tv Trace Evidence Deutsche Welle September 24, 2022 5:15pm-6:01pm CEST
and a reminder of the top story we're following for you. russian president vladimir putin has signed new laws that increase the penalties for any body who refuses to fight in ukraine. it comes as hundreds of thousands of russians are being called up for military service. active is shay, the mobilization is much wider than the kremlin admits up next dock film with a look at advancements in forensic science. that's after the great a michael o could from me and the rest of the team here in berlin. thanks for watching. this is d w ah ah, how did she become at off hitler's favorite director? and how did he become a forgotten film? pioneer laney finch died and on ode funk,
a documentary about love seduction and power ice cold passion starts october 8th on d. w. ah. ah, the essence to solving crimes each evidence. mm hm. fixed if i didn't even the perfect madam, you always take something wiki, will you leave something behind you? it's new forensic methods and making the invisible, visible most trace evidence comes from nature. dis, a mind to soil in the palm of my hand contains more individual organisms than the are the number of people that live on this whole planet. but there remains much to
discover open questions to answer technologies to develop collect is still not the question is, how long has this trace lean here? did you only when i know that can i link it to the faculty and yield? time is also relevant in other investigations often of this, i'm hoping that we can say, for instance, this pu perry, i'm is 2 to 2 and a half years old or this pupil graham is 8 weeks old. what uh will the perfect crime soon be a thing of the past? ah ah, lulu. every
flowering plant produces it. it wafts through the air, often invisibly, attaching itself to everything that moves. pollen leaves its mark everywhere and can even help solve crimes. the cell wolves surrounding each individual grain is so stable that poland can survive millions of years. vienna, the austrian capital, is home to thee expert in the field of forensic pollen analysis. martina vega heads the department of structural and functional botany at the university of vienna. she's one of a few scientists world wide working in the field of forensic pollen analysis.
ah. on a sunny day in may in lower austria road workers working in the hill and tal. a popular tourist destination near vienna made a discovery that starkly contrasted with their a dillinger surroundings. they found a corpse lying in a roadside ditch. the criminal investigation department of the state of low austria launched immediate investigations to lasha. and i think the body was wrapped in a blanket, and it was immediately clear that there had been a violent crime. so we took up the investigation for the crime scene and homicide teams from the states criminal investigation department drove out to her and talked and we were quite certain that the location where the body was found was not where the crime had been committed of mister todd of law the investigators soon
turned to martine of a book. this improvement of, i'm in a vacation. the dead man was wrapped in a blanket on the it most likely came from the primary crime scene, or at least from the perpetrators. what if, and that's why we examined this blanket thoroughly, did come with it, of course, cuz you can't wash the whole thing. but you can't small pieces out is where there is no to go clumping away. you suspect them might be something interesting underneath it of the think that is that is that of the foot bed and after washing the sample, it's centrifuge to separate it into its component parts. palin . knology is the scientific term for pullin analysis. the study of yes it does.
oh, the 1st person world wide to solve a murder case with the help of forensic pathology was vill him klaus martina weber's mentor. here at the university of vienna, at the time, the suspect had the whole of vienna on tenterhooks, because the murder victim could not be found in love at 1st thing. over the course of a year, he has named a wide variety of places in the vienna region yet, but nothing was discovered until professor wilhelm klaus showed out this. he was a caliah botanist here at the university of vienna. and a biologist by training their hockey, had the brilliant idea of the testing, the suspects shoes, and clear thing for the full pollen of pointed to sulu among the thousands of pullin samples, professor klaus found was fossilized hickory pollen from alone, extinct species. that once grew near what is now the village of spill in in lo,
austria. confronted with these, finding the suspect confessed, and revealed the bodies exact location. today many know about dna traces and how to avoid leaving them. the criminals too, but poland traces are everywhere and are extremely persistent. ah, martina vba is working on a case that dates back almost 2000 years. it's not a crime case, but rather the scene of a natural disaster. she's attempting to correct a possible historical era. when the volcano vesuvius erupted, it completely buried the ancient city of pompei, the ash preserved the city, and many of its inhabitants in the last seconds of their lines. the eruption date
of august 24, 79, c. e derived from the letters of pliny. but other writings and findings suggest that the eruption did not occur until october. to investigate this discrepancy samples were taken from the nostrils of some of the victims. martina vega is now examining them to determine from the inhaled pullin. what season the samples are from free flying, poland gets caught in the estimated bone, the bone at the end of the nasal cavity. it usually stays there for about 40 minutes before it is exhaled back out through the nose. by examining residual pollen on a corpse as f moines bone, conclusions can be drawn about the last 40 minutes of that person's life.
there are 4 samples to examine the poland from the nostrils, a centrifuge, and then boiled in a mixture of acetic acid and high dried. and so few rick acid paper. this process removes everything but the pollen wool, martina they, but then begins the counting process under the light microscope. gradually, she determines which pollen grains are represented in the sample and in what frequency they occur. based on the microscope count a so cold pollen diagram is created. it was me here. theme is the once we have here is a sample from a child has gone that i specifically from the nasal, based on we examined and apparel and discovered a diverse array of plants. if france, france, which indeed grueling, hey, like,
and pine round the olive trees. then artemisia, then at the end there was also a hate era. he likes pollen grain, he rather lords, if them, if he let the fans ivy his ivy fallen. if i pretended to flower later in the year, ah, oh, this was a matter of course, was relevant to our research question of whether we can ascertain if the volcano really erupted on august 24th, or much nature in the ethics. no plus. i'll skip broken. is there a big debate on the matter? gross? it is console. and should the eruption date of mount vesuvius on the 24th of august 79. c. e be moved to the flowering period of ivy. in the autumn, it would be a sensation if the date of this world historical event would it be changed on the basis of a pollen examination? the whole entire case has not yet been solved either. the tests for poland on the
woollen blanket a still in progress, barely visible to the naked eye and yet so rich in information. the pollen grains swirling from flower to flower of breezed into the ranks of forensic methods. but they are not alone with its unique profile, the soil in which the plants grow is also valued in investigations. ah luna dawson is one of the world's leading experts in the field of soil forensics. she is consulted by police departments from all over the world. ah, this, the mind to soil in the palm of my hand contains more individual organisms living together. then there are the number of people that live on this whole planet. so
just imagine how many that really is this is teeming with life. and that information can tell us so much about the soil, that is the home for these multiple organisms. the micro organisms in the soil are responsible for its structure and fertility. they break down toxins, help plants absorb nutrients and contribute to their resilience. but can soil also bear witness to a crime? galloway forest park in southwest scotland is the largest contiguous forest in the united kingdom. tourists and hike as are attracted by the unspoiled natural environment with its diverse animal and plant populations. but on june 12
2019 walk has encountered more than pristine nature. hidden beneath some branches in a hollow in the earth, they discovered a corpse investigate as quickly established that it was a woman who had been missing for weeks, and that the cause of death was unnatural. they soon had a suspect. police sent several soil samples to lorna dawson for analysis. the scientist compared the soil samples from where the body was found with samples collected from the suspect surroundings. there's a whole range of different methods that can be used to can ties the sole biology and the still a lot of the search to be done to make sure that and when you're competing ah, unknown sample with a known sample. and that the same procedure is carried out,
cuz that's absolutely vitally important, that the any analysis is carried out on a, on no one a question sample. you have to use the same procedure for any reference sample. it's going to be compared with what about the soil samples in the current murder investigation? could lorna dawson helped to solve the case? in the investigation? the disappearance of emma folds. the police sent us a suspect pair of timberland and i was asked to examine them and to determine from the examination what type of soil that was and any vegetation within it. what clues that could give as to where that person had stood or had walked wearing those those shoes or boots. in this case
with technologies, an analytical methods are constantly evolving, ever smaller samples of fights for investigations. microscopic soil residue on shoes can betray where a person has been even tiny organisms can provide important information at frankfurt institute of forensic medicine, entomologist yes. amens works with some of them. the wilsons in forensics, we use insects and especially flies, to clarify questions about the victims time of death because the traditional forensic procedures only work well one to 2 days after that. and yet. so in that window, you can estimate quite well when exactly the person died. storm is,
but after that, there are no reliable forensic methods gift. however, if insects have developed on the corpses, usually fly maggot license, then we can use these to figure out the minimal amount of time the person has been dead for many munitions from towards the 1st step is to determine the species on the corpse. then the developmental stage of each species is examined, flies live on average about 3 weeks. and within that time lay several 100 eggs. the maggots hatch off to 12 to 25 hours. the lovell and pupils stages each last about 10 days of i is the phone from the formally forensic entomology works relatively well to the exact day in the 1st 3 to 4 weeks after colonization of all. that's how long it takes for the adult fly to hatch. having passed through the egg, maggot and pupil stages of 3 to 4 weeks, approximately 50. and after that accuracy is pretty much impossible. i mean,
it wasn't like and so we're hoping that the analysis, the chemical analysis of these empty view area will allow us to narrow down the time period beyond that point. by now several weeks, several months, maybe even several years. may i have a more now to feel i forgot me, of a yog, the people casing the so called p peria canal for further clues. one in them function context, fizzle, and our forensic work we're trying to determine if the weathering of the pew peria is the shells that remain indefinitely intact at the side where the corpse was found. if the weathering can be quantified or even glad of defer video, that's where the cute secular hydrocarbons come and if they're worn by social, the shells contain specific hydrocarbon chains that is of hornblast off. we believe that over the course of time they break down lead. they decompose from long chains into increasingly shorter chains separation. so follow him of course. so the analysis helps determine what hydrocarbon structures are actually still present in
the cuticle for the analysis of the profession busing, doesn't i hits for we can reconstruct temporal processes. that is, we can work out how long has this pu perry. i'm actually been lying here at the site where the corpse was found. i need to hear like informed on the surface of all insects. there are organic chemical compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen. traces of these so called q tequila hydrocarbons can also be found in the p peria and are analyzed in the gas chromatograph his law with. i believe that with the help of these to carry out, we can narrow down time periods that lie in the range of months or years on this lesson. i'm hoping that we can say, for instance, this pu perry, i'm is 2 to 2 and a half years old or this to perry. i'm is 8 weeks old. of the research is still in the developmental phase. but yes, i'm in his confident that they'll be able to apply the new analyses soon
as was ongoing minor about what's special about my work as a forensic entomologist is that i gets a link basic research to its immediate implementations. make sure none of us as a squish or so i can start an experiment to answer a fundamental question and a concert. and that answer in turn helps my work on case is that the institute is spent on and provides the answers, the police and prosecution, neil trudy poets high for me. that's the biggest incentive from and the fun of it that goes to unclipped my glasses pasta by noon. it's exactly the spirit of innovation, curiosity and broad scientific interest that so indispensable in the forensic disciplines. because often there is more than one way to solve a problem. to get results, you have to use your imagination, be open for new perspectives and always have one eye on the latest research developments. and what about the investigations into the eruption of mount vesuvius?
worthy ivy flowers martina vega found the evidence for a later eruption date the absence in fact kinda she found it in the teen children psychology. the fact that not in the intel tyson, this was a single pollen grain there i think and not in the reference sample. hi, veronica. it was significantly less bad than in the children's noses. yeah. then you have to think it was missing. what do i do with it? now the me with these results this no, thank you. was he's, there are 2 problem is even this is 1. 1 is just that, that it was only found in the children of scholars exist. the if i the 2nd is that hater a helix, the ivy is an insect pollinated clamp for him. it's pollen doesn't just lie around on its own beside which means that the pollen must have somehow actively entered the nostril. seattle, bashful, certainly this, most of the explanation in the and it was that income pace,
time in the flower beds were preserved in oil o wines. youngster and a medicine was produced from it, which was draped into the nose as if children with respiratory problems seen outside tim within kinda issue we hadn't and not only apple and spectrum was making a lot of sandwich. spectrum guns facing there was pollen in the children's skulls in not in the adults square, and also significantly less in the reference sample if it can't be any kinda difference. so for the time being the eruption of vesuvius in 79, c e remains dated to august the 24th. it's not enough to find the traces. they must also be considered in an interdisciplinary way. because without the knowledge that at that time, the pullin was also processed. in other substances, the avi trace would have led to false interpretations for martina vba. this was an interesting excursion into history, but it's time to return to the present the clarification of the whole entire
case in austria is making slow progress. tomantino. mm hm. mm hm. and we've worked with martina vba on a number of cases in the past. and in this case to where we didn't know where the crime was committed, we started by doing a pollen examination on the items found with the body point, the blanket, for example, and the victim shoes oscillation, the idea being to determine which regional, where these items could have come from of eva samba and martina verba from the university of vienna, has already helped us with some cases in the past, and based on the pollen structure. and she could tell the broad region the individual came from always staying in one and while distinctive flowers, plants trees would be found. growing in that area. would these epistle, year come to levels in new york go? what will the pollen trace analysis from the road side bodies blanket reveal.
another tool for revealing and understanding evidence is bloodstain pattern analysis. it's used in investigations, especially when bloodstains found at crime scenes do not match the suspects version of events which punish itself causing crime scenes where that a lot of blood way will focus on the blot. stangler, often new to the perpetrators will often say, so i only hit one salt in the heat of the moment or whatever a crime of passion it was. and the bloodstain pattern shows a completely different story, a different picture, and others. it means that we can disprove that it was one blow that fell in the heat of the moment because in reality there were 15 blows and they were not from the front from behind on from him. so blood stain analysis can tell us a lot about the nature of the crimes, but by the blood stained pattern of wood and how the roof also the french mediterranean metropolis of ma say, is the location of
a forensic laboratory run by one of the most innovative experts in blood stains, felipe esperanza, people from all over france and other countries to cool on his expertise. the analysis of blood stain patterns can provide important information for crime reconstruction by examining and interpreting distribution patterns. forensic scientists can estimate the location time and intensity of violent actions than the one that is it has the ssl. so the, the annella's little bit luggage dane is, is based on the description of what you see in this case. and that is primarily the shape of the size and the dispersion of the bloodstains. that is where they have found their location, who are the different services they have found on will again and their distribution leave you? how are they arranged in relation to one another?
lease, are they convergent as cancel, or are they distributed in a linear pattern as one in these other fold principal aspects in identifying bloodstained patton, the don't she, they moved there because this'll mm. they're aluminum based chemical agents that can detect traces of blood that have been wiped away when applied to surfaces that have had blood on them. the iron in the blood acts as a catalyst for the oxidation reaction. in the dark, the bloodstained glows blue and can be photographically documented. conventional agents however destroyed the dna in the stains, felipe esperanza has developed a recipe to preserve the blood's dna. his re, agent bluestar, is applied in a case in nor see. a man is suspected of having killed his girlfriend while searching his apartment. the police found traces of blood in the bathroom and the
bedroom. the boyfriend had went to the way but he wasn't thorough enough. it turned out once felipe esperanza began his work and looking at the photos he was sent of the alleged crime scene, he found an interesting pattern of stains on the wall in the bedroom, one or 2 smaller met lakita on a to point of de nichoela. it don't, over here we can see the mattress and the nightstand. and behind them on the wall, we can see patton's little dot shaped ones. me some bigger, some smaller, but they aren't those massive stains in which you can recognize the sponge or more traces for today form. and this is where it gets interesting. more image. let's go see little cost on 2 pictures, while all other traces have clearly been cleaned up. these poverty form ones have
not. this is kima fair initially you, if you do it. so i drove to the suspects house to have a closer look at that wall. from you. i found many stains that had not been cleaned up at all the cost because there was so tiny in it and on a dark surface barely visible at all. may you show me, twinkle, showing sure fumble one would have to actively look to notice the fraction living a visit using blue star, though we could see them all at once. it did it also some catastrophic magazine cavalier chevy, crusoe, traces that have not been wiped away, show the actual distribution pattern of blood during a crime, even better doctorates. it was not. upon analyzing the stains, we realized that they all converged to a point directly over this mattress with which her daughter lost complete. therefore, there must have been some kind of below that caused a wound to show the impact caused the blood from the wound to spray in all
directions. originating from that one points, often called laconia or young, but even to school that she's able to point to official diploma pounding disc, we're talking about a convergent distribution limit. no, this is the type of pat and i found on the wall. but after the 1st or 2nd blow, it looks blood will also stick to the weapon. and when you move that, the centrifugal force will create a more scattered pattern that bacteria, in this case law isn't distributed, convergent me, but follows the weapons movement astrology cycle. this former was a good on imagine having water on your hands this and moving it like this, evolve to you, then water will fly away from your hand and distribute itself in accordance with the centrifugal force. so you can follow the movement by looking at the drops on the wall, they shoot you off the bottle, an official, no, can i lymphoma. so we have the same shape and within the range of a few millimeters, the same size of the traces. it's like you have
a thumb oval may from the circular, it will should on impact. their distribution is convergent and boot. where is why movement if i saw it is linear and that's exactly what we had between a fan and the door to pull it up. in this case, s baron sans analysis provides the necessary proof of purchase in wooster don't judge. in this case, we use blue star firstly to confirm that the cleaning in question was actually the cleaning of blood, crucial. and secondly, that the blood along to the missing lady, i suppose, in portland. well, these are the questions that need answering and such a case, but live so the gentleman is cleaning on it, but what is it clean all makes it a new shot. in the meantime, all the french police services news, blue star, exclusively or false, the other aluminum based products are no longer useless. could we still is all today, a genetic analysis is systematically carried out on all stains. so it's good, systematic more, more clearly the reaction,
the positive test for blood is not the end of the investigation, but the actual dna test automatically follows jacqueline mac loans with want to do it's unambiguously the missing nurses blood. the blood stained patton suggests that the victim was basin while lying on the mattress. the blood spatter distribution leads esperanza to conclude that whoever did the beating must have been standing over the victim between the bed and the entrance door to the room. ah combined with other evidence, esperanza investigation leads to the conviction of the perpetrator. the expert can be satisfied with his work for now but there is room for improvement in forensic methods. one question in particular, concerns him a question. the question of
when you log on, you found my clients fingerprint underneath their genetic fingerprint mac? yes. but who's to say wasn't there before? the fact it don't like so to link evidence to the crime. the question we now have to answer is that since when has this particular stain been on the instrument, just feel on what day was left on the exact day of the crime and not a month before or after. then who knows for sure, i'm world wide. there are several teams focusing on this issue. we have to find a solution animal of a definitive, a follow up proven sort of mm. international collaboration among forensic scientists plays an important role in solving crimes and making life safer in the process. at that james hutton institute in aberdeen, scotland. lorna dawson works on the galloway forest case. the soil sample from the
suspect shoe was already in the lab for testing as were other samples that had since been retrieved. some were recovered from the suspects comp. luna dawson was able to compare them with the reference samples in scotland. soil forensics is an integral part of investigations, but that's not yet standard internationally. increasingly, all, all for that, like great britain is used and it's considered to be used by the investigating authorities and overseas. there are more countries now and sitting and adopting sol, forensics within their portfolio of methods that can be used a few years ago. i, i train doubts some students from brazil and they then went back to their own country. and now they've set up a so forensic lab. so it's really nice to see that this transfer of an knowledge
from one nation to another to get the clearest possible picture. when analyzing soil samples. several different aspects are considered if the samples from the suspect and those from the location where the body was found, had the same origin, is an indication that the suspect was at that location. the soil samples are primarily tested for 2 compounds, elkins and alcohols. so when will the cat m soils a peer soils from e questioned item and from a crime scene, let's see. we extract the carbon compounds. the compounds that will occur primarily are al kins and alcohols. here we've got a trace of the aisle kintrail file. i'll kill being compounds that are composed of both carbon and hydrogen. and here we can see, for example, see 27. that means there's $27.00 carbon atoms in that molecule and the blue
trace, the upper line here, that blue trace is from the sample that came from the foot with the yellow green trace beneath it is the sample that came from the crime scene adjacent to where the victim's body was fine, and as you can see, the retention time on the gas chromatograph, you can see a c, 27, and c, l 229, c 31 and c 33 with peak so that in the same place they are the same compounds and the height of these peaks are the same. so from that we can conclude that there is the same profile to same amounts and same relative amounts of the different carbon compounds in the question sample on the sample that was recovered from the
kind see so the samples from where the body was found matched those from the souls of the suspects shoes, the suspect can now be clearly linked to the secondary crime scene. it's suspected that he dumped the body there, walked away from the side, got into his car and drove away. wound dawson presented her findings on the woman's murder case at court. her expert opinion and those from other areas lead to the perpetrators conviction. often forensic experts don't learn the full circumstances of a case until after the investigation is complete. although we stay objective and try not to get involved the tall in the actual frame itself, in terms of the families involved, that's not the duty or the rule of any forensic scientist,
but one always has to have compassion and am confidentiality is absolutely key. but once a case has been tried and am you, they're not aware and more fully of the whole case circumstances. and it really does hit home the, the need, the need to provide as much evidence object of evidence that can help that court made the right decision and, and, and bring some closure for the families that are involved in these sometimes fairly difficult situations. but equally well to also, but you, savage and that avoid the situation where someone is falsely accused of a crime. so that's why it's important that the evidence stands on its own and, and, and is available to both prosecution on defense. but the use of soil analysis is not limited to crimes against humans. it can of course,
also help to uncover environmental crimes or to relate agricultural performance to soil biological properties. and also to assess climate change in identify hazards of soil, erosion and complexion that much more in the past. biology in botany related research fields, did not have much of a say in forensic science. however, with evolving technologies and methods, more and more natural science disciplines are being used in forensics, dna analyses and now commonplace. but interdisciplinary thinking and structural networking are also fundamental and martina vba has
a unique digital collection of pollen grains in order to unambiguously identify poland from all over the world. she and her colleagues of the botanical institute of the university of vienna, a building, an internationally accessible poland database. pal dat is the world's largest polena logical database. weber's goal is to make the entire data collection from multitudes of plant families publicly accessible. either from owns had thick, thick fletcher thus had empty in poland, dates or in the various rooms, often fall under originally we just wanted a database that we could use to share info with each other. this is of us, of what pretty seen in the world say to speak with crying out the more for a free database or say we set back up and put it on line behind the own lancaster. it really only makes sense if you work together. men of it with everyone sits on their own data, then no one benefit regarding the full almost $4500.00 pound
species and their pollen are already catalogued in the database. and in the case of the whole entire victim in the blanket, the pollen provides clear clues. most criminals won't even be conscious of leaving the kind of traces that martina vba is working with us and invoking after a few weeks due to a confidential temperament. we received information on the individual's acquaintances and on a possible suspect, or several suspects from community to because we then started to investigate on monitor these persons to go to who are from the police, have 3 suspects inside and suspect that the crime took place in one of their apartments, but how can they prove the crime or prove that the victim was even present at the suspected crime scene?
that's all as a the very bottom we can see the south and the crime scene enforcement m f is, was in. i taken a detached house. oh and you can see that find precisely these don't again. oh and again in large quantities as it is of brown, mrs. brown bar is the cypress trees. this is a pool. you can imagine a cedars and the like, which is what i mean, what i'm giving you errors in australia. there was a window in the garden and popular marble so asked out and a variety of other plants, dandelions, and the license of she seems to be losing sun safety. there is no doubt at all that these pollen grains came from the primary crime scene, toddler. and when we also found it on the victim's shoe, we could say for certain that the veins him actively made his way to our crime scene. sailor and all saying that the perpetrators roused him on the crime scene out of and quickly the poland diagrams and the traces from the house. and from the blanket paint
a clear picture martina vba was able to prove that the trace patterns from the woolen blanket and the suspects attic matched lead investigator hannah's ferna. very much appreciate the cooperation with the scientists and wishes to create stronger networks, both nationally and internationally. the arbiten, i'm expe upton, we cooperate with as many experts as possible in the field or forensic center give you 6 bit. these are open to all kinds of investigations. you either reply or give us will hunger. we are really trying to link up internationally, but are always on the lookout in our new contact. so i can because of course there are different kinds of expertise in other countries like we are, can give you more detailed on there for police, have different experiences of duties, thompson. so when the case requires it, we can fall back on these acts by you and that's only possible through international network anchor. it doesn't really work any other way. function does not vicki. palin,
ologist martina vega will continue to develop the legacy of her predecessor is a bit of i mean, even it will continue on all levels. i thank actually we're all interested as there is still an awful lot of potential even with cold cancer. gantski equipped within c hi polen, no matter what we call guy, whether you have somehow retrieved a pollen grain or whether you have a piece of clothing or a strand of hair from the corpse with of my holland doesn't decay from delay. she, dep, forwarding to it, so as long as it doesn't go mousy, to pull and not be wonderfully present when the bar heightens, say, it means we can always isolate poland from any material material. whether it's 50 years old. chris, for a 100 years old, wanted yada, and when appropriate, scores use it to draw conclusions, say, even production city ah, current research developments make it look as though no crime can remain unsolved in the future. the search for evidence is too sophisticated to advanced and high
tech, and so 2 of the methods research is used to analyze the traces. but with all these advancements, one thing shouldn't be overlooked. most of these high tech would be redundant without the materials provided by nature. ah really, really what making the headlights and what's behind them. d. w, news, africa. the show, the faculty issues shaping the continent. life is slowly getting back to normally well in the streets, to give you enough reports on the inside of our cars. funds is on the ground
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