on the question were impossible to overlook. we get off on almost as you know i am working on the premise that we have 2 independent sovereign states and their continued existence is in the interests of european peace. and order. was told disagreement his aim was to give the east germans what they wanted reunification but he also had to assure his international allies that germany would not be going it alone. unless it was for you to. also you have to move to everything that changes here will have an effect on the prowl of friends in europe as we are acutely aware. when we consider our own interests we must also consider the interests of others not least the security interest is you know here
8:34 pm
in the middle of europe in the middle of germany the interests of many are at stake the interests of all of our neighbors our love for them of course was that we cannot call knew he was on very very thin ice and this he expressed at the press conference he said i understand there is a nice i can see it i see the impatience but we have to be very careful that we don't destroy what we have just achieved just because we are too impatient. 30 years later there's not much left of that stuffy room in a coup to a pal asked president where the press conference took place. the cloquet this looks totally different totally. but this is incredible. today the venue is one of the city's top architectural attractions it houses a concert hall the home of the dresden film monic restaurateur not heard we were
8:35 pm
quite near the front. close to the balustrades dome we've only had one camera we had to make sure we'd be able to get out easily. there was a lot of time pressure. or the one if you were at the back you had a better chance of getting a quote when they left. the stage. but we didn't manage that. the report we shot that day just about made it into the afternoon news room assuming we did it going it's concrete benefit cuts to much of funding if you go with the door structure of the shots coming through you know i don't think any visits to ensure it's going to get funded the day i realized it. is these other countries to be defining while the press conference was underway grabbing numbers of east germans gathered in front of the rubble of dresden stalin cassia the church of our lady destroyed in the 2nd while they followed the press conference on the radio. according to the official shan joel cole was to name flowers at the ruins of
8:36 pm
the church his last appointment of the day. a day earlier the rumor had begun to spread like wildfire that cone would take the opportunity to give a speech. crowds began to flood into the square. would he all wouldn't he address the people. that was. the speech had been announced by this man cabot wagner he was one of the organizers of the non-vegetarian monday demonstrations against the east german leadership that were taking place that all to. provide some guidance i thought then one does concert hats and has been a common highs we want to give the west german chancellor a warm welcome i know enough own care to share and listen to what he has to say when he lays a wreath at 4 o'clock at the church through him boss at once does our heart
8:37 pm
of the. after rain if occasion have a volcano served as man address. didn't for several years how had he known that cole would give that momentous speech for your target for didn't know and. for days earlier the deputy mayor had approached me and said it was possible that the chancellor would be giving a speech and that he was known to make last minute decisions. so we needed to get ready for action for. no one could get ready for action better than the people who organized the monday demonstrations but then kohl speech simply wasn't mentioned again. and detoxify getting kind of bored for the days went by and there was no mention of the speech. but i had the impression
8:38 pm
that his speech could still happen. that's the shrunk so i grabbed the opportunity at the very last minute at the start of the monday demonstration to announce his appearance. the information spread like lightning everyone wanted to be there you stuck your neck out. well in those days we were very full of whole cities outside 200 did you expect the crowds the atmosphere. the hope i had no expectations i just wanted people to be their eyes that i had of cause visit to dresden phone had rejected a proposal that the chancellor give a speech but the mood in dresden changed everything. wrote in his memoirs that he jumped down ideas that afternoon in his hotel room.
8:39 pm
that i would have to switch and go to see justice and. today those notes belong to his widow my cat told her i think that was really an extraordinary day for my husband let me just think what happened in the morning there were the people chanting unity unity helmet helmet as a politician if you don't have an answer for the people if you don't talk to them then i'd say you missed your calling. in fact no one had prepared for the speech in advance this was for the mob and for the evening before ordog situs comes the chancellor and i sat down together in the chancellery for a brainstorming session if you will. move into the warm brainstorming. we came up with a few ideas and he made brief notes feel 1st to him. no firm that was on a 4 paper with
8:40 pm
a felt tip pen and foodstuffs. memoirs he said that he wrote his notes in his hotel room that same day. i wouldn't set much store by memoirs. if. it wasn't definitely go. going to happen the idea was to wait and see how things developed there was no fixed script. the excitement was mounting at the church tens of thousands of people had gathered to see some of who longed for unity alongside others who still believed in the communist regime including public servants. you'll have to work for the 1st time in your life would you say i was going to be. not just collect your salary. but you got regular training. you took regular holiday got
8:41 pm
a new medal every year we paid for that and we're still paying. the atmosphere is volatile are you worried that the situation could escalate so it's a good. church it's no one can predict what will happen i certainly hope it doesn't . have a fears both among cone supporters and his critics that the opposite side would town nonstick. their left wing extremists and they're everywhere if we can't get rid of them you have to help us. listen here my friend i was in the middle of the crowd and the ones calling for unity with the worst still the i nice machine and that's 156 my job here is just to keep the peace but i almost got a thrashing from a couple of guys that's not ok even the punks ran off and those guys ran after them yelling you read pigs it was like being back in the nazi era if that's how they
8:42 pm
want to go about unity that's not ok we don't want any kinds of radicals. there were plenty of people who said be careful with reunification it's not what we want what we want is a democratic east germany but they were in the minority as if you called school worse those old. does cool's biggest concern was that the crowd would have raps on i'm going after that they would be aggression on fights nationalistic outbursts you know. fleeing i'm not you know this to show that could have easily shaken up the 2nd world wars for victorious powers various leaders see if they're hawkish like to. the supporters of the east german peace movement was shocked to see that the majority of the people wanted reunification. or was not celebrating with a jubilant crowds on the day of cole's physics she had believed that east germany
8:43 pm
would survive the form of the but end war. in october i co-founded the east german social democratic party i remember at the 1st events held here interest in that same year people were already talking about reunification. i couldn't believe it because i hadn't been thinking along those lines and it wasn't what i wanted what song is what the spittle. was. i. was the cause i hoped for in the us i've never been afraid but there i realized the goodness if i speak out i'm going to be beaten up there was such euphoria but there was simply no room for discussion they wanted one thing and one thing only reunification as soon as possible. and the deutschemark
8:44 pm
as soon as possible. just the best. we witnessed widespread anxiety off to the warfalla in the autumn of 89 more and more east germans were packing up and leaving for the west they didn't trust their government they thought the. order might close again. when helmut kohl visited the phone cache he knew that with his speech he had to allay their fears and gain their trust without whipping up further frenzy among the crowd i. assume in politics feelings are never a good advisor even though a politician needs to know how the people feel that apply to this day it was a day of deep emotions that it was the rational thought which told him if you actually now the door will shut before it even opens all the way by toughness i.
8:45 pm
ladies and gentlemen my dear young friends dear fellow countrymen. 95 i was a small here fellow countrymen is that gave me goosebumps it was the 1st time that a west german politician described us as country mad as not as a soviet satellite like a baltic state where people happened to speak german that was how he began the gun that's against us and she wasn't sure i'd like to start by sending you warm greetings on behalf of your fellow citizens in west germany the business will be touched up i know the 2nd thing i'd like to say. i'd vote still is a word of appreciation and admiration for this peaceful revolution in the german
8:46 pm
democratic republic i feel it is a demonstration and for democracy will. be able to keep for peace 15 and for freedom if i write. for it and for the self-determination of our people i believe and self-determination also the. it's nice that we in the federal republic respect your opinion used as well i just speak here and we don't want to patronize anyone would be if they had any money to the football. he was trying to show that they were. equal he was trying to pacify them to show them that they could benefit and they would had it have been for us in the united kingdom in. the last we won't abandon our countrymen and the german democratic republic. was divided by we want to work together
8:47 pm
as closely as possible especially regarding the economy see you with a clear goal to improve the quality of living in east germany as quickly as possible here. we want people to feel comfortable here. we want people to be able to stay in their homes and find their happiness study i i. put said fruit it wasn't only cheering fans there were lots of people towards the back of the crowd who just stood there frozen and for not believing what was happening to moto others were just overwhelmed the t.v. reports didn't show that there was a mixed reaction the only showed the applause was done in fans and we were caught colin no there you. was. in shock is only you know it's i'd be provocative so his speech as
8:48 pm
a diplomatic mass to pay us i know he spelled out the we are one people message we belong together. and we need to see what the future holds none of us knew. you get it on the other hand there was the reality. obviously on off the way i did the reality of 2 states 2 system it's just so i stopped it's rises to even more you want to enter a world with greater peace and greater freedom which sees more cooperation with each other than opposition against each other in the house of germany our house must be built under a european roof that must be the goal of our policy had we missed the need a few of us we stand for the basic law and we share your goals german unity if ones of us what we wanted to be agreed to by our neighbors and the soviet union in particular because europe must not be destabilized dizzy and off those were the
8:49 pm
messages. that was what the people wanted to hear and they believed the chancellor cons they saw him as someone who gotten a lot done so he get this done too it's now it is up to us to continue peacefully along this path in the time ahead of us to proceed with patience sound judgment and together with our neighbors and certainly wouldn't so the nothe done by dick eat fish let us work together toward this goal. letters help each other in a spirit of solidarity check to see them here from here in dresden i send my greetings to all of our compatriots in the german democratic republic and the federal republic of germany extend the deadline god bless our german fatherland the it was i was
8:50 pm
i was. one of many fests it was manifestly obvious that the east. people as represented in dresden didn't want to try a 3rd way. they wanted german unity. year going and i almost missed the speech there was no mention of it on the official agenda we were busy finishing up our t.v. report fortunately when we were done we ended up walking back into central dresden . this exhibit we went past the square. and you could see the crowds arriving from afar. it was already dark so we any call to speech from far off. there was no mistaking the people's message to cold they wanted rain if occasion to happen fast the east german
8:51 pm
leadership had no support. and interest that evening in dresden when we sat down together we knew there was no point negotiating further agreements with more drugs government with bill you're the only thing to do was get the ball rolling with free elections as quickly as possible if you can do you feel injured some dished him in the survivor clearly our mistake was based on our expectation that the treaties we agreed on serve as a foundation that made both states viable during that phase. feel i had to. and therefore and they gave us a tot he plane that was pushed aside by cool very quickly they do show business it was well it was one of the most difficult speeches of my political life it's given the people who are waiting for a statement not only there on the square but across the country in the in west germany and in east germany millions of people abroad or where their own concerns that had to be taken into consideration we're also watching and listening i sense
8:52 pm
that you have. decades on the square where coal. gave his speech looks very different. today it's dominated by the following catch it rebuilt after reunification. financed by german and international donors from all denominations. it's considered a symbol of peace and reconciliation. destroyed by allied bombs in 1945 it now attracts countless visitors every year locals are proud of than city's landmark. pastor sebastian fight says that cole's speech and the events of 30 years ago are inextricably linked with the frown catcha. and then when you build up a disease when you look at the images today there he is standing in front of the
8:53 pm
rubble of the church laying out the path to a new europe the middle and then give it today i think he laid the foundation for the rebuilt church to become not only a symbol of german reunification but also of european unity will soon. be covered a student at least the against i would say that for the people addressed and it's a symbol of the change that came with the associated with the change that they themselves made happen of the cuts. but not everyone is pleased with that change. in the past 5 years there have once again been demonstrations in front of the crown cash they are organized by picky eater a movement began in eastern germany that is nationalist. and far right supporters feel left behind and blamed the way reunification happened. in ferguson was mustn't forget that these people had to really learn everything as
8:54 pm
a result of laws new regulations and a new type of economy they grew up to smooch some people see reunification as a gift others as dictated and. so of course some people felt left behind them both you know so i think it would make guns mccombs and these discussions play he made mention obviously there hasn't been enough of a dialogue with these people these are wounds not wanting unification wasn't automatically a statement of support for a democratic system quinces team could be isn't but they didn't know what that was . that process needs to be reappraised you know if all these people are saying that maybe they want to different system. or that there are unhappy with today's germany it's a fleet and the. sustained winds will be good slant the number of people attending the piccy demonstrations hash trunk but the successes. the far right eastern states
8:55 pm
suggest there is still a significant number of people who are angry some say that these people feel their contributions to communist east german society are not respected doesn't that's the underlying feeling and it's come to the boil these days i don't know why exactly after 30 years but they don't feel taken seriously in their own country they don't feel there's any acknowledgment of what they achieved in their lives. that's the perspective of. the monday on the way the east german government that i was a part of was treated after night 190 was pretty shocking. and they acted as though the german reunification was up to the chancellor alone. that as a result east germany was completely sidelined. for. this you can't do that and then be surprised by the f.t. . one thing's for sure in that post-war period the
8:56 pm
message cole was given by the people of east germany was unmistakable they wanted him to negotiate reunification and to do it fast 1st that fateful evening in dresden in front of the ruins of the frown and again when it came to actions he delivered reunification 9 months after his tightrope act in dresden. the dresden that you're going to and i revisited is thriving but we've met people who experience that day in 89 and germany's rapid reunification as a profound shock the process had it disappoint us but hopefully dresden will find a way to deal with populist looking to instrumental eyes those disappointments 30 years ago in front of the ruins of the frown catcher east germans made a choice they chose a free democratic side. scientific. minds let me say that my goals show
8:57 pm
the historical hour per minute i night remains the unity of our i. can't bear friends i know that we can achieve this goal and that the hour will come when we will work together towards it provided that we do it with reason and sound judgment and a sense for what is possible the path there will be difficult but it's the right path it leads to our shared future i.
8:58 pm
meet the artist. oscar winning director carlin and. her films go straight to viewers' heart because she shows the world through children's eyes. the kind joy common seeing on society not to children it's kind of stunning. spotlight on our alina. an interview. 30 minutes d.w. .
8:59 pm
in the light of climate change. conference most of. what's in store play. list for the future. comes to make decisions. just inside. counter. 50 years of religious for peace people from many different states are working together toward a common goal the peaceful resolution of religious conflicts. and now all female members or for religions for peace from the middle east are demanding a larger media and. the female peacemakers stores january 5th on g.w. .
9:00 pm
this is you don't any news live from but made no germany hits out at the us this also president trump signs off on sanctions against a pipeline that would bring a russian gas to germany look at what washington doesn't want the projects completed it's also coming up at least 23 people die in violent protests like at.


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on