- Publication date
- ca. 1943
- Public Domain
- Digitizing sponsor
Narr. by Milton S. Eisenhower, director of the War Relocation Authority. An historical record of the transfer of Japanese residents from the Pacific Coast to the American Interior as carried out the the U.S. Army and the War Relocation Authority. 100,000 people of Japanese ancestry, two-thirds of them American citizens. Special attention given to possibility of sabotage & espionage.
"Japanese themselves cheerfully handled the enormous paperwork involved." Alludes to the auctioning of personal property by government agencies and businessmen, saying that it "often involved financial sacrifice for the evacuees." Narration says that evacuees "cooperated wholeheartedly," noting that "the many loyal among them felt that this was a sacrifice that they could make in behalf of America's war effort."
Bus and private car caravans, shopkeepers' stores, homes, restaurants, fishing boats are shown. Temporary quarters were in "assembly centers," at race tracks , and fair grounds. San Anita (sp.?) race track , a community of 17,000.
Depicts camp life: cafeteria, church services, nursery schools, people engaged in war-related work (making camouflage nets for army). Building new quarters in the desert for the final movement to the relocation camps. Smiling Japanese people being carted off on trains. Medical facilities, Americanization classes, schools, internal government, barracks-style housing, irrigation projects in desert.
Some evacuees were "permitted" to become fieldhands in sugar beet fields under appropriate safeguards. Describes the goal of the relocation as achieved when "all adult hands" are engaged in "productive work on public land or in private employment." And when "the disloyal have left this country for good."
Relocation seen as a humane act "setting the standard for the rest of the world in the treatment of people who may have loyalties to an enemy nation, protecting ourselves without violating the principles of Christian decency."
San Pedro, CA
- 2002-07-16 00:00:00
- Closed captioning
- United States
- ca. 1943
- Run time
Subject: Revealed Wisdom
If anyone was allowed to voluntarily leave any of the camps and resettle elsewhere during the war, the first claim falls of it's own weight. 30,000 Japanese Americans did so. 4,000 left and attended college during the war.
Over 19,000 Japanese Americans applied to the Justice Department to renounce their American citizenship and be repatriated to Japan. This "lesson" should also include a copy of the letter, sent to the Sec. of the Interior, on behalf of 10,000 Japanese Americans in the Tule Lake facility, seeking repatriation to Japan to fight for the Emperor. It reads, in part, "Our primary objective is to expatriate or repatriate immediately when it is physically possible so that we may be able to contribute our war efforts during the hour of our national emergency." In the next paragraph, they say "But, here in this camp, we, who remain loyal to Japan, are forced to live among the individuals who are loyal to the United States of America."
This is not to argue that civil liberties were not violated. They were in this case, just as were the civil liberties of the over 6,000,000 Americans who were involuntarily conscripted into the Armed Forces, to fight and possibly die under pain of imprisonment if they refused.
The point is that one of the main objectives of this entire Group is teaching students "Reading Like a Historian". That entails questioning the sources, even if those sources were produced by the government. The principle tool of the historian is skepticism. Who wrote it? What is/was their background? What was the intended audience? What was the author's agenda?
Another thing that students must learn is not to approach a subject emotionally.
Subject: Creative Commons
May I use parts of this video in a educational local commercial for the library? Please email me back when you can. I see it was posted as CC under the Creative Commons act. So just let me know.
Subject: Response to "tergium" Review
Subject: who got the japanese wealth
Subject: German American detainees
As well, do not forget Pearl Harbor, early Sunday morning. HUGE MOTIVATOR.
As Fleabag2 mentions, it is so easy to condemn now, 60 years later; unless 'one' was there..... none of us, can say, what we, would have done, or agreed to. We are humans, and we are very emotional and unpredictable. Especially under those 'kind' of circumstances.
I am truly sorry for the hurt and humiliation that my fellow Americans went through, no one deserves this in America, but again....
Thank you Fleabag2, I could not have said it any better, and as you said, what if........
And the reason that the neither Germans nor Italians were interned is probably due to the fact that, unlike the Japanese government, neither the German nor Italian governments launched a military attack against the United States until AFTER they declared war on us.
Subject: Japanese Relocation??????
You have been doing this before the Japanese,
Do you remember the Trail of Tears? The Trains with the Apaches sent to Florida? The U. S. invasion of Mexico?
Why were the Germans and Italians not relocated? They had spies in the U.S. also.
Subject: Not quite right
Subject: Japanese Relocation
any time a group is referred to as "they", watch out for dehumanization . . .
Subject: Doesn't prove its point
Subject: RE:interesting film interesting comments
One ironic thing about the camps is that the Japanese-American prisoners were being watched from watchtowers by men, with machine guns, with last names like Russo, Mancini, Lombardi, Hoffman, Schmidt, Muller..........
Subject: interesting film interesting comments
Subject: A Terrible Thing
Nevertheless we should all be bitterly ashamed of this piece of our history, because real, deserved pride can only be achieved with a liberal exercize of shame. It is what makes us truer to our own ideals. Which is freedom, real freedom, not freedom as a trademarked brand rendered meaningless by misuse in an Orwellian manner.
Subject: a crime is a crime
No crime can be justified through other crimes.
At least this is, how our constitutional state should work.
Subject: from experience
Subject: This is NOT JUSTICE!!!
Here, why don't you stay here, in HORSE STABLES...no, don't worry, there is ONE TOILET!!!
Your sons that are draft age, don't worry, they can prove their LOYALTY, by killing YOUR OWN...
I CANNOT BELIEVE THERE ARE PEOPLE WHO SEE THIS AS JUSTICE! IT IS NOTHING BUT DISCRIMINATION!!! YOU TREAT THESE PEOPLE LIKE ANIMALS!!! AND ANY RESPONSE AGAINST THIS WILL SURELY COME FROM "WHITE FOLK"...
All historical and "consider the time and place" arguments aside, you can't dispute that the U.S. government told these people "we don't know if we can trust you; get on the bus".
The fact that the narrator states "christian values" at the end of the film only fortifies the chilling images. About half way through I started imagining the soundtrack of this film set to footage of Nazi Germany, and I think it would sync up well.
This film documents a sad, dark chapter of American history and by no means stands alone; in fact I imagine that some of the things taking place right now (the Iraq prision images come to mind) will be looked upon by our children with the same distain as we project upon this "Japanese Relocation" film.
While it's easy to make references to the Nazis when discussing a film like this, I believe that a much more contemporary reference is in order. Having close friends of Mulslim descent, I know that many of us have yet to learn from these past mistakes.
The only way to prevent this type of thing in the future is to make sure that we, and those who follow in our footsteps are made aware of the mistakes made by those who came before us.
Subject: Accurate to a point....understandable for 1943.
It should be noted that all 16,849 Japanese enemy-aliens including the 5,589 that renounced American citizenship were eligible for an apology from the United States and a $20,000 reparations payment while the Germans, Italians, Hungarians, Romanians and Bulgarians received nothing.
It is well-documented that the evacuation was motivated, not by racism, but by information obtained by the U.S. from pre-war decoded Japanese diplomatic messages "MAGIC" and other intelligence revealed the existence of espionage and the potential for sabotage involving then-unidentified resident Japanese aliens and Japanese-Americans living within the West Coast Japanese community.
You can read about MAGIC and it's subseqently being ignored by the reparations commission here.
The actual declassified MAGIC intercepts are here.
The U.S. Congress immediately passed legislation providing enforcement provisions for FDR's Executive Order, unanimously in both the House and Senate, provided under Article 1, Section 9 of the United States Constitution.
Only persons of Japanese ancestry (alien and citizen) residing in the West Coast military zones were affected by the evacuation order. Those living elsewhere were not affected at all.
It is not true that Japanese-Americans were "interned. Only Japanese nationals (enemy aliens) arrested and given individual hearings were interned. Such persons were held for deportation in Department of Justice camps. Those evacuated were not interned. They were first given an opportunity to voluntarily move to areas outside the military zones. Those unable or unwilling to do so were sent to Relocation Centers operated by the War Relocation Authority.
At the time, the JACL (Japanese American Citizens League) officially supported the government's evacuation order and urged all enemy alien Japanese and Japanese Americans to cooperate and assist the government in their own self interest.
Is is misleading and in error to state that those affected by the evacuation orders were all "Japanese-Americans." Approximately two-thirds of the ADULTS among those evacuated were Japanese nationals--enemy aliens. The vast majority of evacuated Japanese-Americans (U.S. citizens) were children at the time. Their average age was only 15 years. In addition, over 90% of Japanese-Americans over age 17 were also citizens of Japan (dual citizens)under Japanese law. Thousands had been educated in Japan. Some having returned to the U.S. holding reserve rank in the Japanese armed forces.
During the war, more than 33,000 evacuees voluntarily left the relocation centers to accept outside employment. An additional 4300 left to attend colleges.
In a questionaire, over 26% of Japanese-Americans of military age at the time said they would refuse to swear an unqualified oath of allegiance to the United States.
According to War Relocation Authority records, 13,000 applications renouncing their U.S. citizenship and requesting expatriation to Japan were filed by or on behalf of Japanese-Americans during World War II. Over 5,000 had been processed by the end of the war.
After loyalty screening, eighteen thousand Japanese nationals and Japanese-Americans were segregated at a special center for disloyals at Tule Lake California where regular military "Banzai" drills in support of Emperor Hirohito were held.
The Supreme Court of the United States upheld the Consitutionality of the evacuation/relocation in Korematsu v. U.S., 1944 term. In summing up for the 6-3 majority, Justice Black wrote:
"There was evidence of disloyalty on the part of some, the military authorities considered that the need for action was great, and time was short. We cannot --
by availing ourselves of the calm perspective of hindsight -- now say that at the time these actions were unjustified." That decision has never been reversed and stands to this day.
It should be noted that the relocation centers had many amenities. Accredited schools, their own newspapers, stores, churches, hospitals, all sorts of sports and recreational facilities. They also had the highest percapita wartime birth rates for any U.S.community.
More history for you to consider regarding the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians:
Consider that of the nine commission members, six were biased in favor of reparations. Ishmail Gromoff and William Marutani, relocatees themselves, sat in judgment of their own cases. Arthur Goldberg and Joan Bernstein made sympathetic, pro-reparation statements publicly before hearings even began. Arthur Fleming had worked closely with the JACL (he was a keynote speaker at its Portland convention in the '70s). Robert Drinan was a co-sponsor of the bill establishing the commission.
Consider that notices of when and where hearings were to be held were not made known to the general, non-Japanese public.
Consider that witnesses who gave testimony were not sworn to tell the truth.
Consider that witnesses who were pro-reparation were carefully coached in their testimony in "mock hearings" beforehand.
Consider that witnesses against reparation were harassed and drowned out by foot-stomping Japanese claques, that the commission members themselves ridiculed and badgered these same witnesses.
Consider that not one historian was asked to testify before the commission, that intelligence reports and position papers contrary to reparations were deliberately ignored.
Consider that as a result of the above, the United States Department of Justice objected strongly to the findings of the commission.
Lastly while we've all been educated on the doctrines associated with the rise of Nazism, I would be curious to know if courses are provided teaching the history of the doctrines of Japanese militarism, a belief system similar and equally as insidious as Nazism?
Any clasess on the kokutai? Hakko Ichiu? Any reading of Kokutai no Hongi? Shimin to Michi? The role of Nichiren Buddhism and Japanese "Language Schools" in teaching these doctines of Japanese racial superiorty to ethnic Japanese colonies throughout the word prior to Pearl Harbor?
Those of you learning this history at your public schools and universities should understand you are being taught an extemely biased and partial version of what really happened and why. I would urge you to go beyond the politically correct version of this history as propagated by the Japanese-American reparations movement.
Subject: again your redneck sentiments show
tell me why this treatment was not applied to people of german ancestry?
your lenghty answer to try to explain away this atrocity is answer enough.
you are a racist mr "historians for the truth".
you are the worst of america.
unless for people like you america would be the shining beacon it was supposed to be.
Subject: Meanwhile, back in Propagandaville..
Subject: What a bunch of crap
My late father,and we're painfully white,showed me Manzanar (now a CA state historic park),when I was a kid,even as a kid I could feel how disgusted he felt about the place.....It made an impression,and is even more powerful as an adult when I look back,here's my dad,a white veteran of WWII (who went to Okinawa no less) almost in tears looking over what was left of the camp,("It was wrong David,just wrong...).I didn't find out 'til much later that one of his friends and his entire family got shipped off to Manzanar,all U.S. citizens except for the grandparents.They lost their nursery,and my Dad's friend lost his life fighting in Europe....We couldn't have Japanese-Americans in the Pacific you know,they'd all defect to Hirohito.
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