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tv   Tomorrow Today  Deutsche Welle  September 3, 2022 5:30am-6:01am CEST

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to a foreign planet. in the 16th century, it meant being a captain of setting sale to discover a route, a race linked to military interests. a race lead to political and military, christie, but also linked to men, financial resources, and adventure full of hardships, dangers and death. mac jones, journey around the world. sports september 7 on w. blue are sent says connect us with the world, our eyes taking millions of pieces of information every 2nd. these sensory perceptions interconnect in our brain sites hearing, taste, touch, smell, and the often forgotten sense of balance. our senses are integral to communication,
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2 tiny facial muscles betray how we're feeling, and our skin detects the finest of touch is essential for us. survival today show is all about how we communicate. welcome to tomorrow to day d, w. science magazine. a soft touch or a firm grip. our skin feels every nuance. it's our largest organ with a surface area of up to 2 square meters. the skin comprises a wide variety of receptors. pain receptors alert us to danger, like overly high temperatures, for example. so called merkel cells help us feel the shape and firmness of objects. meisner co puzzles are experts in sensing light, touch, refining, co puzzles. notice where and how much al skin is stretched,
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unforeseen ian capacity detect vibrations, and it's asking also include sensory cells, specialized in perceiving. stroking. they're found only in her covered areas and react when the touch comes from another person, especially when the movement is slow. like in stroking the fact that we have these receptors, suggests that gentle touch is essential for us survival. uhm, no words can make feelings as tangible as a caress. but touch can also relieve pain, strengthen the immune system, and even prolong our lives for a long time. it was largely ignored by scientists, but now it's increasingly the subject of research and often the sense of touch really does appear to be important for our survival. we can't cope without it in miss outcome. humans have
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an amazingly differentiated system of perceiving and classifying how we are touched . a touch can signify power and violence. it can make us feel afraid or threatened infractions of a 2nd. different receptors in our skin. tell us what kind of touch that we are experiencing. whether we can relax or need to immediately spring into action because we are in danger. at the beginning of our life in particular, caresses are vital. they stabilize a baby's breathing body temperature and even its blood sugar levels after birth. if animals only have their basic needs met in the months following their birth, many of them die. and those that survive suffer from irreparable psychological and physical damage. their growth is stunted, there are in system is less developed and the even fails,
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simple memory tests. central areas of the brain are impaired and less voluminous and experiment in like 6 touch laboratory to measure our brain waves before, during and after a massage. how does a massage change brain activity? the e g shows the brain's electrical activity, slowing down a state of relaxation, similar to being in a deep sleep. the brain doesn't just react by slowing down. it also produces a cocktail of neurotransmitters and other substances. your body i was because you didn't bother hormones and neuro transmittal that are produced, certain substances which other errors are bodies through our blood by this organ. this a muscles relax for exam on them that are hot frequency decreases. inch on our breathing
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becomes shallow of the ottoman, but fluffer does it into a series of physical changes. have alicia for n dawn. touch is far more than skin deep. scientists discovered just a decade or so ago, that gentle physical movement activates a special type of sensory nerve cell late to emotion. and unlike our sense of touch, these nerve cells do not provide information about the outside world. instead, they tell us whether we like a particular type of bodily contact or not. the discovery of the significance of the so called c t advarance makes it possible to investigate the importance of gender physical contact for social interactions. a robot is used to gauge precise
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the out people respond to different types of touch. each test person receives exactly the same treatment. the experiment showed the more signals received by the ctf lawrence. the more pleasant the experience for those taking part. the effect is most pronounced at $34.00 degrees celsius, approximately the temperature of our fingertips. an inch, se there's more of these now. 5 is here on the back than there are in the forum. the wider people like having their back massage, where they like having their back massage. good. as more of these, no 5 is there. in evolutionary terms. why would you put a reward taught system on the back? well, you can't get to your back to groom it. so you need to get somebody else another primate needs to come along and groom your back than if we are gently touched. we usually don't wanted to stop lou. the reward system in our brain makes us hungry
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for more. hormones are produced, the brains own drugs. each type of physical contact mix it different cocktail. these include endorphins, so called happiness hormones, which make us feel high. but also oxytocin that is necessary for bonding an attachment. it makes us feel close to people who couples with the long term show elevated levels of oxy chosen even live longer and they are less pro distress their blood pressure is lower, their pain tolerance is higher and even their ability to learn is better. ah, despite this, we have been abs moving for years that we have less and less direct contact in the
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increasingly digital world we live in. the cove at 19 pandemic has exacerbated this trend, forcing physical separation upon us to day, people tend to touch their smartphones or tablets more than they touch other people . you can be in contact with people thousands of commanders away. but physically isolated. loneliness has become a mass phenomenon with grave repercussions for our health. if we use the protection of the group, our bodies go on high alert, our cortisol levels rise, and the risk of heart attack, stroke and depression increases. ah, the all right, so with the early death, the smoking, diabetes, pollution it such as may be 3540 percent. the other rice have an early death, maloney, this is something like 45 percent. that's what i said, that's almost
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a global content because it's own right. but nobody's really woken up to the file or what lonely people don't get is touched when it's hot of hot cold when the going gets tough. plenty, as the pandemic has shown, and then what becomes evident is that we have a yearning, ultimately not a technology, but for real people. island under someone who go for a bear with us and all readers poems, bill clinton good order, they're on the dish to for least, ah, often we don't realize just how strongly touch influences our mood, our health and our relationships. but we are becoming more aware of how important it is gentle, physical contact. just keep us happy throughout our lives. we also communicate through touch. no matter how many emoji we send, they can't compared to a real analog hug. it is possible though,
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to transport our emotions over the telephone or in a video called artificial intelligence is also becoming better at reading human emotions from our faces. but can it detect the very subtle list of feelings? i, with laughter lightens up the mood and is contagious, especially when it's sincere and comes from the heart. but what is a sincere laugh? research is in germany, a looking into whether computers can tell the difference. in order to help psychologists. we've all heard about software. the scans are faces using artificial intelligence. but can i also detect whether were upbeat or angry, delighted,
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or sat, or indeed laughing. authentic clue the schools are probably most dusty. the co you sit in comes parent and give them this has to be listen, because we don't know how they actually work in the sense of which materials or faces they've been learning from. so we thought we'd test different algorithms against each other into into the santos group sheet, and i bookman. he is hiccuped or getting them on the test. the manheim research team have taken a i programs from a variety of companies to see how they perform while it comes to recognizing different emotions. under laboratory conditions is in here, does freshman spies, though? we can see a specific movement in the face already being registered. what ma'am? the action unit 12 is the solution. asked us there won't be into the a i has learned that the corner of the mouth going up. there's a component of a smile as happy can you 20th to make social justice fit on? the next step is using these expressions to find out what emotions in individual
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this feelings, phone, and buys wine up as one point. test participants are shown, photos of faces displaying strong emotions and then asked to imitate them the amos to find out what the programs also work reliably under standardized laboratory conditions. this is one of the basic requirements for perspective late to use in scientific research. there are several dozen muscles in the human face, and we need to flex 17 of them to conjure up a lot. ah m. yes, convers in dusty pro bond in chi bush on the subject. now has 3 specific to move in center face i in the corner, pulled us. we had 1st, there is a corner polar and listened. busy not out in cheek razor. then we have the razor with a cheek squeezed the eyes and make them a part of the smile. i am looking on the alden's or to long middle. it won't hurt typical for an authentic smile as are the lips being slightly party. last d m. lipman life go from and then once i skills that as we were able to show that
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his artificial intelligence is also very good at detecting intense emotions, like these, with normal people in a typical lab setting hams, washington's even normal to an aussie, i called a company called the big question now is whether this is also the case for that montane, as and more subtle emotion is and will to an order from this until now, psychologists have been documenting the subtle nuances of our feelings with the help of electro, my, o, graphy, or e m g. senses on the skin, measure the electrical activity of muscles and nerves. the stronger the impulse, the clearer the emotion. can artificial intelligence do this without he m j. m. it's eloquent of them. we now have electrodes attached to this. i go mass at this major school. this is the laugh muscle which is involved in many positive emotions, warned and right after that, we'll stick e m g electrodes on the congregate arnold, our crown muscle, which expresses many unpleasant motion long anymore. it is
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tim her fling, then shows the participant different pictures to react. take boring. photos are alternated with ones that are proven to trigger emotional reactions. in addition to the m g senses, the facial recognition program scanned facial expressions and record that changes, but the reactions on the test person's face a week. it takes a trained human emotion analysts to measure their intensity. tim halfling has this training and because he knows how time consuming it says he hopes that a i programs will eventually take a for this job. we couldn't find a c consistently can be found that the artificial intelligence corresponds closely with the e m. g measurements. as well as the subjective evaluations of the participants, but only for the positive stimuli we presented for the negative stimuli. we couldn't demonstrate any relations with the e. m. g,
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or would the subject subjective evaluations in obama? wasn't so the i recognize as positive feelings, but not negative ones necessarily. this is true for all 3 algorithms because the performance of the i programs hardly differs. they all still have a lot to learn. nevertheless, the 1st video called providers in the us are already considering integrating automatic emotion recognition into their software in the top the dust said calltum dismisses recently been discussed by large video conferencing software providers. integrating a module that automatically recognizes the facial expressions of the participants, interprets them and then of course, allows the employer the counterpart to draw conclusions about what someone is supposedly feeling in that moment. bus year. man, i'm gay, please. sure. 20 some woman is this laughter. authentic or fake. the algorithms
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definitely can't tell yet, but gayle output can dish wasn't it? guns often see the advantages are fairly obviously until now it has been extremely time consuming to do this type of analysis manually things we can do that way. however, you have to train employees intensively all the more weeks of training. yeah, here one kid i will train to software. i was good with the right material, and theoretically it would always work. so neil, quick humans are still far superior to a i software when it comes to interpreting emotions correctly. after all, we can also empathize with feelings and that ourselves be affected by laughter. especially if it comes from the hans with a joyful giggle or a delighted rule. different laughs expressing very from saying estimates suggest
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that such nonverbal ways of speaking may cut more than 90 percent of our total communication. and it's not just our hands or face that talk, but also our smell and our whole minds. these and other substances communicates within us something alvin calais from malawi. wanted to know more about ah, how do you sales communicate with each other? ah, our bodies consist of around $200.00 different types of cells. we only stay healthy if they can all communicate with each other properly. our pancreas, for example, produces hormones. it releases them into the blood. the blood then transports the messenger substances to the places in the body where they are supposed to be used. nerve cells need to talk to each other quickly and effectively. to do so, they use electrical impulses and so called neurotransmitters,
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which send information from one cell to the next. many cells also forms so called exit zones in order to come into contact with others. to do this, they lace up their outer skin to form packets that contain molecules such as proteins. they then send these packets on their journey throughout the body. ah, different shells interact when healing a wound. immediately after an injury, platelets must 1st ensure that the blood clots, while immune cells clean the wound. when it's screened, connective tissue cells produce college and, and filled the wound. then at the feel you'll cells for my skin over the entire wound. almost all of our shelves are linked to their neighbors. the
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channels that directly connect the sales contents to one another. loo through those channels, the cells can exchange electrically charged particles and small molecules, such as messenger substances. this communication pathway was discovered in the 19 sixty's, researchers labeled individual cells with luminescent molecules and observed that the fluorescent spread rapidly. channels like these are involved in many bodily functions, they ensure that the eyes can adapt to different light conditions. and they help synchronize the contraction of our hard muscle cells. they also play important role in the formation allowance organs in the womb. neurons, son synopsis, a key when it comes to communication within the body,
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the more developed an animal, the more sophisticated it's nervous system. instead of a brain jellyfish have a diffuse network of nerves, passwords have a centralized nervous system which runs through the body like a rope bladder. meanwhile, mammals do have a real brain, the structure of which is important for cognitive performance. and more than that to do, in fact, neuron density also plays a major role. the more in your rooms, the more likely cognitive performance is to be increased. but you also have to look at the ratio between brain and body mass. a house mouse, for example, has about 71000000 urines and a very small brain. a cat has 10 as many in euro's,
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but it's also much larger. blue, a peg is smarter than you think that has 2200000000 neurons in its brain. and a raven has about the same number, but in a much smaller brain with very little body mass. a chimpanzee has 28000000000 neurons. and an adult human has approximately 86000000000. and elephant has about 3 times as many, but its brain is also 3 times as heavy which factors influence brain size and intelligence in mammals? oh, that's what evolutionary biologists sandra head starts is researching at the university of zurich. she works with the skulls of various species to measure their brain volumes. she fills the skulls, would lead pellets
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a time honored method. it should have been a mac. now this is a mac skull looks if you can fit almost a 100 milliliters in there that as a had e think feel may that's a lot more than, oh ma'am. i'm so where did he go? form them with the ground hog warm as the edible gather more 15000000. if the cut, the skull only fits 15 milliliters, so the brain is 8 times small arms. so the miss donna, i have to enter that into the database. the researchers have compiled a database of $1200.00 brains from a wide range of mammalian species was under the hedge knob and a colleague had measured the majority of them. for months they went from museum to museum in the usa, filling a wide variety of schools with their pellets. as
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a matter of a thing that was needed me, the most was the whale skull. we measured in a boat, it was a span whale thing, but adequate. and we really pulled the pellets into it with a 10 liter bucket hogan and only got it half full of men. if we didn't have enough pilots to fill the whole brain with the be cut from that was fascinating. of beth ish, a fascinating thing that i'll be got asked the spam well, skeleton was really huge. and the oxy shown with the skull was bigger than we are. he them shaddon will growth and we filled it with our little pellets. they knocked the hood galena, in ag feel, attend there. held stab wants to find out the circumstances under which a brain can grow in terms of evolution. it's clear that brains need a lot of energy to grow. a brain must literally be fed constantly. the evolutionary biologist is looking in reference books for possible factors that
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could influence the brain size of a species and correlates them. for example, what do they eat? how do they live? but also social factors such as group behavior and how they reach their young for example, animals that hibernate generally have smaller brains. and carnivores generally have larger brains than herbivores. it's been proven in many studies that brain science correlates directly to an animal's intelligence. like in this study, which compared 39 carnivorous mammals, it clearly showed that the size of the brain in proportion to body weight directly corresponds to the skill level of the animal. the type of food they get and how reliably they get it, when they're young is more important for brain growth than previously assumed. as
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and jayden doth minutes of an i as a form, what we found that's new is that the food supply has to be reliable that somebody for commercial facing, for example, siblings often bring fair to the barajo, has got rid of that when they don't see any one waiting late at themselves on that up events, st. this near middle act or the see if less, if it's different with the parents or does it make them in fact, that if the environmental conditions a bad than the father brings the young even more fade. and even though he's going hungry himself only for that. so they all did a bully, a fell within, holding a hit the the combination of save high calorie food with slow development and social learning ensures intelligent animals with large brains. if our blood is red, why are they brand new? do you have a science question? send it to us as a video, text or voice message. if we answer it on the show, we'll send you a little surprise as
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a thank you. i come on. just ask you can find us and other science related stories on the web. and on twitter. got sick from tomorrow to day d. w. science program. join us next week, until then. stay curious. with
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oh, there is an old saying show me how you live and i'll tell you when you are visiting king luke fish, his 2nd varia. f. noise fungi in castle were given an exclusive tour
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