tv Trace Evidence Deutsche Welle September 23, 2022 6:15am-7:00am CEST
all for gaze on our own solar system. these images of neptune are the 1st it has captured. they offer an unprecedented view of the planet, an infrared light, including some of the sharpest views of the planet, rings and decades. the last time scientists had such a clear picture of neptune was in 1989 when masses voyager to craft flew by all right, you're up to date doc films next with it. look at advancements and forensic science . i remember you could all your latest news around the clock on her website. it's d w dot com. how did she become adult hitler's favorite director? and how did he become a forgotten film pioneer linearly finished and annoyed funk documentary about love,
seduction and power ice. cold passion starts october 8th on d. w. ah ah, the essence to solving crimes is evidence. i'm fishing, if i didn't even the perfect medicine that you always take something wiki, will you leave something behind you and it's new forensic methods and making the invisible visible most trace evidence comes from nature. dis, a mind to soil in the palm of my hand contains more individual organisms than the are the number of people that live on this whole planet. but there remains much to discover open questions to answer technologies to develop
like his june. that the question is, how long has these trace vin handy? only when i know that can i link it to the fact that your time is also relevant in other investigations? mine also is i'm hoping that we can say, for instance, this pew perry. i'm is 2 to 2 and a half years old, or this pu perry. i'm is 8 weeks old woman. will the perfect crime soon? be a thing of the past. ah! ah, lulu. every
flowering plant produces it. it wafts through the air, often invisibly, attaching itself to everything that moves. pollen leaves its mark everywhere and can even help solve crimes lose the sail wolves surrounding each individual grain is so stable that poland can survive millions of years. vienna, the austrian capital is home to thee expert in the field of forensic pollen analysis. martina vega heads the department of structural and functional botany at the university of vienna. she's one of a few scientists world wide working in the field of forensic pollen analysis.
on a sunny day in may, in low austria road workers working in the hill and towel, a popular tourist destination near vienna made a discovery that starkly contrasted with their dyllis surroundings. they found a corpse lying in a roadside ditch the criminal investigation department of the state of low austria launched immediate investigations dealership. i think the body was wrapped in a blanket, and yet it was immediately clear that there had been a violent crime. so we took up the investigation for a lot of the crime scene and homicide teams from the states criminal investigation department drove out to her and talked. and we were quite certain that the location where the body was found was not where the crime had been committed. with mister todd of the investigators soon turned to martina vba.
it didn't have i'm in and think if the dead man was wrapped in a blanket on the it most likely came from the primary crime scene. or at least from the perpetrators. what if, and that's why we examined this blanket thoroughly, did come with it, of course, because you can't wash the whole thing. but you can't small pieces out as where there is no to go clumping away. you suspect them might be something interesting underneath it of the think that is, that is that of the forget after washing the sample, it's centrifuge to separate it into its component parts. paula knology is the scientific term for poland. analysis, the study of scattered dust. the 1st person
world wide to solve a murder case with the help of forensic pathology was vill him klaus martina weber's mentor. here at the university of vienna, at the time, the suspect had the whole of vienna on tenterhooks, because the murder victim could not be found in love at 1st thing. over the course of a year. he has named a wide variety of places in the vienna region 11th, but nothing was discovered until professor wilhelm cloud showed up out this. he was a police botanist here at the university of vienna voc and a biologist by training there. have to make, he had the brilliant idea of testing the suspects, shoes and clear thing that's all pollen of pointed to so flu. among the thousands of pullin samples, professor klaus found was fossilized hickory pollen from alone, extinct species. that once grew near what is now the village of spill in in lo,
austria. confronted with this, finding the suspect confessed, and revealed the bodies exact location to day many know about dna traces and how to avoid leaving them. the criminals too. but poland traces i everywhere and are extremely persistent. ah, martina vba is working on a case that dates back almost 2000 years. it's not a crime case, but rather the scene of a natural disaster. she's attempting to correct a possible historical error. when the volcano vesuvius erupted, it completely buried the ancient city of pompei, the ash preserved the city, and many of its inhabitants in the last seconds of their lines. the eruption date
of august 24, 79, c. e, derived from the letters of pliny, but other writings and findings suggest that the eruption did not occur until october to investigate this discrepancy samples were taken from the nostrils of some of the victims. martina vba is now examining them to determine from the inhaled pullin. what season the samples are from free flying, poland gets caught in the estimated bone, the bone at the end of the nasal cavity. it usually stays there for about 40 minutes before it is exhaled back out through the nose. by examining residual poland on a corpse as f moines bone, conclusions can be drawn about the last 40 minutes of that person's life. there are 4 samples to examine the poland from the nostrils, a centrifuge,
and then boiled in a mixture of acetic acid and high dried. and so few rick acid. this process removes everything but the pollen wool, martina they, but then begins the counting process under the light microscope. gradually, she determines which pollen grains are represented in the sample and in what frequency they occur. based on the microscope count, a so called pullin diagram is created was be here, theme is the what we have here is the sample from a child of god. i specifically from the nasal, based on we examined the material to soon discovered a diverse array of plants if lance lance, which indeed grew in pompei like in pine, all around the l. if trees then autumn, easier than i think. and there was also a,
hey, dora, he likes pollen grain, he rather loads of them with a. so if he let the fans, ivy is ivy pollen. if i, if he tends to flour later in the year, ah, oh, this back from that of course was relevant to our research question of whether we can ascertain if the volcano really erupted on org 24th. oh, much nature in the yes, it's no cost. i'll get broken. is there a big debate on the matter crossing his console and should the eruption date of mount vesuvius on the 24th of august 79. c. e. be moved to the flowering period of ivy. in the autumn, it would be a sensation if the date of this world historical event would it be changed on the basis of a pollen examination? the whole entire case has not yet been solved either. the tests for pulling on the woollen blanket a still in progress barely visible to the naked
eye and yet so rich in information. the pollen grains swelling from flower to flower have breezed into the ranks of forensic methods. but they are not alone with its unique profile, the soil in which the plants grow is also valued in investigations. aah, luna dawson is one of the world's leading experts in the field of soil forensics. she's consulted by police departments from all over the world. ah. this, the mind to soil in the palm of my hand contains more individual organisms living together. then there are the number of people that live on this whole planet. so
just imagine how many that really is this is teeming with life. and that information can tell us so much about the soil, that is the home for these multiple organisms. the micro organisms in the soil are responsible for its structure and fertility. they break down toxins, help plants absorb nutrients and contribute to their resilience. but can soil also bear witness to a crime? galloway forest park in southwest scotland is the largest contiguous forest in the united kingdom. tourists and hike as are attracted by the unspoiled natural environment with its diverse animal and plant populations. but on june 12 2019 walk has encountered more than pristine nature. hidden beneath some branches
in a hollow in the earth, they discovered a corpse investigate as quickly established that it was a woman who had been missing for weeks, and that the cause of death was unnatural. they soon had a suspect. police sent several soil samples to lorna dawson for analysis. the scientist compared the soil samples from where the body was found with samples collected from the suspect surroundings. there's a whole range of different methods that can be used to can ties the sole biology and the still a lot of the search to be done to make sure that and when you're competing ah, unknown sample with a known sample. and that the same procedure is carried out,
cuz that's absolutely vitally important, that the any analysis is carried out on a, on no one a question sample. you have to use the same procedure for any reference sample. it's going to be compared with what about the soil samples in the current murder investigation? could lorna dawson helped to solve the case? in the investigation, the disappearance of emma folds. the police sent us a suspect pair of timberland and i was asked to examine them and to determine from the examination what type of soil that was and any vegetation within it. what clues that could give us to where that person had stood or had walked wearing those, those shoes are put in this case. i
technologies an analytical methods are constantly evolving, ever smaller samples of thighs for investigations. microscopic soil residue on shoes can betray where a person has been even tiny organisms can provide important information at frankfurt institute of forensic medicine, entomologist yes. amens works with some of them. the wilsons in forensics, we use insects and especially flies, to clarify questions about the victims time of death because the traditional forensic procedures only work well one to 2 days after that. and yet, so in that window you can estimate quite well when exactly the person died. storm is, but after that there are no reliable forensic methods gift. however,
if insects have developed on the corpses usually fly maggot license, then we can use these to figure out the minimal amount of time the person has been dead for minch. munitions from towards the 1st step is to determine the species on the corpse. then the developmental stage of each species is examined, flies live on average about 3 weeks. and within that time lay several 100 eggs. the maggots hatch off to 12 to 25 hours. the larval and pupil stages each last about 10 days of i as a function to formally forensic entomology works relatively well to the exact day in the 1st 3 to 4 weeks after colonization. of all, that's how long it takes for the adult fly to hatch. having passed through the egg, maggot and pupil stages of 3 to 4 weeks approximately this week, and after that accuracy is pretty much impossible. i mean, it wasn't like and so we're hoping that the analysis,
the chemical analysis of these empty view area will allow us to narrow down the time period beyond that point. by now several weeks, several months, maybe even several years may or more. not the flight forgot me, of a yog that people casing the so called peria canal for further clues. one in them, 5 context fizzles and our forensic work. we're trying to determine if the weathering of the pew peria is the shells that remain indefinitely intact at the site where the corpse was found. if the weathering can be quantified on the english of defer veto, that's where the cute secular hydrocarbons come in. if it a corner of a social, the shells contain specific hydrocarbon chains. that is, when buses off, we believe that over the course of time they break down lead, they decompose from long chains into increasingly shorter chains separation. so follow him of course. so the analysis helps determine what hydrocarbon structures are actually still present in the cuticle for the an elusive,
efficient busing doesn't. i hits for we can reconstruct temporal processes. that is we can work out how long has this pu perry. i'm actually been lying here at the site where the corpse was found. i need to hear life and foot on the surface of all insects. there are organic chemical compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen. traces of these so called q tequila. hydrocarbons can also be found in the pew peria and are analyzed in the gas chromatograph law with i believe that with the help of these to carry out, we can narrow down time periods that lie in the range of months or years on this lesson. i'm hoping that we can say, for instance, this pu perry, i'm is 2 to 2 and a half years old or this few perry, i'm is 8 weeks old. of the research is still in the developmental phase, but yes, i'm in his confident that they'll be able to apply the new analyses soon
as was on the in myna. what special about my work as a forensic entomologist is that i get to link basic research to it's immediate implementation. it's nick shown of us as a squish a. so i can start an experiment to answer a fundamental question and a concert. and that answer in turn helps my work on cases at the institute ish mid on an provides the answers, the police and prosecution me, but 40 points high for me. that's the biggest incentive from and the fun of it that goes to and hit my glasses. pasta by noon, it's exactly the spirit of innovation, curiosity and broad scientific interest that so indispensable in the forensic disciplines. because often there is more than one way to solve a problem. to get results, you have to use your imagination, be open for new perspectives and always have one eye on the latest research developments. and what about the investigations into the eruption of mount vesuvius?
worthy ivy flowers martina vega found the evidence for a later eruption date damn says in fact kinda she found it in the teen childrens nicholas norfolk but not in the hotel tice list. what was the single pollen grain there i think and not in the reference sample. hi, veronica. there was significantly less bab and in the children's noses. yeah. then you have to think it was missing. what do i do with it? now the me with these results, this room was, he's i, there are 2 problem is even this is one of the one is just that, that it was only found in the children of skulls exist the if i the 2nd is that hater a helix, the ivy is an insect pollinated plant for him? it's pollen doesn't just lie around it on its own beside which means that the pole and must have somehow actively entered the nostril. seattle, bashful sadly dismal, took the explanation in the end. it was that in from paste time in, the flower beds were preserved in oil o wine's young sp and
a medicine was produced from it which was tricked into the nose as if children with respiratory problems seen outside in, within kingdom. i often wish we hadn't and not only app holland spectrum was making a lot of sandwich. spectrum guns facing there was pollen in the children's skulls and not in the adults square and all so significantly less in the reference sample . if you can't vedic and that if it's proven so for the time being the eruption of vesuvius in 79, c, e remains dated to august the 24th. it's not enough to find the traces. they must also be considered in an interdisciplinary way. because without the knowledge that at that time, the pullin was also processed. in other substances, the avi trace would have led to false interpretations for martina vba. this was an interesting excursion into history, but it's time to return to the present the clarification of the whole entire
case in austria is making slow progress. tomantino. mm hm. mm hm. and we've worked with martina vba on a number of cases in the past. in this case to where we didn't know where the crime was committed, we started by doing a pollen examination on the items found with the body point, the blanket for example, and the victim shoes authorization. the idea being to determine which regional, where these items could have come from of eva from and martina verba from the university of vienna has already helped us with some cases in the passcode based on the pollen structure. and she could tell the broad region the individual came from always staying in and what distinctive flowers plans trees would be found. growing in that area. ward, these epistle here, come to levels in your code. mm. what will the pollen trace analysis from the road side? bodies blanket reveal another
tool for revealing and understanding evidence is bloodstain pattern analysis. it's used in investigations, especially when blood stains found at crime scenes do not match the suspects version of events which punish itself causing crime scenes where there's a lot of blood we will focus on the blood stain. very often, the perpetrators will often say, so i only hit one sort in the heat of the moment or whatever a crime of passion it was. and the bloodstain pattern shows a completely different story, a different picture, and others. it means that we can disprove that it was one blow that fell in the heat of the moment because in reality there were 15 blows and they were not from the from to, from behind on. so blood stain analysis can tell us a lot about the nature of the crimes, but by the blood stained patent wouldn't. ah, the rule of all southern the french mediterranean metropolis of ma say is the location of a forensic laboratory run by one of the most innovative experts in blood stains.
phillipe, esperanza, people from all over france and other countries to cool on his expertise. the analysis of blood stain patterns can provide important information for crime reconstruction by examining and interpreting distribution patterns. forensic scientists can estimate the location time and intensity of violent actions than the one that is as little. so does the analysis of the blood stain is, is based on the description of what you see in this case. and that is primarily the shape of the size and the dispersion of the blood stains. that is where they have found their location, who are the different services they have found on will again and their distribution leave you? how are they arranged in relation to one another lease of a convergence as can, while they distributed in a linear pattern of when, you know,
these are the fold principal aspects that you know, identifying bloodstained patterns. you don't ship them modelled because this'll mm. they're aluminum based chemical agents that can detect traces of blood that have been wiped away when applied to surfaces that have had blood on them. the ion in the blood acts as a catalyst for the oxidation reaction. in the dark, the bloodstained glows blue and can be photographically documented. conventional agents however, destroy the dna. in the stains leap, esperanza has developed a recipe to preserve the blood's dna. his re, agent bluestar, is applied in a case in nor see a man is suspected of having killed his girlfriend. while searching his apartment, the police found traces of blood in the bathroom and the bedroom. the boyfriend had
wiped it away. but he wasn't thorough enough. it turned out once felipe esperanza began his work. looking at the photos he was sent of the alleged crime scene, he found an interesting pattern of stains on the wall in the bedroom. one or 2 small and much like either on a to point of donita. it don't show over here, we can see the mattress and the nightstand. and behind them on the wall we can see patterns. little dot shaped ones made some bigger, some smaller, but they aren't those massive stains in which you can recognize the sponge or mock tries to this for today form. and this is where it gets interesting, more limited as christina, it'll cost on to because while all other traces have clearly been cleaned up for these poverty form, ones have not. this is kim affair. alicia lawyer if reduced. oh,
i drove to the suspects house to have a closer look at that wound victim you. i found many stains that had not been cleaned up at all to class because there was so tiny you need to put and on a dock surface. barely visible at all. may you show me me think she orange off a symbol one would have to actively look to notice the actually the hopper from of visit using blue star though you can, we could see the more did it was a shall get it perfect. more zip cavalier chevy crusoe. traces that have not been wiped away show the actual distribution pattern of blood during a crime even better. the puts it was not. upon analyzing the stains, we realized that they all converged to a point directly over this mattress with pool or chairs. dish leather laughlin play . therefore, there must have been some kind of below that caused a wound to show the impact caused the blood from the wound to spray in all directions. originating from that one points, often called last cornea again,
but even to school that she's able to point to official diploma pounding disc. we're talking about a convergent distribution limit. no, this is the type of pattern i found on the wall. but after the 1st or 2nd blow, it looks blood will also stick to the weapon. and when you move that, centrifugal force will create a more scattered pattern. in this case, a lot isn't distributed, convergent leave it on, but follows the weapons movement. a small object. cycle this former was a lot on imagine having water on your hands and moving it like this. but then water will fly away from your hand and distribute itself in accordance with the centrifugal force, the blood. so you can follow the movement by looking at the drops on the wall, the food you off, the bottle, an official knock on a lymphoma. so we have the same shape and within the range of a few millimeters. same size of the traces. like you have a thumb oval made on the circular motion on impact,
their distribution is convergent booth. where is why movement if i saw it, is linear and that's exactly what we had between events and the door, pull it up. in this case, esperanza analysis provides the necessary proof of purchase in wooster. don't juggle. in this case, we use blue star firstly to confirm that the cleaning in question was actually the cleaning of blood pressure. so and secondly, that the blood along to the missing lady line all support was in portland. well, these are the questions that need answering and such a case that live. so the gentleman is cleaning on it, but what is it clean? it makes it a new shot. in the meantime, old a french calais services used blue star exclusively or false. the other aluminum based products are no longer used to be credited. michelle is on today. a genetic analysis is systematically carried out on all stains. so it's good. systematic, more yield, voya. clearly the unity extra positive test for blood is not the end of the
investigation by the actual dna test automatically follows jacqueline in magnolia village if you wanted it. it's unambiguously the missing nurses blood. the blood stained patton suggests that the victim was basin while lying on the mattress. the blood spatter distribution leads esperanza to conclude that whoever did the beating must have been standing over the victim between the bed and the entrance door to the room. ah combined with other evidence, esperanza investigation leads to the conviction of the perpetrator. the expert can be satisfied with his work for now but there is room for improvement in forensic methods. one question in particular, concerns him a question. the question of when a long on you found my client's fingerprint on genetic to their genetic fingerprint
mac? yes. but who's to say it wasn't there before? the fact it don't like so to link evidence to the crime. the question we now have to answer is that since, when has this particular stain been on the instrument, just feel on what day was left on the exact day of the crime and not a month before or after. then who knows for sure, i'm world wide. there are several teams focusing on this issue. we have to find a solution minimum of a definitive, a follow up proven sort of mm. international collaboration among forensic scientists plays an important role in. so ling crimes and making lights safer in the process. ah, at that james hutton institute in aberdeen, scotland. lorna dawson works on the galloway forest case. the soil sample from the suspects shoe was already in the lab for testing. as were other samples that had
since been retrieved. some were recovered from the suspects comp. luna dawson was able to compare them with the reference samples in scotland. soil forensics is an integral part of investigations, but that's not yet standard internationally. increasingly, all, all for satellite great britain is used and it's considered to be used by the investigating authorities and overseas. there are more countries now considering and adopting sol forensics within their portfolio, all of methods that can be used a few years ago. i trained out some students from brazil and they then went back to their own country. and now they've set up a so forensic lab. so it's really nice to see that this transfer of an knowledge from one nation to another. to get the clearest possible picture,
when analyzing soil samples, several different aspects are considered if the samples from the suspect and those from the location where the body was found, had the same origin, is an indication that the suspect was at that location. the soil samples are primarily tested for 2 compounds, al canes and alcohols. so when will the cat m soils, a peer sales from e questioned item and from a crime scene, let's see. we extract the carbon compounds the compounds. it will occur primarily our al kins and alcohols. here we've got a trace of the how kintrail file. i'll kins being compounds that are composed of both carbon and hydrogen. and here we can see an example, see 27. that means a $27.00 carbon atoms in that molecule and the blue trace, the upper line here,
that blue trace is from the sample that came from the foot, where the yellow green trace beneath it is the sample that came from the crime scene. adjacent to where the victim's body was found. and as you can see, then retention time on the gas chromatograph. you can see at c 27, m, c, l 20 t 9, c 31 and c, 33. the teak said they're in the same place. they're the same compounds, and the height of these peaks are the same. so from that we can conclude that there is the same profile with the same amounts and same relative amounts of the different carbon compounds in the question sample. and the sample that was recovered from the kind see so the samples from where the
body was found matched those from the souls of the suspects shoes. the suspect can now be clearly linked to the secondary crime scene. it's suspected that he dumped the body there, walked away from the side, got into his car and drove away all lorna dawson presented her findings on the woman's murder case at court. her expert opinion and those from other areas led to the perpetrators conviction. often forensic experts don't learn the full circumstances of a case until after the investigation is complete. although we stay objective and try not to get involved the tall in the actual frame itself, in terms of the families involved, that's not the duty or the rule of any forensic scientist,
but one always has to have compassion and m. confidentiality is absolutely key. but once a case has been tried and am you, they're not aware and more fully of the whole case circumstances. and it really does hit home the, the need, the need to provide as much evidence, object of evidence that can help that court make the right decision. and, and, and bring some closure for the families that are involved in these sometimes very difficult situations, but equally well to also, but you savage ends that avoid the situation where someone is falsely accused of a crime. so that's why it's important that the evidence stands on its own and, and, and is available to both prosecution on defense. but the use of soil analysis is not limited to crimes against humans. it can of course,
also help to uncover environmental crimes or to relate agricultural performance to soil biological properties and also to assess climate change and identify hazards of soil, erosion and complexion that much more in the past. biology in botany related research fields did not have much of a say in forensic science. however, with evolving technologies and methods, more and more natural science disciplines are being used in forensics, dna analyses and now commonplace. but interdisciplinary thinking and structural networking are also fundamental. and ah, martina vegas pal, dat is the world's largest palin,
a logical database. weber's goal is to make the entire data collection from multitudes of plant families publicly accessible either from owns had thick, thick, fletcher thus had empty in pollen date or in the various rooms often fall under. originally, we just wanted a database that we could use to share info with each other. this is of us of what that pretty soon the world say to speak with crying out the more for a free database. or that we set back up and put it on line behind the own lancaster . it really only makes sense if you work together. men of it that don't with everyone sits on their own data. then no one benefit regarding the full almost 4500 pound species and their pollen are already catalogued in the database. in, in the case of the whole entire victim in the blanket, the pollen provides clear clues. most criminals won't even be conscious of leaving
the kind of traces that martina vba is working with us and invoking after a few weeks due to a confidential temperament. we received information on the individual's acquaintances and on a possible suspect, or several suspects. one community to become what we then started to investigate on monitor these persons to go to who are from the police, have 3 suspects inside and suspect that the crime took place in one of their apartments. but how can they prove the crime or prove that the victim was even present at the suspected crime scene? that's all the very bottom we can see the sample from the crime scene board. mm hm . if it was in, i taken a detached house now and can see that find precisely these aren't again oh and again in large quantities as it is. but i'll miss alice brown bar please. the cypress trees. this is of tool. you can imagine i feeders and the like, which is,
i mean what i'm giving you errors in australia. there was a window in the garden and popular marble so asked out and a variety of other plants, dandelions, and the license of for she wants to be lower than sun safety. there is no doubt at all that these pollen grains came from the primary crime scene, toddler. and when we also found it on the victim issue, we could say for certain that the things him actively made his way to the crime scene. sailor and all saying that the perpetrators roused him on the crime scene out of and tickets on the poland diagrams and the traces from the house. and from the blanket paint a clear picture martina vba was able to prove that the trace patterns from the woolen blanket and the suspects attic matched lead investigator hannah's ferna. very much appreciate the cooperation with the scientists and wishes to create stronger networks, both nationally and internationally. the arbiten,
i'm expe upton, we cooperate with as many experts as possible in the field of forensic center. can you 6 bit these are open to all kinds of investigations. we are limitless, often refer swanky, we are really trying to link up internationally that are always on the lookout in our new contact. so i can because of course there are different kinds of expertise in other countries like we are, can give you more detailed on there for police, have different experiences of duties, thompson. so when the case requires it, we can fall back on these acts by you and that's only possible through international network anchor. it doesn't really work any other way from to notice that victory. palin, ologist martina vega will continue to develop the legacy of her predecessor is a bit of, i mean, even it will continue on all levels. i think especially when just as there is still an awful lot of potential, even with cold cancer, gantski equipped within c hi pollen. no matter in what way. home guy,
whether you have somehow retrieved a pollen grain or whether you have a piece of clothing or a strand of hair from the corpse with my holland doesn't decay from delay. she. dep pointing the head. so as long as it doesn't go mousy with the pulling money, one devil present the bar height and say, it means we can always isolate poland from any material material. whether it's 50 years old chris, for a 100 years old, wanted yada. and when appropriate is going use it to girl conclusion and say, even reduction city ah, current research developments make it look as though no crime can remain unsolved in the future. the search for evidence is too sophisticated to advanced and high tech. and so 2 of the methods research is used to analyze the traces. but with all these advancements, one thing shouldn't be overlooked. most of these high tech would be redundant without the materials provided by nature.
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