tv An Endless War Deutsche Welle June 15, 2022 3:15am-4:01am CEST
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a reality. when he suddenly 5 years of size starts june 19 on d w. ah ah, ah. this is the story of the war that does not speak its name. a war that started over 40 years ago, but has never officially been declared axis of evil. the war between iran on the one side and the united states and israel on the other is both ideological and strategic. a conflict that stirs up passions, presentment and hatred. and word ever to escalate the entire middle east would be a very possibly triggering
a new global conflict. to understand this potential return of barbaric violence, we must go back in time to unravel the tangled threads of tragedy. seek the elusive truth behind the dogmas and the certainties and tell this story ah ah, the history of the war began on february 1st 1979, a bore to flight from paris to terran. ah, an old man is praying this is ayatollah hor,
maney. he is preparing to radically changed the history of iran victim quinn, m capital i to make sure it isn't easy to talk about the greatness of this figure as one of his enemies once remarked, that there had been no one like him for 800 years and there would be no one else like him for another 1000 years old, all. and i'm not on who who maney historically embodied the people's opposition to the shaw, the all powerful monarch who had reigned over iran for nearly 40 years in exile. for 15 years, the ayatollah was finally returning home for the final battle alongside his people . a revolution and the name of shiite is long. a new era was about to begin in the middle east.
ah me, ah, ah, a year before or may not return. an uprising began in tehran in early 1978. hundreds of thousands of iranians took to the streets to challenge their ruler. ah, demonstrators had had enough of a ruler who bent on making iran a great power, sought to impose western style modernity on them either willingly or by force. they viewed it as an unfair and corrupt system that failed to meet the most basic needs of the population. ah, ah, 302
countries had come to embody the imperialism condemned by the demonstrators. 2 countries that supported the shots regime, the united states and israel. today, it is difficult to imagine those 2 countries where the iranian states closest allies you're only the hutch over frosted local thereon was arguably almost important partner off to the united states in terms of economic intricacies as we undertook some crunch projects with them back in the 1950s, israel had made overtures to the shaw, isolated in an arab world that refused to acknowledge its existence. the hebrew
state was looking for non arab partners a little further afield in the middle east. iran persian pro western, built on a different kind of islam to the other arab countries, stood out as a natural ally. she to fly a be see, it's hard to imagine now us, but it was a very close knit collaboration. and cbs chill only did it look to see that has the most advanced take washington to had chosen to make her on the corner stone of its influence in the retail comes in. so the high degree of military cooperation was designed to keep terran in the western camp. also this was the time of the cold war, of course, and day iran was a major arena of us soviet competition. so yes, and as i was close to america because he felt that he needed the american support
in confronting these ussr and maintaining his government in power for both television and washington iran under the shaw was an invaluable partner. the key piece in the great middle eastern game, but neither israel nor america realised the extent and strength of an opposition that was destined to prevail. it about them again and i mean when i spoke with the generals, they would tell me look what it's like measles are. so we're seeing demonstrations at the moment. that's the way it is. a sheil mill on the shaw has asked us to sort it out because he's the military chief. i knew well where sorting it out with the buyer.
ah, the blindness and incomprehension of a regime based with such a powerful and determined uprising was heading for tragedy. that day, black friday, the shaw's army opened fire in the streets of terran, the official death toll was $87.00, but according to opposition estimates it was closer to $4000.00 the monarchy had just revealed it's true base. ah, the revolutionary process was underway and now there was no stopping it regarded as supporters of the shop is railey and american expatriates became targets and began to leave the country. mm. protestors attacked cafes, restaurants, banks and cinemas. western symbols of modernity associated with the stronghold.
israel and the united states had on their country ah, tearing down the monarchy, breaking ties with washington and televi, rejecting western style modernity. all of these objectives combined into a single battle gradually, as the movement began to pick up the momentum. and that it was a movement in need of leadership in need of immediate the person to fit the bill seem to have been i to look for maybe. ah, i have to say that not only the different factions of islamic movement followed out to lawful mania, enjoying, but the other factions of the movement at elect ashton,
like marxist all factions, supported i to lawful may me, i don't either of revolution. oh, wow. you know who the time had come for hominy to realize his dream, the introduction of a radical doctrine and establishment of an as lama republic, a theocracy, wherein the ultimate power lay with a religious authority, the supreme leader, him ah, ah blue oh man, he set foot on iranian soil,
ready to deliver the fatal blow to the monarchy. ah, nothing. and no one could stand in his way. ah, it was shockey. it was really shocked. about 10000000 people came to the streets of terra. this was the biggest welcoming ceremony ever during that history. as long as i had amendment in need your people to come to will come in and everybody looked at him as the leader of the lucian and cut his matic leader. and a man, oh god, at the same time head that day he will rescue the country
and we will have eyes on the air. ah, maney was now the man who embodied the legitimacy of power. especially as the shaw weakened by ill health had departed. the country, 3 weeks earlier, i went a month, that ain't got none, let tie, you wanna none the person on you in me let the read, i'm gonna, i'm, with 10 days later, after only 48 hours of fighting in the streets of tehran, the overthrow of the iranian monarchy, the shaw had ruled over for 37 years, was complete. ah, the revolution had achieved a total victory,
ayatollah whom many was the country's new leader. i had that after the revolutionaries immediately attacked the enemies identified by the new regime. with the israeli diplomatic mission sacked and completely devastated it's 33 members were the last as railey still in iran. they travelled in small groups to the hilton hotel in central terren where a bus was waiting to take them to the airport. a distance of some, 17 kilometers, 17 kilometers through a hot bed of revolution. mm hm. she was like, you know, metal, 17 kilometers. you run 10000000 iranians on either side of the road. you're all with tomatoes and egg was fish in the bus. there was a driver and 2 audience with kalashnikov,
our bus moved on what they thought it was a revolutionary bus. not a single egg or tomato was thrown below. bates offer in on reaching the airport. they boarded the aircraft. but just as the plane was about to take off a new m, a thought, ordered the plane, those to the engine started and it began to taxi with only all of a sudden it stored on with the doors opened, an armed revolutionaries parched in again, i thought to myself, what is it this time? but if they wanted to carry out one final check, i don't know what for, and i closed the door me to call for as long as we were over iranian territory, it emerged remains 10. once we crossed the border of the, is riley's in rush into cheers. should i say, lou?
meanwhile, these rallies, arch enemy yasser arafat leader of the pillow. the palestinian liberation organization was arriving in tehran, welcomed like a true head of state. ah, arafat had become leader of the p l. o. in 1969, it stated ambition was to create a palestinian state, independent of its era backers from his base and lebanon, arafat had been leading his fate. i ain't his fighters into guerrilla actions on the northern border with israel. now he had come to seek the support to pull many a man he hoped, could help palestinians achieved their independence. presently, it says, complete the order that project on the scene. this area is a lot said down complete
by inviting arafat to tehran. how many was sending a powerful message to the entire muslim world from now on? iran would be supporting the palestinian cause with almeni's then took up provocative initiative instead of an israeli diplomatic presence. there would now be a palestinian embassy. it was a clear statement. ah, with this gesture, the ayatollah was severing all links with israel. a state whose existence had no legitimacy for him. any strategic alliance between israel and iran was now unquestionably a thing of the past. the
united states recognized the young islamic republic. but in washington, there was concerned about what kind of relations would be possible with ron's new rulers. within the american government, there were a differing opinions. some thought that community was her stream ha ah, force as it would be very difficult for us to, to deal with. i think most people still thought of iran as a country that you know, we could continue to get along with that, even though the shawl was gone, that of you know, week we would maintain relations. we had our embassy there. then on november, 4th, 1979, hundreds of islamist students, storm, the american embassy taking $52.00 diplomats hostage. ah,
how many was hesitant? would he support these students and risked seriously jeopardizing relations with the united states? would he support them to keep control of the movement? with john osbourne. learning address with pseudo and or jones from san sharon hesh counted as needed to them, but he saw the hudson but the sean kish reddish wonder, or when the hostage crisis occurred. it made clear, i think that we were largely unprepared to deal
with the nature of iran at that point. and the fact that a, the anger that wished there and reflected in that hostage crisis up, i think suddenly brought iran to the top of further concern. so we had about our situation in the world. ah, the last hostages were finally freed, after 444 days by supporting the students who mainly made the u. s. embassy hostage taking act 2 of the revolution. it became one of the founding myths of the new regime, widely seen as the main reason for the break down in us iranian relations. a new middle east was taking shape. nothing whenever be the same again. karen's ambitions
and interests were on a collision course with washington and televi. a great clash was looming. ah, me. on this day, nearly 90000 israeli soldiers, 1300 tanks and 1500 personnel carriers, invaded lebanon. a country seemingly unconnected to the emerging confrontation between iran, israel and the united states. torn apart by civil war for many years, lebanon had become a regional battleground, syria occupied a part of the country to the east. but in the south, especially the p. a low was all powerful. the palestinian organisation had made the area it's operational base for instigating deadly rates against israel. on june 6th,
1982 tel aviv launched operation piece for galilee. the objective was spelled out loud and clear to seize control of southern lebanon, and thus put an end to the gorilla operations launched by arafat fed again with him here full fight and destroy those organizations that have been killing and murdering all paper for some years. it is our goal here. arial sharon, recently appointed minister of defense, was leading the offensive to his fellow countrymen. he was a hero who had been at the forefront of every military victory. israel had once since its inception. in 1948. i'm gonna finish it or move immediately back. we
don't have it into, i mean, but for 5 up to stay here. although country they don't need even one score into this country. ah, within a week, sharon had far exceeded the initial objectives as his army made rapid advances. 2 turan looked on stupefied with israeli troops advancing towards the lebanese capital. the balance of power in the middle east was radically shifting for hominy. it was unthinkable. but how should he react engaged in an all out war against iraq after the attack launched by saddam hussein 2 years previously in september 1980. the youngest nomic republic would be forced
to fight for its survival for 8 long years. and what became known as the iran iraq war. at this stage, the iranian leader did not have the resources to open another front against israel in lebanon. khomeini issued a statement justifying this decision, saying to wrote to oats which is jerusalem goes through cabella, which was a religious way of expressing a deeply strategic decision. meaning, 1st things 1st, the aspiration for iran to play some role in the liberation of jerusalem comes after. yvonne has managed the feast in bay route. heavy shelling was now falling on the west of the capitol, where arafat and most of his troops had taken refuge.
poop ah. part of the city was raised to the ground. thousands were dead, mostly civilians. on august 21st 1982, the israeli siege ended yasser . arafat played a final visit with west beirut headquarters defeated arafat departed lebanon, and went into exile in tunisia with 10000 of his bed. again. they were replaced by a multinational force composed mainly of u. s. and french troops tasked with ensuring the safety of the lebanese capital.
for sharon and prime minister monopoly begun, the palestinian question was settled. they could now proceed with their secret objective of transforming lebanon. the multi faith country would become a christian state, led by the maronite minority. this new lebanon would be a powerful state, and above all, and ally, ah, but their plans would unknowingly awaken another lebanese community, the largest in the country. the shy community, ah, settled mainly in the east and in the south of lebanon, the shiites had suffered directly from the invasion and israeli occupation. some resolved to take up arms and resist faith. and at the it
was my belief in 1982 the son that israel was an enemy and they said i e law do what i supported the palestinian course of the year. and for this i considered myself to be on their side. and if he had a honda now im cassim was then 29 years old. a chemistry teacher in beirut. he was leader of the union of islamist educational associations, associate organization. or was it not in the in the middle school? many who were for us thinking of him. um huh. mainly chimed perfectly without the belief. let the not mean behalf as we got together with some of his le missed groups and came to an agreement, how to get slimy. yeah, well my smart is lemmy, a, canada mosher with a few of nan. whether he went to a rom to proclaim our willingness to pledge allegiance to her mom armine, which will allow him to be all coin. and to respect his authority, he done lena and he gave us his blessing. watson baraka.
a. how many welcome to this alliance. it would allow him to better fight the jewish state. it was an obvious union, given his old and deep ties, but the lebanese shines ah, many of the leaders of the revolution in iran who became a top positions after vision of revolution. they had very good back run in lebanon before evolution. good connection, which cheer people in the ha, you know, she's them in south of lebanon is older than she is in iran. ah, in the summer of 1982 lebanese, she,
a leaders gathered in the city of bol beck and the baker valley, located in the east of the country to set up a new organization to fight israel with the backing of how many it called itself. the islamic resistance in lebanon. mm. it officially took the name, hes bullock, 3 years later in 1985. healy mac and had of his will love he, i'll be the yahoo or the us hes bolas. initial objectives were military men. it was not only about offering armed resistance against the israelis, and with the rather to end the occupation by any means necessary men and drive them out of lebanon slightly to help the new organization. iran sent a few 100 revolutionary guards to the baker valley. in the summer of 1982. these men were part of the elite body created at the birth of the islamic republic and
charged with its defence. it reported directly to the supreme leader. while these elite soldiers did not actually fight, they supplied weapons money and know how their presence also implicated another country whose army had a presence in this part of lebanon, syria to reach the baker valley. the men benefited from the help of the dictator hafez assad. another fervent opponents of the state of israel and this way, how many was establishing, what would prove to be a strategic alliance for many decades to come? the partnership with syria, they began organizing the high school. they began organizing, ah, that, and alliance with the asset they began selling,
but giving away oil to asset to buy a relationship with asset because they began to think about what they cost their strategic depth. they wanted to have tools at their disposal to threaten israel with, which meant threat them do united states with and say if you hit us, we can hit your back. and then by creating the husband up, they hit, both the use is released and united states in levin. what took roots in the confines at the baker valley, was a veritable system of alliances or a system set up by iran with the help of syria, a system that created a new political entity has bhalla a system which would later give rise to the powerful iran syria, his bullet acts, it's in the middle east. but for the moment,
nobody was aware of the emergence of this system, least of all, the americans and his railways. ah, me dear cartoon, southern lebanon, about 10 kilometers from the israeli border. at around $630.00 a. m. a white pu show stuffed with explosives, leaves deville heading towards tire. the largest town in the region at the wheel is a young 18 year old resistant spider and member of hezbollah caught his name, is off my cous ear a shade. i'd rather see it annoyed ken osland osmond casea had always been a quiet person, let him in and know, but he could not keep silent in the face of injustice. misled even as an on she, he lived in saudi arabia at the time,
but returned to lebanon. after the israeli invasion, lemme santa lucia started. our uncle tried to hold him back, telling him that a war was raging with a comma after that. but his reply was, i know what i must do and run about his shoulders and rama. within a matter of moments, this unknown young man would become a hero in the she, i to struggle against israel. what is known here as a shaheed, a martyr of the resistance. he was about to commit a bold act that had no precedent in lebanon. one that was both religious and political let not the memo, the senate uncle to sent me it in 1982 as we inevitably lost in any direct confrontation with his royal. what we have no way of striking back and book is all bought when we could only get some way by taking a new or effective approach. he. i'm an act of martyrdom. i'm illinois,
who anomaly is tish handy. 7 am november 11th, 1982 rockmart casea drives along the main thoroughfare through tire. without hesitation, he accelerates and crashes himself and his vehicle into a large residential complex. ah, the israeli military headquarters for the whole of southern lebanon collapsed. ah, a 7 story building demolished, ah, physical mark, i picked up your associates o to be the brochure boom over to leslie. so can her good though sheila of zeus who goes to sher called forth?
i work with smith over at the hud lowest version of it. oh, good luck to nude saw. should see, lucy does the sher, sheila, food food, fit hulu, shuffle google clothes for, to live with them. and that can be sort of gone on. i can ma handled that. i, at the time we had a grocery store entire, had an fish out. i was on my way there when the explosion happened a month that now never forget it. and okay, there were pieces on fire everywhere. i'll be looking to kill the whole building was on fire. the jews had blocked the street. i believe we were proud that something was finally happening a year, although we didn't know what a lover in lukea. ah no, and nathan, we were occupied. no money. we were glad that some of the occupiers died. you can fish like we were nervous because we didn't know who was behind it. we didn't know it was my brother, osmond mac,
and i will never forget the moment i found out thus had among the loose. ah, it was carnage. $91.00 israeli soldiers and 15 lebanese prisoners were killed. ah, ariel sharon was mystified. how could something like this occur when the only known enemy, the p a low had been crushed more than 2 months ago? what have you, so domenici, trenches o b, gua hub. lenny could sunday the mag deal. it's much of a shall asha for yamaha m. mm hm. we are share law. oh, much of kind of small, let me crazy and i and you deem they have to go have la mueller. the hotmail, my daughter lou. but at ocoee law, they're dakota. it may not that they always thought nash fisted. what are some know?
i shop that live a day. she lot the law of it a couple of live bill dome, lower than a clue. we had no information latoya. it was very unfortunate in retrospect the of the above. and michelle knew there was some religious activists or she is. i'm, we knew, i'm sure that others we didn't, you can me him. or if come with will come, ha, ha, ah, hey, mom, he lawyer with shock worse and when i began to research written records on the shiites in lebanon, compiled by intelligence academic. unless you may actually been on the right, i was very disappointed on. if the whole mill there was almost no solid research on the subject a unless you me a bit of an on but go far. has
a lot michigan university said nothing eva, number it be a darker demi, hobbit a less usually when lou, the multinational force in lebanon, led by the americans and french, was just as unaware as the israeli military, on october 23rd. 1983. it was their turn to suffer a similar attack. ah, john devastated the 4 story building in which 200 marines may have been sleeping when the explosion occurred shortly after 6 am beirut time. the americans lost 241 soldiers. at the same moment, a suicide bomber blew himself up in a building, serving as a barracks for the french forces. 58 were killed. ah, a double strike claimed by a mysterious islamic jihad movement. thought to be
a figurehead for hes below. and iran? i think there, there is much that indicates that the iranians did have a role if not a very important role in that we have an indication above responsibility. yes, we have some that we're not gonna point the finger in poor. absolutely certain. but i think the thing that does come through lab clear as the just the insidious nature of kara international terror. with this new attack, the hezbollah, shiites could no longer be ignored. they saw themselves as a resistance movement against israel and its allies. i recall a, his bola, seeming to be a domestic factor and then by the mid 19 eighties, it was clear that there was this pipeline arms material,
men coming from the iran ha hostages going from lebanon to iran, and political support. so this was an emerging phenomenon i am fo, was to remove the she'll need from the start. the iranian fights is smallest enough to understand that you cannot create an armed militia without the support of the local population leashed. this is the um, quick. i v m, the iranians, constructing what i would call a count of society alongside the ordinary lebanese type gama, could work on it. i tell her, will you could with the book as well. dillard link walks like this child is born eventually he goes to a hospital they care visit with, then he goes to a has below school. then he joins the has velasco facilities. but after that he
attends a, has been a high through a little bit of civil people and then he joins has paula, but who lives with hulu? mm. ah, israelis were counting 600 men dead in 2 years. it was a prize. many were not prepared to pay. ah, the israeli army gradually lost control of lebanon. on june 6th, 19853 years after the start of the invasion, the israeli army pulled out preserving a security zone in the south, an area representing 10 per cent of lebanese territory. the israeli army remained there for 15 years until 2000. it saw this withdrawal as
a humiliating defeat. while for has belong, it marked a 1st victory. ah, ah, the shiite organization chose the moment to claim responsibility for the destruction of the tire headquarters, bombing. the name of the shahid was also reveal off mod, casea. o november 11th, the day of the attack became the moon official martyrs day. ah! when ayatollah homemade, he passed away in june, 1989, he left a lasting legacy. the shi theocracy, which he had founded 10 years earlier, had been firmly established. and the fight he initiated against israel and the
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